How CoQ10 Protects Brain Cells
Conclusion of a 3-part Series on Cellular Bioenergetics and CoQ10October 2001
Allen KL et al. Changes of respiratory chain activity in mitochondrial and synaptosomal fractions isolated from the gerbil brain after graded ischaemia. 1995. J Neurochem 64: 2222-2229.
Ankarcrona M et al. Glutamate-induced neuronal death: a succession of necrosis or apoptosis depending on mitochondrial function. 1995. Neuron 15: 961-973.
Barbiroli B et al. Coenzyme Q10 improves mitochondrial respiration in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies. An in vivo study on brain and skeletal muscle by phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy. 1997. Cell Molec Biol 43: 741-749.
Beal MF. Aging, energy, and oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. 1995. Ann Neurol 38: 357-366.
Beal MF et al. Coenzyme Q10 and nicotinamide block striatal lesions produced by the mitochondrial toxin malonate. 1994. Ann Neurol 36: 882-888.
Beal MF et al. Coenzyme Q10 atenuates the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced loss of striatal dopamine and dopaminergic axons in aged mice. 1998. Brain Res 783: 109-114.
Bendahan D et al. P NMR spectroscopy and ergometer exercise test as evidence for muscle oxidative performance improvement with coenzyme Q in mitochondrial myopathies. 1992. Neurology 42: 1203-1208.
Bolanos JP et al. Nitric oxide-mediated mitochondrial damage in the brain: mechanisms and implications for neurodegenerative diseases. 1997. J Neurochem 68: 2227-2240.
Bonilla E et al. Mitochondrial involvement in Alzheimer’s disease. 1999. Biochim Biophys Acta 1410: 171-182.
Bozner P et al. The amyloid b protein induces oxidative damage of mitochondrial DNA. 1997. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 56: 1356-1362.
Bresolin N et al. Ubidecarenone in the treatment of mitochondrial myopathies: a multi-center double-blind trial. 1990. J Neurol Sci 100: 70-78.
Brookes PS et al. Peroxynitrite and brain mitochondria: evidence for increased proton leak. 1998. J Neurochem 70: 2195-2202.
Brown AM et al. Correlation of the clinical severity of Alzheimer’s disease with an aberration in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). 2001. J Mol Neurosci 16: 41-8.
Cassarino DS et al. An evaluation of the role of mitochondria in neurodegenerative diseases: mitochondrial mutations and oxidative pathology, protective nuclear responses, and cell death in neurodegeneration. 1999. Brain Res Rev 29: 1-25.
Ebadi M et al. Ubiquinone (coenzyme q10) and mitochondria in oxidative stress of parkinson’s disease. 2001. Biol Signals Recept 10: 224-53.
Favit A et al. Ubiquinone protects cultured neurons against spontaneous and excitotoxin-induced degeneration. 1992. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 12: 638-645.
Fiskum G et al. Mitochondria in neurodegeneration: acute ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. 1999. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 19: 351-369.
Floyd RA. Neuroinflammatory processes are important in neurodegenerative diseases: an hypothesis to explain the increased formation of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species as major factors involved in neurodegenerative disease development. 1999. Free Radic Biol Med 26: 1346-1355.
Folkers K et al. Two successful double-blind trials with coenzyme Q10 (vitamin Q10) on muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies. 1995. Biochim Biophys Acta 1271: 281-286.
Gabuzda D et al. Inhibition of energy metabolism alters the processing of amyloid precursor protein and induces a potentially amyloidogenic derivative. 1994. J Biol Chem 269: 13623-13628.
Grieb P et al. Oral coenzyme Q10 administration prevents the development of ischemic brain lesions in a rabbit model of symptomatic vasospasm. 1997. Acta Neuropathol 94: 363-368.
Harman D. A hypothesis on the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. 1996. Ann NY Acad Sci 786: 152-168.
Koroshetz WJ et al. Energy metabolism defects in Huntington’s disease and effects of Coenzyme Q10. 1997. Ann Neurol 41: 160-165.
Kuroda S et al. Reperfusion damage following focal ischemia: pathophysiology and therapeutic windows. 1997. Clin Neurosci 4: 199-212.
Leist M et al. Apoptosis, excitotoxicity, and neuropathology. 1998. Exp Cell Res 239: 183-201.
Lodi R et al. Antioxidant treatment improves in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscle bioenergetics in patients with Friedreich’s ataxia. 2001. Ann Neurol 49: 590-6.
Lonnrot K et al. Control of arterial tone after long-term coenzyme Q10 supplementation in senescent rats. 1998. Brit J Pharmacol 124: 1500-1506.
Love S. Oxidative stress in brain ischemia. 1999. Brain Pathol 9: 119-131.
