The cosmetic treatment of wrinkles.
Wrinkles now have a greater social impact because people live longer. Science and hedonism overlap in the search for causes, treatments and prevention of wrinkles. The cosmetic approach to wrinkles includes: i. Cleansing ii. Photoprotection iii. Active ingredients. Active ingredients go well beyond simple moisturisers and exert a more complex activity in protecting skin from external injuries, nourishing it and removing its superficial layers. Transport systems and excipients are increasingly effective. Functional agents currently include alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), poly-AHAs, complex poly-AHAs, retinoids, fish polysaccharides, anti-enzymatic agents, antioxidants (including ascorbic acid, pycnogenol, ursolic acid, vegetable isoflavones, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10, lipoic acid, resveratorol, l-carnosine, and taurine) as well as agaricic acid and various plant extracts. All are reviewed in this text. Most are topical, some can be given by mouth, even as food supplements. Cosmetics are becoming closer to drugs in preventing and treating wrinkles. Included amongst the cosmeceuticals are the anti-wrinkle agents described herein.
J Cosmet Dermatol. 2004 Jan;3(1):26-34
Efficacy of cream-based novel formulations of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights in anti-wrinkle treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy of topical application of 0.1% hyaluronan formulations of different molecular weights (MW) (50, 130, 300, 800, and 2000 kDa, respectively) in the periocular area as anti-wrinkle treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six female subjects between 30 and 60 years of age with clinical signs of periocular wrinkles applied one of the formulations twice-daily to the area of interest in a randomized fashion for 60 days. Around the other eye, a vehicle control cream was applied. Measurements of skin hydration and skin elasticity were performed before treatment, 30 and 60 days thereafter. At similar time points negative replicas were taken and evaluated by semi-automated morphometry. RESULTS: All HA-based creams utilized in this study demonstrated a significant improvement in skin hydration and overall elasticity values (R2) when compared to placebo. Measurements of wrinkle depth using mean roughness (Ra) and maximum roughness (Rz) values revealed significant improvement in the 130 and the 50 kDa HA group after 60 days of treatment compared to placebo-treated area. CONCLUSION: Topical application of all 0.1% HA formulations used in this study led to significant improvement in skin hydration and elasticity. Application of low-molecular-weight (LMW) HA was associated with significant reduction of wrinkle depth, which may be due to better penetration abilities of LMW HA.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011 Sep 1;10(9):990-1000
Effects of topical application of inorganic polyphosphate on tissue remodeling in rat inflamed gingiva.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inorganic polyphosphate [poly(P)] is a biopolymer found in almost all cells and tissues, and which promotes tissue remodeling. However, there is limited information on how poly(P) affects the connective tissue in inflamed gingiva. This study examined the effects of topical application of poly(P) on gingival connective tissue and its remodeling in a rat periodontitis model.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n = 36, 8 wk of age) were used in this 6-wk study. The rats were divided into six groups of six rats each. The control group received no treatment. In the other groups, periodontitis was ligature-induced for 4 wk. After 4 wk, the rats with periodontitis were further divided into five groups, and were left untreated (periodontitis group) or subjected to topical application of oral rinses containing 0, 0.1, 1, or 5% poly(P) for 2 wk. RESULTS: The periodontitis and 0% poly(P) groups showed a higher density of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and a lower density of collagen in gingival tissue than the control group (p < 0.05). In contrast, groups treated with more than 1% poly(P) exhibited a lower density of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (p < 0.05) and a higher density of collagen than the periodontitis and 0% poly(P) groups (p < 0.05). A higher expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 was observed in the gingiva of rats treated with 1% poly(P) than in those treated with 0% poly(P) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Topical application of poly(P) may induce connective tissue remodeling, contributing to improvement of inflamed gingiva in rats.
J Periodontal Res. 2012 Apr;47(2):159-64
Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha.
Diminished mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic capacity are associated with reduced longevity. We tested whether resveratrol (RSV), which is known to extend life span, impacts mitochondrial function and metabolic homeostasis. Treatment of mice with RSV significantly increased their aerobic capacity, as evidenced by their increased running time and consumption of oxygen in muscle fibers. RSV’s effects were associated with an induction of genes for oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis and were largely explained by an RSV-mediated decrease in PGC-1alpha acetylation and an increase in PGC-1alpha activity. This mechanism is consistent with RSV being a known activator of the protein deacetylase, SIRT1, and by the lack of effect of RSV in SIRT1(-/-) MEFs. Importantly, RSV treatment protected mice against diet-induced-obesity and insulin resistance. These pharmacological effects of RSV combined with the association of three Sirt1 SNPs and energy homeostasis in Finnish subjects implicates SIRT1 as a key regulator of energy and metabolic homeostasis.
Cell. 2006 Dec 15;127(6):1109-22
Modern approach to topical treatment of aging skin.
The main processes involved in skin aging are intrinsic and extrinsic. Apart from them, so called stochastic aging connotes cell damage caused by metabolic processes, free radicals and cosmic irradiation. The clinical expression of intrinsic aging include smooth, dry, and thinned skin with accentuated expression lines. It is inevitable and time dependent. Extrinsically aged skin shows signs of photodamage which include appearance of wrinkles, pigmented lesions, actinic keratoses and patchy hypopigmentations. Therapeutic modalities imply photoprotection with sunscreens that prevent sunburns and block ultraviolet irradiation. Other modalities include use of retinoids which regulate gene transcription with subsequent cellular differentiation and proliferation. The topical and peroral administration of network antioxidants, such as vitamin E and C, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid and glutathione, enhance antiaging effect. The other antioxidants such as green tea, dehydroepiandrosterone, melatonin, selenium and resveratrol, have also antiaging and anti-inflammatory effects. Topical bleaching agents such as hydroquinone, kojic acid and azelaic acid can reduce signs of aging. Studies confirm the efficacy of these topical agents in combination with superficial and/or medium depth or deep peeling agents for photodamaged skin treatment. Indications for type of chemical peels according to various clinical diagnosis are done, as well as advantages and disadvantages of different types of chemical peels.
