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The effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on the hydrazine-induced changes in the structure of mitochondria and those in antioxidant systems of the liver were investigated using rats as experimental animals. Animals were placed on a powdered diet containing 1.0% hydrazine for 7-8 days in the presence or absence of the combined treatment with CoQ10. Results obtained were as follows: (a) treatment of animals with CoQ10 prevented the hydrazine-induced formation of megamitochondria in the liver; (b) changes observed in the liver of the hydrazine-treated animals in comparison to the control were increases in the contents of alpha-tocopherol and CoQ analogs, increases in the levels of lipid peroxidation, decreases in the level of reduced glutathione with increases in that of oxidized glutathione, and increases in the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids in phospholipid domains of mitochondrial membranes; and (c) administration of CoQ10 to hydrazine-treated animals suppressed enhanced lipid peroxidation and improved lowered adenosine diphosphate/O ratios of mitochondria. The present data suggest that CoQ10 suppresses the hydrazine-induced formation of megamitochondria by scavenging free radicals generated from hydrazine and its metabolites.
Toxicol Pathol 1995 Nov-Dec;23(6):667-76
Coenzyme Q10 treatment improves the tolerance of the senescent myocardium to pacing stress in the rat
OBJECTIVE: In elderly patients the results of cardiac interventions are inferior to those in the young. A possible contributing factor is an age-related reduction in cellular energy transduction during the intervention which may induce aerobic or ischemic stress. To investigate whether coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) improves the response to aerobic stress, functional recoveries of senescent and young rat hearts after rapid pacing were compared with or without CoQ10. METHODS: Young (4.8 +/- 0.1 months) and senescent (35.3 +/- 0.2 months) rats were given daily intraperitoneal injections of CoQ10 (4 mg/kg) or vehicle for 6 weeks. Their isolated hearts were rapidly paced at 510 beats per minute for 120 min to induce aerobic stress without ischemia. RESULTS: In senescent hearts pre-pacing cardiac work was 74% and oxygen consumption (MVO2) 66% of that in young hearts. CoQ10 treatment abolished these differences. After pacing, the untreated senescent hearts, compared to young, showed reduced recovery of pre-pacing work, (16.8 +/- 4.3 vs. 44.5 +/- 7.4%; P < 0.01). CoQ10 treatment in senescent hearts improved recovery of work, (48.1 +/- 4.1 vs. 16.8 +/- 4.3%; P < 0.0001) and MVO2 (82.1 +/- 2.8 vs. 61.3 +/- 4.0%; P < 0.01) in treated versus untreated hearts respectively. Post-pacing levels of these parameters in CoQ10 treated senescent hearts were as high as in young hearts. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Senescent rat hearts have reduced baseline function and reduced tolerance to aerobic stress compared to young hearts. (2) Pre-treatment with CoQ10 improves baseline function of the senescent myocardium and its tolerance to aerobic stress.
Activities of vitamin Q10 in animal models and a serious deficiency in patients with cancer
New data on blood levels of vitamin Q10 in 116 cancer patients reveal an incidence of 23.1% of patients (N=17) with breast cancer whose blood levels were below 0.5 microg/ml. The incidence of breast cancer cases with levels below 0.6 microg/ml was 38.5%. The incidence is higher (p<0.05) than that for a group of ordinary people. Patients (N=15) with myeloma showed a mean blood level of 0.67 +/- 0.17 microg/ml. The incidence of a vitamin Q10 blood level below 0.7 microg/ml for these 15 cases of myeloma was 53.3%, which is higher (p<0.05) than the 24.5% found for a group of ordinary people.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1997 May 19;234(2):296-9
Progress on therapy of breast cancer with vitamin Q10 and the regression of metastases
Over 35 years, data and knowledge have internationally evolved from biochemical, biomedical and clinical research on vitamin Q10 (coenzyme Q10; CoQ10) and cancer, which led in 1993 to overt complete regression of the tumors in two cases of breast cancer. Continuing this research, three additional breast cancer patients also underwent a conventional protocol of therapy which included a daily oral dosage of 390 mg of vitamin Q10 (Bio-Quinone of Pharma Nord) during the complete trials over 3-5 years. The numerous metastases in the liver of a 44-year-old patient "disappeared," and no signs of metastases were found elsewhere. A 49-year-old patient, on a dosage of 390 mg of vitamin Q10, revealed no signs of tumor in the pleural cavity after six months, and her condition was excellent. A 75-year-old patient with carcinoma in one breast, after lumpectomy and 390 mg of CoQ10, showed no cancer in the tumor bed or metastases. Control blood levels of CoQ10 of 0.83-0.97 and of 0.62 micrograms/ml increased to 3.34-3.64 and to 3.77 micrograms/ml, respectively, on therapy with CoQ10 for patients A-MRH and EEL.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995 Jul 6;212(1):172-7
Partial and complete regression of breast cancer in patients in relation to dosage of coenzyme Q10
Relationships of nutrition and vitamins to the genesis and prevention of cancer are increasingly evident. In a clinical protocol, 32 patients having -"high-risk"- breast cancer were treated with antioxidants, fatty acids, and 90 mg. of CoQ10. Six of the 32 patients showed partial tumor regression. In one of these 6 cases, the dosage of CoQ10 was increased to 390 mg. In one month, the tumor was no longer palpable and in another month, mammography confirmed the absence of tumor. Encouraged, another case having a verified breast tumor, after non-radical surgery and with verified residual tumor in the tumor bed was then treated with 300 mg. CoQ10. After 3 months, the patient was in excellent clinical condition and there was no residual tumor tissue. The bioenergetic activity of CoQ10, expressed as hematological or immunological activity, may be the dominant but not the sole molecular mechanism causing the regression of breast cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994 Mar 30;199(3):1504-8
