Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More! Ends January 31st.

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Life Extension Magazine

<< Back to July 2014

The 2014 Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Symposium

July 2014

By Ben Best

References

  1. Sapone A, Bai JC, Ciacci C, et al. Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification. BMC Med. 2012 Feb 7;10:13.
  2. Shewry PR. Wheat. J Exp Bot. 2009;60(6):1537-53.
  3. Rubio-Tapia A, Ludvigsson JF, Brantner TL, Murray JA, Everhart JE. The prevalence of celiac disease in the United States. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Oct;107(10):1538-44; quiz 1537, 1545.
  4. Celiac disease-sprue. 2012. A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001280/. Accessed April 9, 2014.
  5. van den Broeck HC, de Jong HC, Salentijn EM, et al. Presence of celiac disease epitopes in modern and old hexaploid wheat varieties: wheat breeding may have contributed to increased prevalence of celiac disease. Theor Appl Genet. 2010 Nov;121(8):1527-39.
  6. Ackroff K, Sclafani A. Rats’ preferences for high fructose corn syrup vs. sucrose and sugar mixtures. Physiol Behav. 2011 Mar 28;102(5):548-52.
  7. Bantle JP. Is fructose the optimal low glycemic index sweetener? Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Clin Perform Programme. 2006;11:83-91; discussion 92-5.
  8. Hung CT. Effects of high-fructose (90%) corn syrup on plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects. Taiwan Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi. 1989 Sep;88(9):883-5.
  9. Stanhope KL, Schwarz JM, Keim NL, et al. Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. J Clin Invest. 2009 May;119(5):1322-34.
  10. Lee O, Bruce WR, Dong Q, Bruce J, Mehta R, O’Brien PJ. Fructose and carbonyl metabolites as endogenous toxins. Chem Biol Interact. 2009 Mar 16;178(1-3):332-9.
  11. Bremer AA, Mietus-Snyder M, Lustig RH. Toward a unifying hypothesis of metabolic syndrome. Pediatrics. 2012 Mar;129(3):557-70.
  12. Brown MS, Goldstein JL. Selective versus total insulin resistance: a pathogenic paradox. Cell Metab. 2008 Feb;7(2):95-6.
  13. Fabbrini E, Magkos F, Mohammed BS, Pietka T, Abumrad NA, Patterson BW, Okunade A, Klein S. Intrahepatic fat, not visceral fat, is linked with metabolic complications of obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Sep 8;106(36):15430-5.
  14. Rizkalla SW. Health implications of fructose consumption: A review of recent data. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010 Nov 4;7:82.
  15. Johnson RJ, Segal MS, Sautin Y, Nakagawa T, Feig DI, Kang DH, Gersch MS, Benner S, Sánchez-Lozada LG. Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):899-906.
  16. Perez-Pozo SE, Schold J, Nakagawa T, Sánchez-Lozada LG, Johnson RJ, Lillo JL. Excessive fructose intake induces the features of metabolic syndrome in healthy adult men: role of uric acid in the hypertensive response. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Mar;34(3):454-61.
  17. Bray GA, Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Apr;79(4):537-43.
  18. Hallfrisch J. Metabolic effects of dietary fructose. FASEB J. 1990 Jun;4(9):2652-60.
  19. Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB. Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 23;364(25):2392-404.
  20. Bazzano LA, Li TY, Joshipura KJ, Hu FB. Intake of fruit, vegetables, and fruit juices and risk of diabetes in women. Diabetes Care. 2008 Jul;31(7):1311-7.
  21. Dennison BA. Fruit juice consumption by infants and children: a review. J Am Coll Nutr. 1996 Oct;15(5 Suppl):4S-11S.
  22. Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years’ observations on male British doctors. BMJ. 2004 Jun 26;328(7455):1519.
  23. Choi YJ, Park JS, Kim U, et al. Changes in smoking behavior and adherence to preventive guidelines among smokers after a heart attack. J Geriatr Cardiol. 2013 Jun;10(2):146-50.
  24. Tverdal A, Bjartveit K. Health consequences of reduced daily cigarette consumption. Tob Control. 2006 Dec;15(6):472-80.
  25. Goniewicz ML, Knysak J, Gawron M, et al. Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes. Tob Control. 2014 Mar;23(2):133-9.
