Advances In Fish Oil Purity And PotencyOctober 2015
By William Faloon
When fish oil supplements were first introduced, the main questions consumers asked were whether the omega-3 oils were free of contaminants and rancidity.
These were valid concerns as certain cold-water fish can be laden with dangerous pollutants.
Since omega-3s are polyunsaturated fats, they rapidly degrade (oxidize) under normal conditions.
For some people, even the slightest amount of rancidity created digestive upsets that made taking fish oil supplements intolerable.
Consumers today are fortunate that they can obtain high-quality fish oil supplements that are virtually free of contaminants and oxidized fats.
In an interesting turn for the better, competitive forces have raised the quality bar even higher for omega-3 supplements.
This article reveals a new source of fish oil that provides a superior standard of potency and freshness.
Most people have, by now, heard of the health benefits available from consumption of cold-water fish and fish oil—among the best-known are cardiovascular protection1-10 and promotion of brain health.11-32
Emerging evidence shows that consumption of omega-3s provides an even wider spectrum of critical health benefits.6,14,33-59
In order to derive meaningful results from fish oil, a relatively high daily dose is needed.
We at Life Extension® have long argued that optimal supplemental intake of omega-3s should be around 2,400 mg of EPA/DHA per day.60
Regrettably, the average American consumes just 200 mg per day of active EPA and DHA —that’s less than one-tenth of the optimum dose.60
Most Consumers Unaware
A problem we uncovered several years ago is that even those supplementing with a product labeled “fish oil” often obtain insufficient amounts of EPA and DHA.
This happens because some fish oil promoters pretend that their low-potency products contain enough omega-3s to provide the benefits documented in the peer-reviewed published literature.
We only wish it were possible to fit the requisite EPA/DHA into one or two small capsules. The reality is that to obtain optimal potencies of omega-3s, one has to swallow four modest-size, highly-concentrated fish oil capsules daily with meals.
There is no way around this potency mandate, yet surveys that Life Extension has done with health-conscious individuals reveal they take far less EPA/DHA (on average) than is needed to derive the expected benefits.
What Makes Fish Oil Different Than Other Supplements?
When one looks are the expenses involved in harvesting, stabilizing, filtering, distilling, and standardizing quality fish oil, it is remarkable that it is not a high-priced nutrient.
Unlike low-cost supplements such as vitamin D, it is not yet possible to synthesize fish oil EPA/DHA. That means the nutrient has to be first fished from the ocean and then meticulously processed to obtain purified and stabilized omega-3 fatty acids.
There are several areas that consumers should be aware of in choosing a fish oil with the goal of optimizing their daily intake of EPA and DHA.
Fortunately, advanced stabilizing/distillation techniques are providing solutions to each of these areas.
Guarding Against Environmental Pollutants
Contamination has been an ongoing concern with health-conscious consumers.
Wild-living, oil-producing fish are exposed to environmental pollutants, some of which may become concentrated in the animals’ livers, the primary oil-providing organ.
These contaminants can include mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides, all of which have the potential to cause ill effects in humans.61,62
The latest fish oil harvesting strategy involves using fish obtained from pristine ocean waters that have lower levels of contaminants to begin with. A new source has been identified that uses fish obtained from Alaska’s Bering Sea, which then goes through extraordinary production measures to eliminate any concerns of contamination and rancidity.
Here is an overview of the eight steps used to produce ultra-purified fish oil with a higher EPA/DHA concentration:
- Upon harvesting from pristine Alaskan waters, the fish are kept in chilled seawater tanks to guard against initial degradation.
- The oil is carefully separated from the solid parts, quickly packed into oxygen-tight bags, and sent on to the EPA and DHA refining process.
- The initial pretreatment involves distillation of the raw fish oil to draw off any oxidation products, cholesterol, PCBs, and other environmental contaminants, yielding a purer starting product.
