In the present study, the effects of feeding mice diets of different fatty acid compositions on the production of TNF-alpha and nitric oxide by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peritoneal macrophages and on macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity towards L929 and P815 cells were investigated. C57Bl6 mice were fed on a low-fat (LF) diet or on high-fat diets (21% fat by weight), which included coconut oil (CO), olive oil (OO), safflower oil (SO) or fish oil (FO) as the principal fat source. The fatty acid composition of the macrophages was markedly influenced by that of the diet fed. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages from FO-fed mice showed significantly lower production (up to 80%) of PGE2 than those from mice fed on each of the other diets. There was a significant positive linear correlation between the proportion of arachidonic acid in macrophage lipids and the ability of macrophages, to produce PGE2. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated TNF-alpha production by macrophages decreased with increasing unsaturated fatty acid content of the diet (i.e. FO < SO < OO < CO < LF). Macrophages from FO-fed mice showed significantly lower production of TNF-alpha than those from mice fed on each of the other diets. Nitrite production was highest for LPS-stimulated macrophages from mice fed on the LF diet. Macrophages from FO-fed mice showed significantly higher production of nitrite than those from mice fed on the OO and SO diets. Compared with feeding the LF diet, feeding the CO, OO or SO diets significantly decreased macrophage- mediated killing of P815 cells (killed by nitric oxide). Fish oil feeding did not alter killing of P815 cells by macrophages, compared with feeding the LF diet; killing of P815 cells was greater after FO feeding than after feeding the other high fat diets. Compared with feeding the LF diet, feeding the OO or SO diets significantly decreased macrophage-mediated killing of L929 cells (killed by TNF). Coconut oil or FO feeding did not alter killing of L929 cells by macrophages, compared with feeding the LF diet. It is concluded that the type of fat in the diet affects macrophage composition and alters the ability of macrophages to produce cytotoxic and immunoregulatory mediators and to kill target tumour cells.
Immunol Cell Biol 2000 Feb;78(1):40-8
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production
Many antiinflammatory pharmaceutical products inhibit the production of certain eicosanoids and cytokines and it is here that possibilities exist for therapies that incorporate n-3 and n-9 dietary fatty acids. The proinflammatory eicosanoids prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) are derived from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA), which is maintained at high cellular concentrations by the high n-6 and low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the modern Western diet. Flaxseed oil contains the 18-carbon n-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid, which can be converted after ingestion to the 20-carbon n-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Fish oils contain both 20- and 22-carbon n-3 fatty acids, EPA and docosahexaenoic acid. EPA can act as a competitive inhibitor of AA conversion to PGE(2) and LTB(4), and decreased synthesis of one or both of these eicosanoids has been observed after inclusion of flaxseed oil or fish oil in the diet. Analogous to the effect of n-3 fatty acids, inclusion of the 20-carbon n-9 fatty acid eicosatrienoic acid in the diet also results in decreased synthesis of LTB(4). Regarding the proinflammatory ctyokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta, studies of healthy volunteers and rheumatoid arthritis patients have shown < or = 90% inhibition of cytokine production after dietary supplementation with fish oil. Use of flaxseed oil in domestic food preparation also reduced production of these cytokines. Novel antiinflammatory therapies can be developed that take advantage of positive interactions between the dietary fats and existing or newly developed pharmaceutical products.
Am J Clin Nutr 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):343S-8S
Effect of supplementation with dietary seal oil on selected cardiovascular risk factors and hemostatic variables in healthy male subjects
The average daily consumption of seal oil by the Inuit people is approximately 8-9 g, yet there is very little information on the effect of seal oil consumption on cardiovascular disease risk factors. In this study, 19 healthy, normocholesterolemic subjects consumed 20 g of encapsulated seal oil containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-3) or 20 g of vegetable oil (control) per day for 42 days. Levels of selected cardiovascular and thrombotic risk factors as well as fatty acid profiles of serum phospholipid and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) were determined. EPA levels in serum phospholipid and NEFA increased by 4.3- and 2.7-fold, respectively, in the seal oil supplemented group. DHA levels rose 1.5- and 2.1-fold, respectively, and DPA levels rose 0.5- and 0.7-fold, respectively. Arachidonic acid (AA) levels dropped by 26% in both serum phospholipid and serum NEFA. There was a significant decrease in the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipid from 7.2 to 2.1 and a significant increase in the ratio of EPA/AA in NEFA. Ingestion of seal oil raised the coagulant inhibitor, protein C, values by 7% and decreased plasma fibrinogen by 18%. No alterations in other hemostatic variables, including plasma activity of Factors VII, VIII, IX, and X and antithrombin, or in the concentrations of von Willebrand Factor, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, Apo A-1, or lipoprotein(a) were observed in either group. Other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including hematocrit, white blood cell count, plasma viscosity, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, and platelet aggregation after stimulation with ADP or collagen did not change. Our results indicate that seal oil supplementation in healthy, normocholesterolemic subjects decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio and increased EPA, DHA, and DPA and the ratio of EPA/AA and DHA/AA in the serum phospholipid and NEFA, while exhibiting a modest beneficial effect on fibrinogen and protein C levels.