  26. Rozanski A, Blumenthal JA, Kaplan J. Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy. Circulation. 1999 Apr 27;99(16):2192-217.
  27. Sattar N, Greer IA. Pregnancy complications and maternal cardiovascular risk: opportunities for intervention and screening? BMJ. 2002 Jul 20;325(7356):157-60.
  28. Mostofsky E, Maclure M, Sherwood JB, Tofler GH, Muller JE, Mittleman MA. Risk of acute myocardial infarction after the death of a significant person in one’s life: the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study. Circulation. 2012 Jan 24;125(3):491-6.
  29. Mosca L, Benjamin EJ, Berra K, et al. Effectiveness-based guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women― 2011 update: a guideline from the American Heart Sssociation. Circulation. 2011 Mar 22;123(11):1243-62.
  30. Agatisa PK, Matthews KA, Bromberger JT, Edmundowicz D, Chang YF, Sutton-Tyrrell K. Coronary and aortic calcification in women with a history of major depression. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Jun 13;165(11):1229-36.
  31. Sherwood A, Hinderliter AL, Watkins LL, Waugh RA, Blumenthal JA. Impaired endothelial function in coronary heart disease patients with depressive symptomatology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Aug 16;46(4):656-9.
  32. Dimsdale JE. What does heart disease have to do with anxiety? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Jun 29;56(1):47-8.
  33. Milani RV, Lavie CJ, Mehra MR, Ventura HO. Impact of exercise training and depression on survival in heart failure due to coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol. 2011 Jan;107(1):64-8.
  34. Janszky I, Ahnve S, Lundberg I, Hemmingsson T. Early-onset depression, anxiety, and risk of subsequent coronary heart disease: 37-year follow-up of 49,321 young Swedish men. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Jun 29;56(1):31-7.
  35. Levine GN, Allen K, Braun LT, et al. Pet ownership and cardiovascular risk: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2013 Jun 11;127(23):2353-63.
  36. Tabas I. Consequences and therapeutic implications of macrophage apoptosis in atherosclerosis: the importance of lesion stage and phagocytic efficiency. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Nov;25(11):2255-64.
  37. Tabas I. Macrophage death and defective inflammation resolution in atherosclerosis. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010 Jan;10(1):36-46.
  38. Tabas I, Williams KJ, Borén J. Subendothelial lipoprotein retention as the initiating process in atherosclerosis: update and therapeutic implications. Circulation. 2007 Oct 16;116(16):1832-44.
  39. Moore KJ, Tabas I. Macrophages in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Cell. 2011 Apr 29;145(3):341-55.
  40. Nasir K, Blaha MJ. Short and lifetime cardiovascular risk estimates: same wine, different bottles. Do we have the COURAGE to abandon risk scores? J Nucl Cardiol. 2014 Feb;21(1):46-9.
  41. Malik S, Budoff MJ, Katz R, et al. Impact of subclinical atherosclerosis on cardiovascular disease events in individuals with metabolic syndrome and diabetes: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Diabetes Care. 2011 Oct;34(10):2285-90.
  42. Blaha MJ, Budoff MJ, DeFilippis AP, et al. Associations between C-reactive protein, coronary artery calcium, and cardiovascular events: implications for the JUPITER population from MESA, a population-based cohort study. Lancet. 2011 Aug 20;378(9792):684-92.
  43. Blaha M, Budoff MJ, Shaw LJ, et al. Absence of coronary artery calcification and all-cause mortality. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2009 Jun;2(6):692-700.
  44. Gottlieb I, Miller JM, Arbab-Zadeh A, et al. The absence of coronary calcification does not exclude obstructive coronary artery disease or the need for revascularization in patients referred for conventional coronary angiography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Feb 16;55(7):627-34.
  45. Castelli WP. Lipids, risk factors and ischaemic heart disease. Atherosclerosis. 1996 Jul;124 Suppl:S1-9.
  46. Wakatsuki A, Ikenoue N, Okatani Y, Fukaya T. Estrogen-induced small low density lipoprotein particles may be atherogenic in postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Cardiol . 2001 Feb;37(2):425-30.
