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X-R Shield, Chlorophyllin, Benfotiamine, and FlorAssist Throat Health

December 2015

By Life Extension

X-R Shield

Radiation sensitivity of human and murine peripheral blood lymphocytes, stem and progenitor cells.

Immunodeficiency is a severe side effect of radiation therapy, notably at high radiation doses. It may also impact healthy individuals exposed to environmental ionizing radiation. Although it is believed to result from cytotoxicity of bone marrow cells and of immunocompetent cells in the peripheral blood, the response of distinct bone marrow and blood cell subpopulations following exposure to ionizing radiation is not yet fully explored. In this review, we aim to compile the knowledge on radiation sensitivity of immunocompetent cells and to summarize data from bone marrow and peripheral blood cells derived from mouse and human origin. In addition, we address the radiation response of blood stem and progenitor cells. The data indicate that stem cells, T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, monocytes, neutrophils and, at a high degree, B cells display a radiation sensitive phenotype while regulatory T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and natural killer cells appear to be more radioresistant. No conclusive data are available for basophil and eosinophil granulocytes. Erythrocytes and thrombocytes, but not their precursors, seem to be highly radioresistant. Overall, the data indicate considerable differences in radiosensitivity of bone marrow and blood normal and malignant cell populations, which are discussed in the light of differential radiation responses resulting in hematotoxicity and related clinical implications.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Aug;1846(1): 121-9

Evaluation of two natural extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.) as antioxidants in cooked pork patties packed in MAP.

Two natural extracts, from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.; Nutrox) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Meliox) showing a potential antioxidant activity, have been evaluated and compared with a synthetic antioxidant (Butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT) and a control batch. Pork meat patties were made by addition of the mentioned compounds, cooked and packed in modified atmosphere and stored under illumination for 6 days. A descriptive sensory analysis was also conducted. The patties with natural extracts showed higher a*-values (P<0.001) than control and BHT samples. Cooked pork hardness was the lowest for Meliox batch after 0 and 3 days of storage in comparison with the rest of the batches. Nutrox batch showed the lowest TBARS values and hexanal content (P<0.05) throughout the storage period. The batches with natural antioxidants produced the highest concentrations of free thiol groups after 0 and 3 days. Differences in sensory attributes among batches were not detected by the judge panel.

Meat Sci. 2011 Jul;88(3):481-8

Effects of Melissa officinalis L. on oxidative status and DNA damage in subjects exposed to long-term low-dose ionizing radiation.

The aim of this study was to determine the capability of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm) infusion on improvement of oxidative stress status in radiology staff that were exposed to persistent low-dose radiation during work. The study was a before-after clinical trial performed on 55 radiology staff. They were asked to drink Lemon balm infusion which was prepared like a tea bag twice daily (1.5 g/100 mL) for 30 days. In the plasma, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, catalase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase, and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured before and after using Lemon balm infusion.Use of Lemon balm infusion in radiology unit workers resulted in a significant improvement in plasma levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase and a marked reduction in plasma DNA damage, myeloperoxidase, and lipid peroxidation. It is concluded that infusion of Lemon balm markedly improve oxidative stress condition and DNA damage in radiology staff when used as a dietary supplement for radiation protection.

Toxicol Ind Health. 2011 Apr;27(3):205-12

Chemo- and radio-protective effects of polysaccharide of Spirulina platensis on hemopoietic system of mice and dogs.

AIM: To observe polysaccharide of Spirulina platensis (PSp) on the hematopoietic system of mouse and dogs which were damaged by injection of cyclophosphamide (CTX) and 60Co-gamma irradiation. METHODS: CTX and 60Co gamma ray were used to induce bone marrow damage, and the experimental animals were ig with different dose of PSp in vivo, after 12-d and 21-d administration, the whole blood cells and nucleated cells in bone marrow were measured, and the DNA in bone marrow were inspected by UV-spectrophotometer. RESULTS: CTX and 60Co-gamma irradiation induced hemopoietic system damage in mice and dogs, respectively. PSp 30, 60 mg/kg increased the level of the white cells in blood and nucleated cells and DNA in bone marrow in mice but had no effects on red cells and hemoglobins. PSp 12 mg/kg increased the level of red cells, white cells, and hemoglobins in blood and nucleated cells in bone marrow in dogs (P < 0.01), and the effects of PSp 60 mg/kg were better than that of berbamine hydrochloride 60 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: PSp has chemo-protective and radio-protective capability, and may be a potential adjunct to cancer therapy.

Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001 Dec;22(12):1121-4

8-hydroxy-2-desoxyguanosine serum concentrations as a marker of DNA damage in patients with classical galactosaemia.

BACKGROUND: Classical galactosaemia is caused by a deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase, resulting in high galactose (Gal), galactose-1-phosphate (Gal-1-P) and galactitol blood levels. Galactose/lactose restriction intake is the only treatment. 8-hydroxy-2-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is a marker of oxidized DNA damage. AIM: Since galactosaemia outcome is closely related to restriction of Gal intake, we aimed to evaluate correlations between Gal-1-P, total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-OHdG blood levels in galactosaemic patients on poor or strict diet. METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained from galactosaemic patients (n = 11) on poor diet (group A) and after 30 d on strict diet (group B). Twenty-eight healthy children were the controls. Gal-1-P and TAS were evaluated in their blood spectrophotometrically and 8-OHdG with an immunoassay. RESULTS: TAS was significantly decreased (905 +/- 112 micromol/l) in patients on a “loose diet” (group A) as compared to those when restored to their diet (group B) (1,340 +/- 112 micromol/l, p < 0.001) and controls (1,558 +/- 115 micromol/l, p < 0.001). As expected, Gal-1-P levels were remarkably increased in group A. 8-OHdG level was twofold higher (0.25 +/- 0.03 ng/ml) in group A than that of group B (0.11 +/- 0.04 ng/ml) and threefold higher than that of the controls (0.08 +/- 0.02 ng/ml). TAS and Gal-1-P inversely correlated to 8-OHdG (r= -0.802, p < 0.001), whereas Gal-1-P positively correlated to 8-OHdG (r = 0.820, p < 0.001) in all the groups. CONCLUSION: a) Low TAS and high Gal-1-P levels are implicated with high 8-OHdG blood levels in galactosaemic patients; b) 8-OHdG may be a sensitive biomarker of DNA damage in patients with classical galactosaemia.

Acta Paediatr. 2006 Feb;95(2):164-9

Ginkgo biloba attenuates oxidative stress in macrophages and endothelial cells.

The action of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) as an antioxidant was studied using various models of oxidative stress in macrophages and vascular endothelial cells. GBE was incubated with murine macrophages (J774) at 37 degrees C and 5% CO2 for 1 h; oxidative burst was triggered by zymosan. The intensity of fluorescence was measured directly in 96-well plates using a computerized microplate fluorometer at 485 nm excitation and 530 nm emission. GBE exhibited both time- and concentration-dependent suppression of oxidative burst. Confluent monolayers of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) were preincubated with different concentrations of GBE for 16 h, washed, and then exposed to an organic oxidant tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) for 2 h. Lipid peroxidation products of PAEC were determined by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Cell injury was assessed by measuring the release of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cell viability was determined by the methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. tBHP increased production of TBARS in PAEC. Preincubation with GBE inhibited the increase of TBARS induced by tBHP. GBE protected biomembranes from oxidative injury by decreasing intracellular LDH leakage from PAEC. MTT assay showed that GBE minimized loss of cell viability induced by oxidative injury. The extensive antioxidant effect of GBE may be valuable to the prevention and treatment of various disorders related to free radical-induced pathology.

Free Radic Biol Med . 1996;20(1):121-7

Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in Graves’ disease patients receiving radioiodine therapy.