Mariani C et al. Muscle biopsy in Alzheimer’s disease: morphological and biochemical findings. 1991. Clin Neuropathol 10: 171-176.
Mark RJ et al. A role for 4-hydroxynonenal, an aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation, in disruption of ion homeostasis and neuronal death induced by amyloid b-peptide. 1997. J Neurochem 68: 255-264.
Mark RJ et al. Amyloid b-peptide impairs glucose transport in hippocampal and cortical neurons: involvement of membrane lipid peroxidation. 1997. J Neurosci 17: 1046-1054.
Markesbery WR. Oxidative stress hypothesis in Alzheimer’s disease. 1997. Free Radic Biol Med 23: 134-147.
Markesbery WR. Oxidative alterations in Alzheimer’s disease. 1999. Brain Pathol 9: 133-146.
Matsumoto S et a. Blockade of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore diminishes infarct size in the rat after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. 1999. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 19: 736-741.
Matthews RT et al. Coenzyme Q10 administration increases brain mitochondrial concentrations and exerts neuroprotective effects. 1998. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 8892-8897.
Mazzio E et al. Effect of antioxidants on L-glutamate and N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion induced-neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. 2001. Neurotoxicology 22: 283-8.
Mecocci P et al. Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA shows marked age-dependent increases in human brain. 1993. Ann Neurol 34: 609-616.
Mizuno Y et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. 1998. Ann Neurol 44, Suppl 1: S99-S109.
Mordente A et al. Free radical production by activated haem proteins: protective effect of coenzyme Q. 1994. Molec Aspects Med. 15, Suppl: S109-S115.
Munch G et al. Alzheimer’s disease - synergistic effects of glucose deficit, oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproducts. 1998. J Neural Transm 105: 439-461.
Murphy AN et al. Mitochondria in neurodegeneration: bioenergetic function in cell life and death. 1999. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 19: 231-245.
Musumeci O et al. Familial cerebellar ataxia with muscle coenzyme Q10 deficiency. 2001. Neurology 56: 849-55.
Nicotera P et al. Neuronal cell death: a demise with different shapes. 1999. Trends Pharmacol Sci 20: 46-51.
Novelli A et al. Glutamate becomes neurotoxic via the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor when intracellular energy levels are reduced. 1988. Brain Res 451: 205-212.
Ogawa N et al. Survival effect of coenzyme Q10 and naloxone on experimental stroke gerbils. 1986. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 24: 315-317.
Ristow M et al. Frataxin activates mitochondrial energy conversion and oxidative phosphorylation. 2000. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97: 12239-43.
Sharman EH et al. Effects of age and dietary antioxidants on cerebral electron transport chain activity. 2001. Neurobiol Aging 22: 629-34.
Shults CW et al. Coenzyme Q10 levels correlate with the activities of complexes I and II/III in mitochondria from parkinsonian and nonparkinsonian subjects. 1997. Ann Neurol 42: 261-264.
Shults CW et al. Absorption, tolerability, and effects on mitochondrial activity of oral coenzymeQ10 in parkinsonian patients. 1998. Neurology 50: 793-5.
Schulz JB et al. Neuroprotective strategies for treatment of lesions produced by mitochondrial toxins: implications for neurodegenerative diseases. 1996. Neuroscience 71: 1043-1048.
Smith MA et al. Widespread peroxynitrite-mediated damage in Alzheimer’s disease. 1997. J Neurosci 17: 2653-2657.
Sobreira C et al. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with coenzyme Q10 deficiency. 1997. Neurology 48: 1238-1243.
Tatton WG et al. Mitochondria in neurodegenerative apoptosis: an opportunity for therapy? 1998. Ann Neurol 44, Suppl 1: S134-S141.
Tatton WG et al. Apoptosis in neurodegenerative diseases: the role of mitochondria. 1999. Biochim Biophys Acta 1410: 195-213.
Turner C et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders and ageing. 2001. Adv Exp Med Biol 487: 229-51.
Veitch K et al. Global ischemia induces a biphasic response of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. 1992. Biochem J 281: 709-715.
Volpe M et al. Abnormalities of endothelial function in the pathogenesis of stroke: the importance of endothelin. 2000. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 35, Suppl 2: S45-48.
Webster MT et al. The effects of perturbed energy metabolism on the processing of amyloid precursor protein in PC12 cells. 1998. J Neural Transm 105: 839-853.
Weyer G et al. A controlled study of 2 doses of idebenone in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. 1997. Neuropsychobiology 36: 73-82.
Ying W. Deleterious network: a testable pathogenetic concept of Alzheimer’s disease. 1997. Gerontology 43: 242-253.
Zeng Z et al. Mitochondrial DNA deletions are associated with ischemia and aging in Balb/c mouse brain. 1999. J Cell Biochem 73: 545-553.