Prostate cancer risk and consumption of fish oils: a dietary biomarker-based case-control study
Experimental studies suggest that the risk of prostate cancer is reduced with the intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from marine foods, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, few human studies have been conducted due to difficulties in assessing the dietary intake of these fatty acids. The authors examined the relationship between prostate cancer risk and EPA and DHA in erythrocyte biomarkers in a population-based case-control study in Auckland, New Zealand during 1996-1997 involving 317 prostate cancer cases and 480 age-matched community controls. Reduced prostate cancer risk was associated with high erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine levels of EPA (multivariate relative risk = 0.59; 95% confidence interval 0.37-0.95, upper vs lowest quartile) and DHA (multivariate relative risk = 0.62; 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.98, upper vs lowest quartile). These analyses support evidence from in vitro experiments for a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with dietary fish oils, possibly acting via inhibition of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoid biosynthesis.
Br J Cancer 1999 Dec;81(7):1238-42
Dietary fish oil reduces cholesterol and arachidonic acid levels in chick plasma and very low density lipoprotein
The mechanisms involved in the hypolipidemic effects of fish oil have not been clearly established. This study shows that supplementation of 10% menhaden oil to the chick diet for 7 days produced a significant hypocholesterolemia and hypotriglyceridemia. Fatty acid composition of chick plasma drastically changed by the same dietary manipulation. Percentages of 20:5 and 22:6 n-3 fatty acids strongly increased, while percentages of 20:4 n-6, 18:2 n-6, and 18:1 n-9 significantly decreased. Changes observed in the relative percentages were parallel to those obtained in the amount of each fatty acid. Ratio of n-3/n-6 clearly decreased in plasma by fish oil feeding. Total cholesterol and triacylglycerol contents decreased in high density lipoprotein (HDL) but did not change in low density lipoprotein (LDL). All chemical constituents of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) significantly decreased after the first week of menhaden oil supplementation to the diet. Similar modifications in fatty acid composition of the three lipoprotein fractions were also found. Our results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic effects of fish oil may be mediated by the depletion in VLDL synthesis and secretion into the chick plasma. On the other hand, the strong decrease found in the arachidonic acid (AA) content of chick plasma and lipoproteins may contribute to the beneficial effects of fish oil consumption by lowering the production of its derived eicosanoids.
Mol Cell Biochem 1999 Oct;200(1-2):59-67
Effects of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 lipids and vitamin E on serum cytokines, lipid mediators and anti-DNA antibodies in a mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis
OBJECTIVE: Omega-3 (omega-3) fatty acid rich-fish oil (FO) and vitamin E (vit-E) may delay the progress of certain autoimmune diseases. The present study examined the mechanism of action of omega-3 and omega-6 lipids and vit-E on the serum cytokines and lipid mediators in autoimmune-prone MRL/lpr mice (a model for rheumatoid arthritis, RA). The lpr (lymphoproliferative) gene is overexpressed in these mice causing extensive lymphoproliferation, lupus-like symptoms and accelerated aging. METHODS: Weanling female MRL/lpr and congenic control MRL/++ mice were fed 10% corn oil (CO, omega6) or FO-based semipurified diets containing two levels of vitamin E (vit-E-75, I.U. and vit-E-500 I.U./Kg diet) for four months. At the end of the experiment, serum anti-DNA antibodies, cytokines and lipid mediators levels were determined. RESULTS: The appearance of enlarged lymph nodes was delayed in the mice fed FO, and the FO-500 IU vit-E diet offered further protection against enlargement of lymph nodes. The MRL/lpr mice exhibited significantly higher levels of serum anti-dsDNA antibodies. The FO-fed mice had significantly lower serum IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, PGE2, TXB2 and LTB4 levels compared with CO-fed mice. In mice fed 500 IU vit-E diets, the serum IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-alpha levels were significantly lower and serum IL-1beta was significantly higher compared to 75 IU-vit-E-fed mice in CO/FO or both. The levels of anti-DNA antibodies, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10 and IL-12 were higher in the sera of MRL/lpr mice. The FO diet lowered the levels of these cytokines (except IL-4) and lipid mediators. Adding 500 IU of vit-E to the FO diet further lowered the levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-alpha. CONCLUSION: It is clear from our observations that the beneficial effects of FO can be enhanced by the addition of 500 IU of vit-E in the diet. The FO diet containing 500 IU of vit-E may specifically modulate the levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-alpha and thereby may delay the onset of autoimmunity in the MRL/lpr mouse model. The observations from this study may form a basis for selective nutrition intervention based on specific fatty acids and antioxidants in delaying the progress of RA.