  47. Lautamäki R, Nuutila P, Airaksinen KE, et al. The effect of PPARgamma-agonism on LDL subclass profile in patients with type II diabetes and coronary artery disease. Rev Diabet Stud . 2006 Spring;3(1):31-8.
  48. Koba S, Yokota Y, Hirano T, et al. Small LDL-cholesterol is superior to LDL-cholesterol for determining severe coronary atherosclerosis. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2008 Oct;15(5):250-60.
  49. Kovacic JC, Moreno P, Hachinski V, Nabel EG, Fuster V. Cellular senescence, vascular disease, and aging: Part 1 of a 2-part review. Circulation. 2011 Apr 19;123(15):1650-60.
  50. Kovacic JC, Moreno P, Nabel EG, Hachinski V, Fuster V. Cellular senescence, vascular disease, and aging: part 2 of a 2-part review: clinical vascular disease in the elderly. Circulation. 2011 May 3;123(17):1900-10.
  51. Safar ME, London GM, Plante GE. Arterial stiffness and kidney function. Hypertension. 2004 Feb;43(2):163-8.
  52. Arbab-Zadeh A, Nakano M, Virmani R, Fuster V. Acute coronary events. Circulation. 2012 Mar 6;125(9):1147-56.
  53. Lamas GA, Goertz C, Boineau R, et al. Effect of disodium EDTA chelation regimen on cardiovascular events in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the TACT randomized trial. JAMA. 2013 Mar 27;309(12):1241-50.
  54. Flora SJ, Pachauri V. Chelation in metal intoxication. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Jul;7(7):2745-88.
  55. Lewin MR. Chelation therapy for cardiovascular disease. Review and commentary. Tex Heart Inst J. 1997;24(2):81-9.
  56. Atwood KC, Woeckner E, Baratz RS, Sampson WI. Why the NIH Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) should be abandoned. Medscape J Med. 2008 May 13;10(5):115.
  57. Nissen SE. Concerns about reliability in the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT). JAMA. 2013 Mar 27;309(12):1293-4.
  58. Escolar E, Lamas GA, Mark DB, et al. The effect of an EDTA-based chelation regimen on patients with diabetes mellitus and prior myocardial infarction in the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT). Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2014 Jan;7(1):15-24.
  59. Nagai R, Murray DB, Metz TO, Baynes JW. Chelation: a fundamental mechanism of action of AGE inhibitors, AGE breakers, and other inhibitors of diabetes complications. Diabetes. 2012 Mar;61(3):549-59.
  60. Sinclair AJ, Murphy KJ, Li D. Marine lipids: overview “news insights and lipid composition of Lyprinol.” Allerg Immunol (Paris). 2000 Sep;32(7):261-71.
  61. Mozaffarian D, Wu JH. (n-3) fatty acids and cardiovascular health: are effects of EPA and DHA shared or complementary? J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):614S-625S.
  62. Siddiqui RA, Harvey KA, Zaloga GP. Modulation of enzymatic activities by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to support cardiovascular health. J Nutr Biochem . 2008 Jul;19(7):417-37.
  63. Miller E, Kaur G, Larsen A, Loh SP, Linderborg K, Weisinger HS, Turchini GM, Cameron-Smith D, Sinclair AJ. A short-term n-3 DPA supplementation study in humans. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Apr;52(3):895-904.
  64. Mozaffarian D, Lemaitre RN, King IB, et al. Plasma phospholipid long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and total and cause-specific mortality in older adults: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2013 Apr 2;158(7):515-25.
  65. Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB. Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: evaluating the risks and the benefits. JAMA. 2006 Oct 18;296(15):1885-99.
  66. Mozaffarian D, Wu JH. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: effects on risk factors, molecular pathways, and clinical events. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Nov 8;58(20):2047-67.
  67. Mozaffarian D, Shi P, Morris JS, Spiegelman D, Grandjean P, Siscovick DS, Willett WC, Rimm EB. Mercury exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease in two U.S. cohorts. N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 24;364(12):1116-25.
  68. Hong YS, Kim YM, Lee KE. Methylmercury exposure and health effects. J Prev Med Public Health. 2012 Nov;45(6):353-63.
