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Green tea

August 2014

By Life Extension

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) sensitizes melanoma cells to interferon induced growth inhibition in a mouse model of human melanoma.

Melanoma incidence has increased over the last few decades and metastatic melanoma is one of the hardest malignancies to treat. Thus, novel approaches are needed for an effective management of melanoma. Interferon-alpha2b (IFN), an immunomodulatory cytokine commonly used in melanoma treatment, has shown marginal efficacy and often results in discontinuation of therapy due to toxicity. We earlier demonstrated that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic constituent of green tea, caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human melanoma cells via modulation in cki-cyclin-cdk machinery and Bcl-2 family proteins. This study was undertaken to determine if EGCG could enhance the anti-proliferative effects of IFN. In this study, we demonstrated that EGCG and/or IFN treatments to melanoma cells resulted in a marked (1) decrease in cell proliferation and colony formation ability, and (2) induction of apoptosis. Interestingly, the combination was found to be more effective than either of the agents alone. Further, the anti-proliferative effects of EGCG and/or IFN were accompanied with an increase in Fas protein levels and a decrease in nuclear factor NFkappaB/p65 in the nucleus as well as NFkappaB promoter activity. EGCG and/or IFN also resulted in an increase in Fas-L mediated apoptosis. Further, EGCG and/or IFN treatments resulted in a decrease in melanoma tumor growth and protein levels of proliferation marker PCNA, in athymic nude mice implanted with melanoma tumors. The combination of the two modalities demonstrated a better response than either of them alone. Our data suggest that EGCG could impart therapeutic advantage if used in conjunction with IFN.

Cell Cycle. 2009 Jul 1;8(13):2057-63

Multifunctional effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in downregulation of gelatinase- A (MMP-2) in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

AIMS: The tumor inhibiting property of green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is well documented. Studies reveal that matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) play pivotal roles in tumor invasion through degradation of basement membranes and extracellular matrix (ECM). We studied the effect of EGCG on matrixmetalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), the factors involved in activation, secretion and signaling molecules that might be involved in the regulation of MMP-2 in human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. MAIN METHODS: MCF-7 was treated with EGCG (20 muM, 24 h), the effect of EGCG on MMP-2 expression, activity and its regulatory molecules were studied by gelatin zymography, Western blot, quantitative and semi-quantitative real time RT-PCR, immunoflourescence and cell adhesion assay. KEY FINDINGS: EGCG treatment reduced the activity, protein expression and mRNA expression level of MMP-2. EGCG treatment reduced the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), membrane type-1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and reduced the adhesion of MCF-7 cells to ECM, fibronectin and vitronectin. Real time RT-PCR revealed a reduced expression of integrin receptors alpha5, beta1, alphav and beta3 due to EGCG treatment. SIGNIFICANCE: Down regulation of expression of MT1-MMP, NF-kB, VEGF and disruption of functional status of integrin receptors may indicate decreased MMP-2 activation; low levels of FAK expression might indicate disruption in FAK-induced MMP-2 secretion and decrease in activation of phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI-3K), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) indicates probable hindrance in MMP-2 regulation and induction. We propose EGCG as potential inhibitor of expression and activity of pro-MMP-2 by a process involving multiple regulatory molecules in MCF-7.

Life Sci. 2009 Feb 13;84(7-8):194-204

Tea polyphenols inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 expression and block activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and Akt in diethylnitrosoamine induced lung tumors in Swiss mice.

BACKGROUND: Due to lack of validated screening methods and hence poor prognosis, treatment of lung cancer has not still improved up to the expectations. Therefore, risk of lung cancer needs to be minimized by efficient preventive measures. Tea (Camellia sinensis) and its bioactive polyphenols have been associated with prevention of human cancer for several organs. Thus, intake of tea polyphenols seems to be a viable mean to control lung cancer burden. In the present study, we studied the chemopreventive effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) and black tea polyphenols (BTP) against diethylnitrosoamine (DEN) induced lung tumors in Swiss albino mice. RESULTS: Chemopreventive potential of tea polyphenols, was recorded as evident by, low incidence of alveologenic tumors in lungs of animals at tested doses (0.1% and 0.2% of both GTP and BTP) when compared with DEN (20 mg/kg b wt) treated animals. As a mechanism of cancer chemoprevention cellular signaling pathways were also targeted. GTP and BTP treatment inhibited the expression of Akt, cyclooxygenase-2 and inactivated nuclear factor-kappa B via blocking phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IkappaB alpha. CONCLUSION: Thus, the study suggests that polyphenolic constituents of both cultivars of tea, i.e. green and black, have chemopreventive effects in DEN induced lung tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice.