J Am Coll Nutr 1999 Dec;18(6):602-13
Therapies for Arthritis
Glucosamine and chondroitin for treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic quality assessment and meta-analysis
CONTEXT: Glucosamine and chondroitin preparations are widely touted in the lay press as remedies for osteoarthritis (OA), but uncertainty about their efficacy exists among the medical community. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate benefit of glucosamine and chondroitin preparations for OA symptoms using meta-analysis combined with systematic quality assessment of clinical trials of these preparations in knee and/or hip OA. DATA SOURCES: We searched for human clinical trials in MEDLINE (1966 to June 1999) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register using the terms osteoarthritis, osteoarthrosis, degenerative arthritis, glucosamine, chondroitin, and glycosaminoglycans. We also manually searched review articles, manuscripts, and supplements from rheumatology and OA journals and sought unpublished data by contacting content experts, study authors, and manufacturers of glucosamine or chondroitin. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were included if they were published or unpublished double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of 4 or more weeks' duration that tested glucosamine or chondroitin for knee or hip OA and reported extractable data on the effect of treatment on symptoms. Fifteen of 37 studies were included in the analysis. DATA EXTRACTION: Reviewers performed data extraction and scored each trial using a quality assessment instrument. We computed an effect size from the intergroup difference in mean outcome values at trial end, divided by the SD of the outcome value in the placebo group (0.2, small effect; 0.5, moderate; 0.8, large), and applied a correction factor to reduce bias. We tested for trial heterogeneity and publication bias and stratified for trial quality and size. We pooled effect sizes using a random effects model. DATA SYNTHESIS: Quality scores ranged from 12.3% to 55.4% of the maximum, with a mean (SD) of 35.5% (12%). Only 1 study described adequate allocation concealment and 2 reported an intent-to-treat analysis. Most were supported or performed by a manufacturer. Funnel plots showed significant asymmetry (P< or =.01) compatible with publication bias. Tests for heterogeneity were nonsignificant after removing 1 outlier trial. The aggregated effect sizes were 0.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.64) for glucosamine and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.60-0.95) for chondroitin, but they were diminished when only high-quality or large trials were considered. The effect sizes were relatively consistent for pain and functional outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Trials of glucosamine and chondroitin preparations for OA symptoms demonstrate moderate to large effects, but quality issues and likely publication bias suggest that these effects are exaggerated. Nevertheless, some degree of efficacy appears probable for these preparations.
JAMA 2000 Mar 15;283(11):1469-75
New drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
New pharmacologic treatment options for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are described. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely prescribed for RA but are limited by the risk of adverse effects, especially gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. The therapeutic effects of these agents are mediated primarily through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) and prevention of subsequent formation of prostaglandins and related inflammatory mediators. Nonspecific COX inhibition appears to be responsible for much of the toxicity of NSAIDs. Agents have been developed that can selectively inhibit the COX-2 isoform, while sparing COX-1. Celecoxib and other COX-2 inhibitors appear to be no more efficacious than conventional NSAIDs, but offer superior safety. COX-2 inhibitors should be considered for patients who are candidates for NSAID therapy but at risk for GI bleeding. Unlike disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), these agents do not alter underlying disease progression. Leflunomide is a newer DMARD that reduces pyrimidine synthesis, thus decreasing rheumatoid inflammation. Leflunomide appears to be as effective as methotrexate but, unlike that drug, does not necessitate monitoring for bone marrow toxicity. Etanercept, the first biological agent with FDA-approved labeling for use in RA, has shown efficacy and minimal toxicity, except for injection-site reactions. Other biologicals that have been investigated for use in RA include infliximab and interleukin-1-receptor antagonist. COX-2 inhibitors, leflunomide, and etanercept are promising new drugs available for treating RA. Other agents are under development.
Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000 Feb 1;57(3):225-34
Peripartum cardiomyopathy: analysis of clinical outcome, left ventricular function, plasma levels of cytokines and Fas/APO-1
OBJECTIVES: 1) To evaluate the outcome of patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPC) on current treatment for heart failure, 2) to assess the circulating plasma levels of cytokines and Fas receptors and 3) to identify predictors of prognosis. BACKGROUND: Previous studies in patients with PPC were done when angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta-adrenergic blocking agents were not routinely used in heart failure. Inflammatory cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of heart failure of other etiologies. However, there is a paucity of data regarding cytokine expression in patients with PPC. Plasma concentrations of Fas receptors (an apoptosis-signalling receptor) have not been reported in this population. METHODS: We followed prospectively 29 consecutive black women with PPC. All patients were treated with diuretics, digoxin, enalapril and carvedilol. Echocardiograms were performed at baseline and after six months of treatment. Cytokine and soluble Fas/APO-1 plasma levels were measured at baseline. RESULTS: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and Fas/APO-1 levels were significantly elevated in the study patients compared with 20 healthy volunteers. Eight patients died. sFas/APO-1 levels were significantly higher in patients who died compared with survivors (8.98 +/- 4.5 vs. 5.33 +/- 3 U/ml, respectively, p = 0.02). At six months, ejection fraction improved from 26.7 +/- 10 to 42.7 +/- 16%, p = 0.00003, with an increment of more than 10 U in 10 patients (28.1 +/- 4 to 51.9 +/- 8%, p = 0.000008). CONCLUSIONS: Cytokine and sFas levels are elevated in patients with PPC. Despite treatment with ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers, mortality remains high. However, in 34% of the patients, left ventricular function almost completely normalized.
J Am Coll Cardiol 2000 Mar 1;35(3):701-5
A prospective study of dietary fat and risk of prostate cancer
BACKGROUND: The strong correlation between national consumption of fat and national rate of mortality from prostate cancer has raised the hypothesis that dietary fat increases the risk of this malignancy. Case-control and cohort studies have not consistently supported this hypothesis. PURPOSE: We examined prospectively the relationship between prostate cancer and dietary fat, including specific fatty acids and dietary sources of fat. We examined the relationship of fat consumption to the incidence of advanced prostate cancer (stages C, D, or fatal cases) and to the total incidence of prostate cancer. METHODS: We used data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, which is a prospective cohort of 51529 U.S. men, aged 40 through 75, who completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire in 1986. We sent follow-up questionnaires to the entire cohort in 1988 and 1990 to document new cases of a variety of diseases and to update exposure information. As of January 31, 1990, 300 new cases of prostate cancer, including 126 advanced cases, were documented in 47855 participants initially free of diagnosed cancer. The Mantel-Haenszel summary estimator was used to adjust for age and other potentially confounding variables. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) when controlling simultaneously for more than two covariates. RESULTS: Total fat consumption was directly related to risk of advanced prostate cancer (age- and energy-adjusted RR = 1.79, with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-3.07, for high versus low quintile of intake; P [trend] = .06). This association was due primarily to animal fat (RR = 1.63; 95% CI = 0.95-2.78; P [trend] = .08), but not vegetable fat. Red meat represented the food group with the strongest positive association with advanced cancer (RR = 2.64; 95% CI = 1.21-5.77; P = .02). Fat from dairy products (with the exception of butter) or fish was unrelated to risk. Saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and alpha-linolenic acid, but not linoleic acid, were associated with advanced prostate cancer risk; only the association with alpha-linolenic acid persisted when saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, linoleic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid were modeled simultaneously (multivariate RR = 3.43; 95% CI = 1.67-7.04; P [trend] = .002). CONCLUSION: The results support the hypothesis that animal fat, especially fat from red meat, is associated with an elevated risk of advanced prostate cancer. IMPLICATIONS: These findings support recommendations to lower intake of meat to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. The potential roles of carcinogens formed in cooking animal fat and of alpha-linolenic acid in the progression of prostate cancer need to be explored.