- A flash distillation technique is used to separate and concentrate the beneficial EPA and DHA from other fats, and further remove contaminants.
- A cold extraction process gently concentrates the fish oil to provide a higher percentage of EPA/DHA omega-3 fatty acids.
- A molecular distillation technique deodorizes fishy odor and taste, then further removes pollutants and any oxidation products.
- This double-distilled fish oil is then filtered to remove any residual dioxins, heavy metals, and chlorinated pollutants using an activated carbon filtration media.
- This ultra-purified fish oil is then packaged with inert gases such as argon to displace any residual oxygen, thus solidly protecting the long-term freshness during shipping and storage.
When looking at the relative low price for a bottle of quality fish oil softgels, one should salute the free market for being able to efficiently produce such a stabilized, purified, and standardized product that starts off with a material (cold-water fish) obtained from open natural sources.
Protecting Against Rancidity (Oxidation)
Assuring freshness of a fish oil supplement is always a challenge. That’s because polyunsaturated omega-3s are highly susceptible to oxidizing degradation.
Oxidation reduces the EPA/DHA potency of the oil, produces off-tastes and smells of rancid fats, and can generate free radicals in whoever ingests it.
A fish oil blend derived from pristine Alaskan coastal waters utilizes a multi step process to remain exceptionally fresh. The result is a fish oil that has a greater than 5-fold reduction in the upper level threshold measurement for oxidation, adding a new definition to the word “quality.”
A measurement of total oxidation value is used to assess the amount of oxidized fats permitted in a fish oil supplement. The maximum standard for quality fish oils for total oxidation value has been up to 26. A newly identified Alaskan-derived fish oil blend reduces the upper level threshold for this measure of rancidity down to 5.
Please know that total oxidation values up to 26 are safe and long established in the fish oil industry. Reducing this upper threshold down to 5 represents a major improvement in ensuring fish oil freshness and tolerability.
Another measurement of freshness looks at current oxidation levels by assaying for peroxides. Industry standards for quality fish oil permits up to a 5.0 milliequivalent per kilogram peroxide reading. This new Alaskan-derived fish oil blend reduces the maximum upper level threshold peroxide measure to a virtually nonexistent 1.0 milliequivalent per kilogram, with actual peroxide values measuring at a fraction of that limit.
The final analysis of fish oil freshness looks at past oxidation levels and measures of aldehyde production during handling and storage. This test measures anisidine levels and permits a maximum value of 20. The maximum anisidine standard of the new Alaskan-derived fish oil blend does not exceed 5.
These ultra-low oxidation standards are obtained by using only freshly caught fish, carefully removing all traces of oxidation through multiple refining processes, and then aggressively purging oxygen using nitrogen and argon gases to prevent rancidity from initiating in storage. This ensures an exceptionally fresh oil blend and a very long shelf-life.
This new level of freshness is especially important to those with gastric sensitivities to fish oil supplements. The extra-purification processes remove oxidation products that can help reduce the burping and other digestive discomforts that preclude some people from ingesting enough omega-3s.
This problem was especially evident in the 1980s-1990s when fish oil was not nearly as well-protected against rancidity as it is today. The latest purification processes described in this article will make fish oil more tolerable, and thus enable a greater percentage of the public to ingest this health promoting nutrient. (Those who remain hypersensitive to fish oil may continue using enteric-coated fish oil supplements.)
Ensuring Wild Fish Sustainability
Sustainability of wild fish stocks is a global concern, as overfishing threatens breeding populations. Major commercial fisheries like the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank Atlantic Cod fisheries have been overexploited, and they are now a mere shadow of their former abundance.63
Fisheries off the coast of Alaska remain robust because of the painful lessons learned through the collapse of the New England fisheries. These Alaskan fisheries are operated under the watchful guidance of the US Government and the State of Alaska.