Effect of hydrosoluble coenzyme Q10 on blood pressures and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease
In a randomised, double-blind trial among patients receiving antihypertensive medication, the effects of the oral treatment with coenzyme Q10 (60 mg twice daily) were compared for 8 weeks in 30 (coenzyme Q10: group A) and 29 (B vitamin complex: group B) patients known to have essential hypertension and presenting with coronary artery disease (CAD). After 8 weeks of follow-up, the following indices were reduced in the coenzyme Q10 group: systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting and 2-h plasma insulin, glucose, triglycerides, lipid peroxides, malondialdehyde and diene conjugates. The following indices were increased: HDL-cholesterol, vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene (all changes P<0.05). The only changes in the group taking the B vitamin complex were increases in vitamin C and beta-carotene (P<0.05). These findings indicate that treatment with coenzyme Q10 decreases blood pressure possibly by decreasing oxidative stress and insulin response in patients with known hypertension receiving conventional antihypertensive drugs.
J Hum Hypertens 1999 Mar;13(3):203-8
Comparisons of coenzyme Q bound to mitochondrial membrane proteins among different mammalian species
The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms that govern the variations in the rates of mitochondrial superoxide anion radical (O2-*) generation in different species. The amounts of coenzyme Q (CoQ) associated with mitochondrial membrane proteins were compared in five different mammalian species, namely mouse, rat, rabbit, pig, and cow. Micelles of cardiac mitochondria were prepared using Triton X-100 or deoxycholate (DOC) as detergents, and the micelles containing mitochondrial proteins were sedimented by sucrose density ultracentrifugation. The amount of CoQ present in both types of micelles varied in different species, whereas alpha-tocopherol, another lipoidal molecule in mitochondrial membranes, could not be detected in the micelles of any of these species. The amounts of CoQ bound to mitochondrial proteins in DOC micelles were higher in those mammalian species where CoQ10 was the predominant CoQ homologue, and the amounts were found to be inversely correlated with the rate of mitochondrial 02-* generation among different species. Results also indicated that mitochondrial CoQ exists in at least two distinct pools, one of which is associated with the membrane proteins. The degree of association between CoQ and membrane proteins appears to be a factor determining the rate of mitochondrial O2-* generation.
Free Radic Biol Med 1999 Jul;27(1-2):220-6
Genetic and functional changes in mitochondria associated with aging
This review is devoted to the molecular genetics and bioenergetics of human mitochondria related to the mechanism of aging. Morphological and functional changes of mitochondria associated with age and age-related disease are overviewed with special reference to the changes in enzymes encoded by mitochondrial-inherent genome. The somatically acquired mutations and oxidative damage of the genome, which lead an individual to the fragmentation of mitochondrial DNA, cellular energy crisis, naturally occurring cell death (apoptosis), and tissue degeneration and atrophy, are reviewed with relation to the inherited point mutational genotypes and the deletion types of mitochondrial DNA. Theories of aging are discussed with disclosed evidence relevant to them. Some trials to prevent age-related damage in mitochondria are introduced for the development of what may be called mitochondrial medicine.
Physiol Rev 1997 Apr;77(2):425-64Review
Mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors induce apoptosis
In this paper the specific mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A and the highly specific mitochondrial ATP-synthase inhibitor oligomycin are shown to induce an apoptotic suicide response in cultured human lymphoblastoid and other mammalian cells within 12-18 h. The mitochondrial inhibitors do not induce apoptosis in cells depleted of mitochondrial DNA and thus lacking an intact mitochondrial respiratory chain. Apoptosis induced by respiratory chain inhibitors is not inhibited by the presence of Bcl-2. We discuss the possible role of mitochondrial induced apoptosis in the ageing process and age-associated diseases.
FEBS Lett 1994 Feb 14;339(1-2):40-4
Relationship between mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and longevity of mammalian species
The objective of this study was to examine the possible involvement of oxygen free radicals in the aging process. Rates of mitochondrial O2.- and H2O2 production and oxygen consumption in the kidney and the heart were compared among seven different mammalian species namely, mouse, hamster, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, pig, and cow, whose maximum life span potential (MLSP) varies from 3.5 to 30 years. The rates of mitochondrial O2.- and H2O2 generation were inversely correlated to MLSP, and directly related to specific metabolic rate and state 4 mitochondrial respiration. Results of this study indicate that under identical conditions, mitochondria from shorter-lived species produce relatively higher amounts of reactive oxygen species than those from the longer-lived species, and, thus, support the free radical hypothesis of aging.
Free Radic Biol Med 1993 Dec;15(6):621-7
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