J Natl Cancer Inst 1993 Oct 6;85(19):1571-9
Dietary factors and risks for prostate cancer among blacks and whites in the United States
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men in the United States, with substantially higher rates among American blacks than whites. We carried out a population-based case-control study in three geographic areas of the United States to evaluate the reasons for the racial disparity in incidence rates. A total of 932 men (449 black men and 483 white men) who had been newly diagnosed with pathologically confirmed prostate cancer and 1201 controls (543 black men and 658 white men) were interviewed in person to elicit information on potential risk factors. This report evaluates the impact of dietary factors, particularly the consumption of animal products and animal fat, on the risk of prostate cancer among blacks and whites in the United States. Increased consumption (grams/day) of foods high in animal fat was linked to prostate cancer (independent of intake of other calories) among American blacks [by quartile of intake, odds ratio (OR) = 1.0 (referent), 1.5, 2.1, and 2.0; Ptrend = 0.007], but not among American whites [by quartile of intake, OR = 1.0 (referent), 1.6, 1.5, and 1.1; Ptrend = 0.90]. However, risks for advanced prostate cancer were higher with greater intake of foods high in animal fat among blacks [by quartile of intake, OR = 1.0 (referent), 2.2, 4.2, and 3.1; Ptrend = 0.006] and whites [by quartile of intake, OR = 1.0 (referent), 2.2, 2.6, and 2.4; Ptrend = 0.02]. Increased intake of animal fat as a proportion of total caloric intake also showed positive but weaker associations with advanced prostate cancer among blacks (Ptrend = 0.13) and whites (Ptrend = 0.08). No clear associations were found with vitamin A, calcium, or specific lycopene-rich foods. The study linked greater consumption of fat from animal sources to increased risk for prostate cancer among American blacks and to advanced prostate cancer among American blacks and whites. A reduction of fat from animal sources in the diet could lead to decreased incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer, particularly among American blacks.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999 Jan;8(1):25-34
Fruit and vegetable intakes and prostate cancer risk
BACKGROUND: There is extensive and consistent evidence that high fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with decreased risks of many cancers, but results for prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. We studied the associations of fruit and vegetable intakes with prostate cancer risk in a population-based, case-control study of men under 65 years of age. METHODS: Case participants were 628 men from King County (Seattle area), WA, who were newly diagnosed with prostate cancer. Control participants were 602 men recruited from the same underlying population and frequency matched to case participants by age. Self-administered food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess diet over the 3- to 5-year period before diagnosis or recruitment. Daily nutrient intakes were calculated by use of a nutrient database with recently updated analytic values for carotenoids. Odds ratios for prostate cancer risk associated with foods and nutrients were calculated by use of unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: No associations were found between fruit intake and prostate cancer risk. The adjusted odds ratio (ORs) for the comparison of 28 or more servings of vegetables per week with fewer than 14 servings per week was 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.45-0.94), with a two-sided P for trend =.01. For cruciferous vegetable consumption, adjusted for covariates and total vegetable intake, the OR for comparison of three or more servings per week with less than one serving per week was 0.59 (95% CI = 0.39-0.90), with a two-sided P for trend =.02. The OR for daily intake of 2000 microg or more lutein plus zeaxanthin compared with an intake of less than 800 microg was 0.68 (95% CI = 0.45-1.00). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high consumption of vegetables, particularly cruciferous vegetables, is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst 2000 Jan 5;92(1):61-8
Cross-talk between 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and testosterone signal transduction pathways in LNCaP prostate cancer cells
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds modulate various endocrine functions by enhancing ligand metabolism, altering hormone synthesis, down regulating receptor levels, and interfering with gene transcription. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TCDD on testosterone signal transduction pathways and vice versa in the androgen receptor (AR) positive LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. TCDD induced CYP1A1 mRNA and related enzyme activity in these cells, with dose and time-dependence. Both normal and testosterone-stimulated cell growth was inhibited by TCDD. The expression levels of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), and AR were not affected by exposure to TCDD at a dose of 10 nM for a 24 hr time period. Testosterone treatment dose-dependently inhibited the TCDD-induced CYP1A1 mRNA accumulation and related enzyme activity. Reciprocally, TCDD also dose-dependently inhibited testosterone-dependent transcriptional activity and testosterone-regulated prostate specific antigen (PSA) expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate antiandrogenic functions of TCDD and a specific ligand-induced bilateral transcriptional interference between TCDD and testosterone mediated signal transduction pathways.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999 Mar 24;256(3):462-8
Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in The Netherlands Cohort Study
Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 642 prostate cancer cases were available for analysis. In multivariate case-cohort analyses adjusted for age, family history of prostate cancer and socioeconomic status, no associations were found for consumption of fresh meat, fish, cheese and eggs. Positive trends in risk were found for consumption of cured meat and milk products (P-values 0.04 and 0.02 respectively). For calcium and protein intake, no associations were observed. The hypothesis that dietary factors might be more strongly related to advanced prostate tumours could not be confirmed in our study. We conclude that, in this study, animal products are not strongly related to prostate cancer risk.
Br J Cancer 1999 Jun;80(7):1107-13