They ensure that only US-flagged vessels and US-owned companies strictly follow the fishing quotas set by scientific surveys of the biomass. The Alaska Pollock fishery in particular is held up as the gold standard of responsible fisheries management around the world. This fishery is managed not for the short term, but to ensure that this abundant natural resource is available to provide healthful food for generations to come. Sustainable fisheries management is even written into the Alaska State Constitution!64
The Alaska Pollock currently exists in abundant populations that are not overexploited, permitting ample harvesting at just 50% of the Acceptable Biological Catch, meaning that plenty of breeding fish remain free to sustain and grow the entire biomass. The fishery is also managed to ensure that protected species like the Stellar Sea Lion are able to thrive in “no-catch” zones.65
Sustainability is not just concerned with the amount of fish that are caught from a fishery. A major impact to consider is what fish may end up in the net. Alaska Pollock are a tightly schooling fish that are captured with a very low-impact, mid-water catch technique.66
This fishing technique does not drag the bottom of the ocean indiscriminately, but is very specific, so that less than 1% of the total catch consists of other species.67
Furthermore, most of the non-target species are other sustainably managed Alaskan fish, such as Cod or Salmon, not birds, sea lions, seals, or other apex predators. Bycatch is a huge problem for the health of sustainable fisheries around the world.68
Indeed, because of the conservative management of the fishery, there has been a recent 60% increase in the total biomass of pollock, according to a 2014 statement by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).69
The explosion of scientific evidence favoring fish oil supplementation for heart, brain, and overall health has, until recently, outpaced the availability of highly concentrated, highly purified oils from sustainable sources.
This has left consumers with concerns about potential contaminants, freshness, and the long-term environmental impact of fish oil harvesting.
Novel manufacturing techniques coupled with sourcing fish only from certified sustainable fisheries in Alaska has now made it possible to choose clean, pure, fresh omega-3 oil for generations to come without fears for the environment.
For further information about the unique aspects of this newly available Alaskan-derived fish oil blend, see page 42.
If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension® Wellness Specialist at 1-866-864-3027.
- Bonafini S, Antoniazzi F, Maffeis C, Minuz P, Fava C. Beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA in children on cardiovascular risk factors during childhood and adolescence. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2015 Mar 30.
- Franzese CJ, Bliden KP, Gesheff MG, et al. Relation of fish oil supplementation to markers of atherothrombotic risk in patients with cardiovascular disease not receiving lipid-lowering therapy. Am J Cardiol. 2015 May 1;115(9):1204-11.
- Li X, Ballantyne LL, Che X, et al. Endogenously generated omega-3 Fatty acids attenuate vascular inflammation and neointimal hyperplasia by interaction with free Fatty Acid receptor 4 in mice. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015;4(4).
- Nestel P, Clifton P, Colquhoun D, et al. Indications for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid in the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease. Heart Lung Circ. 2015 Apr 3.
- Pase MP, Grima N, Cockerell R, et al. The effects of long-chain omega-3 fish oils and multivitamins on cognitive and cardiovascular function: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 2015;34(1):21-31.
- Pradhan AD, Manson JE. Update on the Vitamin D and OmegA-3 trial (VITAL). J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015 Apr 9.
- Shewale SV, Boudyguina E, Zhu X, et al. Botanical oils enriched in n-6 and n-3 fatty acid products of FADS2 are equally effective in preventing atherosclerosis and hepatosteatosis in mice. J Lipid Res. 2015 Apr 28.
- Speck N, Brandsch C, Schmidt N, et al. The Antiatherogenic Effect of Fish Oil in Male Mice Is Associated with a Diminished Release of Endothelial ADAM17 and ADAM10 Substrates. J Nutr. 2015Apr 29.
- Tong H, Rappold AG, Caughey M, et al. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers. Environ Health Perspect. 2015 May 1.
- Tremblay BL, Cormier H, Rudkowska I, Lemieux S, Couture P, Vohl MC. Association between polymorphisms in phospholipase A2 genes and the plasma triglyceride response to an n-3 PUFA supplementation: a clinical trial. Lipids Health Dis. 2015;14(1):12.
