Controlling Diabetes... The Natural WayDecember 2000
By Angela Pirisi
There are several theories about how CLA may effect its glucose-normalizing, fat-reducing actions in the body. Researchers at Purdue University, for example, suggest from their findings that CLA may work by activating the nuclear hormone receptors located in the liver, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which they demonstrated in vivo in liver and adipose tissues in mice and rats. In addition to fueling PPAR activity, CLA acts similarly to ligands of PPAR gamma, called thiazolidinediones, which are potent insulin sensitizers and form the basis of current anti-diabetic drugs in use. In fact, the Purdue research demonstrated that, in rats, a CLA-containing diet was equally effective to a diet containing thiazolidinedione in normalizing impaired glucose. PPARgamma is also expressed in certain types of human cancers, which scientists are now considering as a therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of cancer. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that CLA is able to promote apoptosis and inhibit cancer cell proliferation, possibly also by activating PPARgamma in susceptible tumors.2
Other research has pointed out that one of the mechanistic possibilities behind CLA's ability to reduce body fat may be through increased energy expenditure. Researchers at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, observed that energy expenditure sped up in CLA-fed mice after just one week of administering the nutritive compound to them.3 They also reported that the change was sustained for at least six weeks, which would suggest an alteration of metabolism rate.
Another study, carried out by investigators at the National institute of Health and Nutrition in Tokyo, Japan, found that a reduction in body fat was mainly the result of CLA-induced apoptosis of preadipocytes.4 Meanwhile, a set of four in vitro experiments by researchers at the University of North Carolina-Greensboro led scientists there to conclude that, “CLA may exert its antiobesity effects by inhibiting proliferation, attenuating triglyceride content and/or inducing apoptosis of preadipocytes.”5 In comparing preadipocyte cultures treated with CLA against controls treated with either albumin or linoleic acid, they found that the CLA-treated fat cells' ability to grow in size and multiply became impaired. As well, these cells exhibited a drop in triglyceride levels, and an increase in the number of apoptotic cells.
The new evidence about diabetes, compounded by the prevalence of obesity, speaks clearly to the fact that this disease is on the rise, and that no one in America is safe.
The new evidence about diabetes, compounded by the prevalence of obesity, speaks clearly to the fact that this disease is on the rise, and that no one in America is safe. This presents all the more reason to utilize every resource, including a dietary arsenal, to combat this disease. The role of scientists appears to be one of racing against time to overtake a raging obesity epidemic that turns individuals into a bull's eye target for diabetes to cast its aim, as well as trying to devise sophisticated pharmacological therapies for undoing the ills of the sugar-fueled pathology. In the meantime, though, people don't have to sit idly by as their internal glucose meter sets the pace for the perilous yo-yo effect of blood sugar that soars and then dives, driving their body to shut down vital functions such as the ability for the eyes to see, or for their heart to pump blood. Instead, we can resort to a grass roots approach that embraces fundamental tools such as diet, exercise and tapping into the promise of potent food-derived agents to provide us with a means of prevention, or improved disease management to ward off the harrowing complications of diabetes.
- Med Hypotheses 2000 May;54(5):786-793.
- Med Hypotheses 2000 Sep;55(3):187-188.
- J Am Coll Nutr 2000 Aug;19 (4):487S-493S.
- Diabetes 2000 Sep;49(9):1534-1542.
- Lipids 2000 Aug;35(8):899-910.
- J Nutr 1999 Dec;129(12):2135-42.
- J Am Coll Nutr 2000 Aug;19(4):472S-477S.