Invest New Drugs. 2010 Aug;28(4):466-71

Insights into antiamyloidogenic properties of the green tea extract (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate toward metal-associated amyloid-b species.

Despite the significance of Alzheimer’s disease, the link between metal-associated amyloid-b (metal-Ab) and disease etiology remains unclear. To elucidate this relationship, chemical tools capable of specifically targeting and modulating metal-Ab species are necessary, along with a fundamental understanding of their mechanism at the molecular level. Herein, we investigated and compared the interactions and reactivities of the green tea extract, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate [(2R,3R)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-3-yl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate; EGCG], with metal [Cu(II) and Zn(II)]-Ab and metal-free Ab species. We found that EGCG interacted with metal-Ab species and formed small, unstructured Ab aggregates more noticeably than in metal-free conditions in vitro. In addition, upon incubation with EGCG, the toxicity presented by metal-free Ab and metal-Ab was mitigated in living cells. To understand this reactivity at the molecular level, structural insights were obtained by ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS), 2D NMR spectroscopy, and computational methods. These studies indicated that (i) EGCG was bound to Ab monomers and dimers, generating more compact peptide conformations than those from EGCG-untreated Ab species; and (ii) ternary EGCG-metal-Ab complexes were produced. Thus, we demonstrate the distinct antiamyloidogenic reactivity of EGCG toward metal-Ab species with a structure-based mechanism.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 5;110 (10):3743-8

Neural effects of green tea extract on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Green tea is being recognized as a beverage with potential benefits for human health and cognitive functions. In vivo studies provide preliminary evidence that green tea intake may have a positive role in improving effects on cognitive functions. We aimed to examine the neural effects of green tea extract on brain activation in humans. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was recorded while 12 healthy volunteers performed a working memory task following administration of 250 or 500 ml of a milk whey based green tea containing soft drink or milk whey based soft drink without green tea as control in a double-blind, controlled repeated measures within-subject design with counterbalanced order of substance administration. A whole-brain analysis with a cluster-level threshold of P<0.001 (unadjusted) was followed by an a priori-defined region of interest (ROI) analysis of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) including a cluster-level threshold of P<0.05 and family-wise error (FWE) adjustment for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Whole-brain analyses revealed no significant effects after correction for multiple comparisons (FWE P<0.05). Using a ROI approach, green tea extract increased activation in the DLPFC relative to a control condition (FWE P<0.001). This neural effect was related to green tea dosage. Green tea extract was not associated with any significant attenuation in regional activation relative to control condition. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that green tea extract may modulate brain activity in the DLPFC, a key area that mediates working memory processing in the human brain. Moreover, this is the first neuroimaging study implicating that functional neuroimaging methods provide a means of examining how green tea extract acts on the brain.

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov;66(11):1187-92

Green tea consumption and cognitive function: a cross-sectional study from the Tsurugaya Project 1.

BACKGROUND: Although considerable experimental and animal evidence shows that green tea may possess potent activities of neuroprotection, neurorescue, and amyloid precursor protein processing that may lead to cognitive enhancement, no human data are available. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between green tea consumption and cognitive function in humans. DESIGN: We analyzed cross-sectional data from a community-based Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) conducted in 2002. The subjects were 1003 Japanese subjects aged > or =70 y. They completed a self-administered questionnaire that included questions about the frequency of green tea consumption. We evaluated cognitive function by using the Mini-Mental State Examination with cutoffs of <28, <26, and <24 and calculated multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Higher consumption of green tea was associated with a lower prevalence of cognitive impairment. At the <26 cutoff, after adjustment for potential confounders, the ORs for the cognitive impairment associated with different frequencies of green tea consumption were 1.00 (reference) for < or =3 cups/wk, 0.62 (95% CI: 0.33, 1.19) for 4-6 cups/wk or 1 cup/d, and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.72) for > or =2 cups/d (P for trend = 0.0006). Corresponding ORs were 1.00 (reference), 0.60 (95% CI: 0.35, 1.02), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.55, 1.38) (P for trend = 0.33) for black or oolong tea and 1.00 (reference), 1.16 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.73), and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.80) (P for trend = 0.70) for coffee. The results were essentially the same at cutoffs of <28 and <24. CONCLUSION: A higher consumption of green tea is associated with a lower prevalence of cognitive impairment in humans.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb;83(2):355-61

Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) promotes neural progenitor cell proliferation and sonic hedgehog pathway activation during adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

SCOPE: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a lifelong feature of brain plasticity that appears to be critically involved in adult brain function and neurological disease. Recent studies suggest that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which is the main polyphenolic constituent of green tea, may be used for the prevention and treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases. We hypothesized that EGCG promotes adult neurogenesis, which may be beneficial to hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. METHODS AND RESULTS: We show that EGCG treatment significantly increased the number of 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells in adult hippocampal neural progenitor cell (NPC) cultures and in the dentate gyrus of adult mice. Meanwhile, EGCG markedly improved spatial cognition in mice. These events are associated with the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway. We observed that EGCG triggered a robust upregulation of Shh receptor (Patched) mRNA and protein expression in cultured NPCs as well as an upregulation of the downstream Shh transcriptional target Gli1. These changes were further confirmed in the hippocampus of mice administered EGCG. The blockage of the Shh signal with the pharmacological inhibitor cyclopamine attenuated EGCG-induced hippocampal neurogenesis. CONCLUSION: Our results provide strong evidence that EGCG enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Aug;56(8):1292-303

Green tea consumption and the risk of incident functional disability in elderly Japanese: the Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study.

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that green tea consumption is associated with a lower risk of diseases that cause functional disability, such as stroke, cognitive impairment, and osteoporosis. Although it is expected that green tea consumption would lower the risk of incident functional disability, this has never been investigated directly. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the association between green tea consumption and incident functional disability in elderly individuals. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study in 13,988 Japanese individuals aged ≥65 y. Information on daily green tea consumption and other lifestyle factors was collected via questionnaire in 2006. Data on functional disability were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database, in which subjects were followed up for 3 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to investigate the association between green tea consumption and functional disability. RESULTS: The 3-y incidence of functional disability was 9.4% (1316 cases). The multiple-adjusted HR (95% CI) of incident functional disability was 0.90 (0.77, 1.06) among respondents who consumed 1-2 cups green tea/d, 0.75 (0.64, 0.88) for those who consumed 3-4 cups/d, and 0.67 (0.57, 0.79) for those who consumed ≥5 cups/d in comparison with those who consumed <1 cup/d (P-trend < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Green tea consumption is significantly associated with a lower risk of incident functional disability, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Mar;95(3):732-9

Recent findings of green tea extract AR25 (Exolise) and its activity for the treatment of obesity.

The green tea extract AR25 is an 80% ethanolic dry extract standardized at 25% catechins expressed as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). In vitro, green tea extract AR25 exerts a direct inhibition of gastric and pancreatic lipases and a stimulation of thermogenesis. In an open study, the effects of extract AR25 were evaluated in moderately obese patients. After 3 months, body weight was decreased by 4.6% and waist circumference by 4.48%. These results suggest the green tea extract AR25 to be a natural product for the treatment of obesity, which exerts its activity by several ways: inhibition of lipases and stimulation of thermogenesis.

Phytomedicine. 2002 Jan;9(1):3-8

Mechanisms of hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects of tea and tea polyphenols.

Among the health-promoting effects of tea and tea polyphenols, the cancer-chemopreventive effects in various animal model systems have been intensively investigated; meanwhile, the hypolipidemic and antiobesity effects in animals and humans have also become a hot issue for molecular nutrition and food research. It has been demonstrated that the body weights of rats and their plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol have been significantly reduced by feedings of oolong, black, pu-erh, and green tea leaves to the animals. It has been suggested that the inhibition of growth and suppression of lipogenesis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells may be through down-regulation of fatty acid synthase gene expression in the nucleus and stimulation of cell energy expenditure in the mitochondria. The experimental data indicated that the molecular mechanisms of fatty acid synthase gene suppression by tea polyphenols (EGCG, theaflavins) may invite down-regulation of EGFR/PI3K/Akt/Sp-1 signal transduction pathways.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2006 Feb;50(2):211-7