- Amen DG, Taylor DV, Ojala K, Kaur J, Willeumier K. Effects of brain-directed nutrients on cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological testing: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Adv Mind Body Med. 2013 Spring;27(2):24-33.
- Bauer I, Crewther DP, Pipingas A, Rowsell R, Cockerell R, Crewther SG. Omega-3 fatty acids modify human cortical visual processing--a double-blind, crossover study. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28214.
- Bauer I, Hughes M, Rowsell R, et al. Omega-3 supplementation improves cognition and modifies brain activation in young adults. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2014 Mar;29(2):133-44.
- Casali BT, Corona AW, Mariani MM, Karlo JC, Ghosal K, Landreth GE. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Augment the Actions of Nuclear Receptor Agonists in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. J Neurosci. 2015 Jun 17;35(24):9173-81.
- Gray P, Gabriel B, Thies F, Gray SR. Fish oil supplementation augments post-exercise immune function in young males. Brain Behav Immun. 2012 Nov;26(8):1265-72.
- Jackson PA, Reay JL, Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil modulates the cerebral hemodynamic response to cognitive tasks in healthy young adults. Biol Psychol. 2012 Jan;89(1):183-90.
- Jackson PA, Reay JL, Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. DHA-rich oil modulates the cerebral haemodynamic response to cognitive tasks in healthy young adults: a near IR spectroscopy pilot study. Br J Nutr. 2012 Apr;107(8):1093-8.
- Jaremka LM, Derry HM, Bornstein R, et al. Omega-3 supplementation and loneliness-related memory problems: secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial. Psychosom Med. 2014 Oct;76(8):650-8.
- Jerneren F, Elshorbagy AK, Oulhaj A, Smith SM, Refsum H, Smith AD. Brain atrophy in cognitively impaired elderly: the importance of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and B vitamin status in a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr 15.
- Lee LK, Shahar S, Chin AV, Yusoff NA. Docosahexaenoic acid-concentrated fish oil supplementation in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI): a 12-month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Feb;225(3):605-12.
- Meyer BJ, Byrne MK, Collier C, et al. Baseline omega-3 index correlates with aggressive and attention deficit disorder behaviours in adult prisoners. PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0120220.
- Narendran R, Frankle WG, Mason NS, Muldoon MF, Moghaddam B. Improved working memory but no effect on striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 after omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e46832.
- Nilsson A, Radeborg K, Salo I, Bjorck I. Effects of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognitive performance and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy 51 to 72 years old subjects: a randomized controlled cross-over study. Nutr J. 2012;11:99.
- Parletta N, Cooper P, Gent DN, Petkov J, O’Dea K. Effects of fish oil supplementation on learning and behaviour of children from Australian Indigenous remote community schools: a randomised controlled trial. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2013 Aug;89(2-3):71-9.
- Piermartiri TC, Pan H, Chen J, et al. Alpha-Linolenic Acid-Induced Increase in Neurogenesis is a Key Factor in the Improvement in the Passive Avoidance Task After Soman Exposure. Neuromolecular Med. 2015 Apr 29.
- Pusceddu MM, Kelly P, Ariffin N, Cryan JF, Clarke G, Dinan TG. n-3 PUFAs have beneficial effects on anxiety and cognition in female rats: Effects of early life stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 Aug;58:79-90.
- Shinto L, Quinn J, Montine T, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled pilot trial of omega-3 fatty acids and alpha lipoic acid in Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;38(1):111-20.
- Sinn N, Milte CM, Street SJ, et al. Effects of n-3 fatty acids, EPA v. DHA, on depressive symptoms, quality of life, memory and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2012 Jun;107(11):1682-93.
- Stonehouse W, Conlon CA, Podd J, et al. DHA supplementation improved both memory and reaction time in healthy young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May;97(5):1134-43.