  69. Shrime MG, Bauer SR, McDonald AC, Chowdhury NH, Coltart CE, Ding EL. Flavonoid-rich cocoa consumption affects multiple cardiovascular risk factors in a meta-analysis of short-term studies. J Nutr. 2011 Nov;141(11):1982-8.
  70. Taubert D, Roesen R, Lehmann C, Jung N, Schömig E. Effects of low habitual cocoa intake on blood pressure and bioactive nitric oxide: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007 Jul 4;298(1):49-60.
  71. Buitrago-Lopez A, Sanderson J, Johnson L, et al. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2011 Aug 26;343:d4488.
  72. Hooper L, Kay C, Abdelhamid A, et al. Effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Mar;95(3):740-51.
  73. Sinha R, Cross AJ, Graubard BI, Leitzmann MF, Schatzkin A. Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Mar 23;169(6):562-71.
  74. Micha R, Wallace SK, Mozaffarian D. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation. 2010 Jun 1;121(21):2271-83.
  75. Klein I, Ojamaa K. Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system. N Engl J Med. 2001 Feb 15;344(7):501-9.
  76. Surks MI, Ortiz E, Daniels GH, et al. Subclinical thyroid disease: scientific review and guidelines for diagnosis and management. JAMA. 2004 Jan 14;291(2):228-38.
  77. Liu D, Teng W, Shan Z, et al. The effect of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy on brain development in rat offspring. Thyroid . 2010 Aug;20(8):909-15.
  78. Gallego G, Goodall S, Eastman CJ. Iodine deficiency in Australia: is iodine supplementation for pregnant and lactating women warranted? Med J Aust. 2010 Apr 19;192(8):461-3
  79. Biondi B, Cooper DS. The clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Endocr Rev. 2008 Feb;29(1):76-131.
  80. Rodondi N, Aujesky D, Vittinghoff E, Cornuz J, Bauer DC. Subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2006 Jul;119(7):541-51.
  81. Liu J, Sempos CT, Donahue RP, Dorn J, Trevisan M, Grundy SM. Non-high-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and their risk predictive values in coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol. 2006 Nov 15;98(10):1363-8.
  82. Mackey RH, Kuller LH, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Evans RW, Holubkov R, Matthews KA. Lipoprotein subclasses and coronary artery calcium in postmenopausal women from the healthy women study. Am J Cardiol . 2002 Oct 17;90(8A):71i-76i.
  83. Morrone D, Weintraub WS, Toth PP, Hanson ME, Lowe RS, Lin J, Shah AK, Tershakovec AM. Lipid-altering efficacy of ezetimibe plus statin and statin monotherapy and identification of factors associated with treatment response: a pooled analysis of over 21,000 subjects from 27 clinical trials. Atherosclerosis. 2012 Aug;223(2):251-61.
  84. AIM-HIGH Investigators, Boden WE, Probstfield JL, et al. Niacin in patients with low HDL cholesterol levels receiving intensive statin therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011 Dec 15;365(24):2255-67.
  85. Hauner H. Managing type II diabetes mellitus in patients with obesity. Treat Endocrinol. 2004;3(4):223-32.
  86. Boden G. Effects of free fatty acids (FFA) on glucose metabolism: significance for insulin resistance and type II diabetes. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2003 May;111(3):121-4.
  87. Reaven GM. Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes. 1988 Dec;37(12):1595-607.
  88. Hanley AJ, Williams K, Stern MP, Haffner SM. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in relation to the incidence of cardiovascular disease: the San Antonio Heart Study. Diabetes Care. 2002 Jul;25(7):1177-84.
  89. Erland Erdmann , John Dormandy, Robert Wilcox, et al. Secondary prevention of macrovascular events in patients with type II diabetes in the PROactive Study (PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events): a randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 Oct 8;366(9493):1279-89.
  90. Knowler WC , Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, et al; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type II diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 7;346(6):393-403.
  91. Lazo M, Solga SF, Horska A, et al. Fatty Liver Subgroup of the Look AHEAD Research Group. Effect of a 12-month intensive lifestyle intervention on hepatic steatosis in adults with type II diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010 Oct;33(10):2156-63.