Coll Antropol. 2010 Sep;34(3):1145-53
Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes.
Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in grapes and other food products, was purified and shown to have cancer chemopreventive activity in assays representing three major stages of carcinogenesis. Resveratrol was found to act as an antioxidant and antimutagen and to induce phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (anti-initiation activity); it mediated anti-inflammatory effects and inhibited cyclooxygenase and hydroperoxidase functions (antipromotion activity); and it induced human promyelocytic leukemia cell differentiation (antiprogression activity). In addition, it inhibited the development of preneoplastic lesions in carcinogen-treated mouse mammary glands in culture and inhibited tumorigenesis in a mouse skin cancer model. These data suggest that resveratrol, a common constituent of the human diet, merits investigation as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent in humans.
Science. 1997 Jan 10;275(5297):218-20
In vivo skin effects of a dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) based formulation.
Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) has been used in anti-aging formulations but few scientifically based data address its efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of DMAE-based formulations on hairless mice and human skin. Formulations containing with or without DMAE were applied to the dorsum of hairless mice. Histopathological and histometric evaluations were carried out after seven days. Formulations were also applied to the ventral forearm and the lateral periocular area of human volunteers. Stratum corneum water content and skin mechanical properties were analyzed using Corneometer and Cutometer, before and after a single and repeated application. Histometric evaluations showed that formulations with or without DMAE increased the viable epidermis thickness, but only the DMAE-supplemented formulation led to increased dermal thickness. DMAE also induced increase in collagen fiber thickness, which was observed in the histopathological study. After the single and the 8-week period application on human skin, formulations with and without DMAE enhanced the stratum corneum water content in the forearm skin. Mechanical properties were not significantly modified. So, we can suggest that DMAE action is related to its effects on the dermis as observed in the histopathological and histometric studies and showed hydration effects on skin.
Pharmazie. 2009 Dec;64(12):818-22
The role of dimethylaminoethanol in cosmetic dermatology.
Skincare formulations for the improvement of aging skin are increasingly important consumer products. Here, we review available data on one such agent - 2-dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) or deanol - that has recently been evaluated in a placebo-controlled trial. DMAE is an analog of the B vitamin choline and is a precursor of acetylcholine. Although the role of acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter is well known, growing evidence points to acetylcholine as a ubiquitous cytokine-like molecule that regulates basic cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, locomotion, and secretion in a paracrine and autocrine fashion. Indeed, this modulatory role may contribute to the cutaneous activity of DMAE. In a randomized clinical study, 3% DMAE facial gel applied daily for 16 weeks has been shown to be safe and efficacious (p < 0.05) in the mitigation of forehead lines and periorbital fine wrinkles, and in improving lip shape and fullness and the overall appearance of aging skin. These effects did not regress during a 2-week cessation of application. Beneficial trends (p > 0.05 but
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2005;6(1):39-47
Dimethylaminoethanol affects the viability of human cultured fibroblasts.
BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) has been used in the fight against wrinkles and flaccidity in the cervicofacial region. The firming action of DMAE is explained by the fact that its molecule, considered to be a precursor of acetylcholine, alters muscle contraction. However, no experimental studies have confirmed this theory. Because the actual mechanism of DMAE action was not defined and there were no references in the literature regarding its direct action on fibroblasts, this study was performed to evaluate the direct action of DMAE on cultured human fibroblasts. METHODS: Human fibroblasts obtained from discarded fragments of total skin from patients undergoing plastic or reconstructive surgical procedures performed within the Plastic Surgery Division at the Federal University of São Paulo were used for this study. The explant technique was used. The culture medium was supplemented with different concentrations of DMAE on the fourth cell passage, and the cell proliferation rate, cytosolic calcium levels, and cell cycle were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Newman-Keuls test for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: A decrease in fibroblast proliferation was associated with an increase in DMAE concentration. A longer treatment time with trypsin was required for the groups treated with DMAE in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of DMAE, cytosolic calcium increased in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis also increased in groups treated with DMAE. CONCLUSION: Dimethylaminoethanol reduced the proliferation of fibroblasts, increased cytosolic calcium, and changed the cell cycle, causing an increase in apoptosis in cultured human fibroblasts.
Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2007 Nov-Dec;31(6):711-8
Split face study on the cutaneous tensile effect of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) gel.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Beyond subjective assessments, the effect of skin tensors is difficult to assess. The present 2-phase randomized double-blind split face study was designed to compare the effect of a gel containing 3% 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol, DMAE) with the same formulation without DMAE. METHODS: In a first pilot study, sensorial assessments and measures of the skin distension under suction were performed in eight volunteers. In a second study conducted in 30 volunteers, shear wave propagation was measured. RESULTS: Large interindividual variations precluded any significant finding in the first study. The DMAE formulation showed, however, a significant effect characterized by increased shear wave velocity in the direction where the mechanical anisotropy of skin showed looseness. CONCLUSION: The DMAE formulation under investigation increased skin firmness.
Skin Res Technol. 2002 Aug;8(3):164-7