- van der Meij BS, Langius JA, Spreeuwenberg MD, et al. Oral nutritional supplements containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect quality of life and functional status in lung cancer patients during multimodality treatment: an RCT. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Mar;66(3):399-404.
- Witte AV, Kerti L, Hermannstadter HM, et al. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function and structure in older adults. Cereb Cortex. 2014 Nov;24(11):3059-68.
- Yadav S, Mitha KV, Shenoy MT, Mayannavar S, Ganaraja B. Beneficial effect of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on neurosensorial impairments and oxidative status in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014 Oct-Dec;58(4):346-53.
- Arbabi L, Baharuldin MT, Moklas MA, Fakurazi S, Muhammad SI. Antidepressant-like effects of omega-3 fatty acids in postpartum model of depression in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2014 Sep 1;271:65-71.
- da Silva TM, Munhoz RP, Alvarez C, et al. Depression in Parkinson’s disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study of omega-3 fatty-acid supplementation. J Affect Disord. 2008 Dec;111(2-3):351-9.
- Lesperance F, Frasure-Smith N, St-Andre E, Turecki G, Lesperance P, Wisniewski SR. The efficacy of omega-3 supplementation for major depression: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Aug;72(8):1054-62.
- Meyer BJ, Grenyer BF, Crowe T, Owen AJ, Grigonis-Deane EM, Howe PR. Improvement of major depression is associated with increased erythrocyte DHA. Lipids. 2013 Sep;48(9):863-8.
- Pascoe MC, Howells DW, Crewther DP, Carey LM, Crewther SG. Fish oil supplementation associated with decreased cellular degeneration and increased cellular proliferation 6 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2015;11:153-64.
- Wang J, Shi Y, Zhang L, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance cerebral angiogenesis and provide long-term protection after stroke. Neurobiol Dis. 2014 Aug;68:91-103.
- Zendedel A, Habib P, Dang J, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorate neuroinflammation and mitigate ischemic stroke damage through interactions with astrocytes and microglia. J Neuroimmunol. 2015 Jan 15;278:200-11.
- Zhang W, Wang H, Zhang H, et al. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids robustly promotes neurovascular restorative dynamics and improves neurological functions after stroke. Exp Neurol. 2015 Mar 12.
- Devi KP, Rajavel T, Russo GL, Daglia M, Nabavi SF, Nabavi SM. Molecular Targets of Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Cancer Therapy. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2015 Apr 24.
- Fu YQ, Zheng JS, Yang B, Li D. Effect of individual omega-3 Fatty acids on the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Epidemiol. 2015 Apr 5;25(4):261-74.
- Hidaka BH, Li S, Harvey KE, et al. Omega-3 and omega-6 Fatty acids in blood and breast tissue of high-risk women and association with atypical cytomorphology. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015 May;8(5):359-64.
- Wang H, Li TL, Hsia S, Su IL, Chan YL, Wu CJ. Skeletal muscle atrophy is attenuated in tumor-bearing mice under chemotherapy by treatment with fish oil and selenium. Oncotarget. 2015 Apr 10;6(10):7758-73.
- Belchior T, Paschoal VA, Magdalon J, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids protect from diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, and adipose tissue inflammation through PPARgamma-dependent and PPARgamma-independent actions. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 May;59(5):957-67.
- Li D. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and non-communicable diseases: meta-analysis based systematic review. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2015;24(1):10-5.
- Liu YH, Li XY, Chen CY, Zhang HM, Kang JX. Omega-3 fatty acid intervention suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and weight loss in mice. Mar Drugs. 2015 Feb;13(2):1026-36.
- Molinar-Toribio E, Perez-Jimenez J, Ramos-Romero S, et al. Effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation at different EPA:DHA ratios on the spontaneously hypertensive obese rat model of the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr. 2015 Mar;113(6):878-87.
- Su HY, Lee HC, Cheng WY, Huang SY. A calorie-restriction diet supplemented with fish oil and high-protein powder is associated with reduced severity of metabolic syndrome in obese women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Mar;69(3):322-8.
- Venturini D, Simao AN, Urbano MR, Dichi I. Effects of extra virgin olive oil and fish oil on lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome. Nutrition. 2015 Jun;31(6):834-40.
- Bhattacharya A, Rahman M, Banu J, et al. Inhibition of osteoporosis in autoimmune disease prone MRL/Mpj-Fas(lpr) mice by N-3 fatty acids. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Jun;24(3):200-9.
- Halade GV, Rahman MM, Williams PJ, Fernandes G. Combination of conjugated linoleic acid with fish oil prevents age-associated bone marrow adiposity in C57Bl/6J mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2011 May;22(5):459-69.
- Kettler DB. Can manipulation of the ratios of essential fatty acids slow the rapid rate of postmenopausal bone loss? Altern Med Rev. 2001 Feb;6(1):61-77.
- Matsushita H, Barrios JA, Shea JE, Miller SC. Dietary fish oil results in a greater bone mass and bone formation indices in aged ovariectomized rats. J Bone Miner Metab. 2008;26(3):241-7.
- Ellulu MS, Khaza’ai H, Abed Y, Rahmat A, Ismail P, Ranneh Y. Role of fish oil in human health and possible mechanism to reduce the inflammation. Inflammopharmacology. 2015 Feb 14.
- Ferguson JF, Mulvey CK, Patel PN, et al. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation and the response to evoked endotoxemia in healthy volunteers. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Mar;58(3):601-13.
- Galet C, Gollapudi K, Stepanian S, et al. Effect of a low-fat fish oil diet on proinflammatory eicosanoids and cell-cycle progression score in men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 Jan;7(1):97-104.
- Laidlaw M, Holub BJ. Effects of supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids and gamma-linolenic acid on circulating plasma lipids and fatty acid profiles in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jan;77(1):37-42.
- Liperoti R, Landi F, Fusco O, Bernabei R, Onder G. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression: a review of the evidence. Curr Pharm Des. 2009;15(36):4165-72.
- Mayo Clinic. Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid. Drugs and Supplements [2013; http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/omega-3-fatty-acids-fish-oil-alpha-linolenic-acid/dosing/hrb-20059372. Accessed 5 August, 2015.
- Hong MY, Lumibao J, Mistry P, Saleh R, Hoh E. Fish Oil Contaminated with Persistent Organic Pollutants Reduces Antioxidant Capacity and Induces Oxidative Stress without Affecting Its Capacity to Lower Lipid Concentrations and Systemic Inflammation in Rats. J Nutr. 2015 May;145(5):939-44.
- Wenstrom KD. The FDA’s new advice on fish: it’s complicated. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Nov;211(5):475-78 e1.
- Available at: http://www.amnh.org/explore/science-bulletins/bio/documentaries/will-the-fish-return/the-sorry-story-of-georges-bank and http://www.fishwatch.gov/seafood_profiles/species/cod/species_pages/atlantic_cod.htm).Accessed on August 15, 2015.
- Available at: http://ltgov.alaska.gov/Mallott/services/alaska-constitution/article-viii-96A0natural-resources.html. Accessed August 15, 2015.
- Available at: http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/sustainablefisheries/sslpm/. Accessed on August 15, 2015.
- Available at: https://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/gulf-of-alaska-pollock. Accessed on August 15, 2015.
- Available at: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/by_catch/National_Bycatch_Report/2011/4_3_AlaskaRegion.pdf. Accessed August 15, 2015.
- Available at: http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/blue_planet/problems/problems_fishing/fisheries_ management/bycatch222/. Accessed August 15, 2015.
- Available at: http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/newsreleases/2014/pollock092414.htm. Accessed August 15, 2015.