BACKGROUND: Chromosomal damage, as assessed by clastogenic factors (CFs) and micronuclei (MN) appearance, after radioiodine therapy of Graves’ disease has been reported. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) supplementation on the time course (up to 120 d) of CFs and MN appearance in lymphocytes from patients with Graves’ disease after iodine-131 ((131)I) therapy. Patients were randomly assigned to EGb 761 or placebo, in a blinded manner. RESULTS: In the placebo group, MN increased early (P < 0.001) after (131)I, peaking at the 21st day (P = 0.0003) and declining thereafter. In EGb 761-treated patients, MN increased early (P < 0.05), while returning toward baseline value thereafter. Therefore, mean MN increment was significantly higher in the placebo group as compared with EGb 761-treated patients (P < 0.01). Moreover, an early (P < 0.0001) and sustained (up to 35 d; P < 0.001) MN increase induced by CFs was observed in the placebo group. Conversely, in EGb 761-treated patients, MN increase induced by CFs never reached the statistical significance; therefore, the mean of the MN increments was significantly lower than in placebo (P < 0.05). A significant positive correlation between MN maximum increment and the bone marrow dose was observed in the placebo group only (P = 0.03). No significant difference was observed in clinical outcome between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: EGb 761 supplementation neutralized genotoxic damage induced by radioiodine treatment, without affecting the clinical outcome. Although (131)I therapy is generally safe, our data suggest that Gingko biloba extracts may prevent genetic effects of radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroid Graves’ disease.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 2007 Nov;92(11): 4286-9

Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract.

Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 of 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study (I. Emerit et al., J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 120, 558-561, 1994). In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation.

Radiat Res . 1995 Nov;144(2):198-205

Radiation-induced clastogenic factors: anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract.

Clastogenic factors (CFs) were first described in the blood of persons irradiated accidentally or for therapeutic reasons. Work of our laboratory has shown that they occur also under other circumstances, which are characterized by oxidative stress, and that CF-induced chromosome damage is regularly prevented by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Recently we found CFs in a high percentage of salvage personnel of the Chernobyl reactor accident. These liquidators represent a high-risk population and might benefit from cancer chemoprevention by antioxidants. SOD would have to be injected and is not appropriate for long-term prophylactic treatment. In the present study, we therefore evaluated the anticlastogenic effect of the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761, which is known for its superoxide scavenging properties. EGb 761 was tested on CF-treated blood cultures of healthy donors. After establishing the optimal protective EGb concentration, using CFs produced by irradiation of whole blood from healthy volunteers, the extract was tested on cultures exposed to CFs from plasma of persons irradiated as liquidators. The anticlastogenic effect could be confirmed for a final concentration of 100 micrograms/ml. In 12 consecutive experiments, CFs induced an average of 18.00 +/- 4.41 aberrations/100 cells. This was reduced to 7.33 +/- 3.08 in the parallel cultures receiving 100 micrograms/ml EGb 761 (p < .001). SOD was anticlastogenic in the same system at concentrations of 30 cytochrome C units/ml (approximately 10 micrograms/ml). Preliminary results obtained in a small series of liquidators showed regression or complete disappearance of CFs in the plasma after 2 months of treatment with EGb 761 (3 x 40 mg/d).

Free Radic Biol Med . 1995 Jun;18(6):985-91

Clastogenic factors as potential biomarkers of increased superoxide production.

The formation of clastogenic factors (CF) and their damaging effects are mediated by superoxide, since superoxide dismutase is regularly protective. CF are produced via superoxide and stimulate the production of superoxide by monocytes and neutrophils. This results in a selfsustaining and longlasting process of clastogenesis, which may exceed the DNA repair system and ultimately lead to cancer (Emerit, 1994). An increased cancer risk is indeed observed in conditions accompanied by CF formation. These include irradiated persons, patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, HIV-infected persons and the chromosomal breakage syndromes ataxia telangiectasia, Bloom’s syndrome and Fanconi’s anemia. Biochemical analysis has identified lipid peroxidation products, arachidonic acid metabolites, nucleotides of inosine and cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor alpha, as the clastogenic and also superoxide stimulating components of CF. Due to their chromosome damaging effects, these oxidants can be detected with classical cytogenetic techniques. Their synergistic action renders the CF-test particularly sensitive for the detection of a pro-oxidant state. Correlations were observed between CF and other biomarkers of oxidative stress such as decreases in total plasma thiols or increases in TBARS or chemiluminescence. Correlations between CF and disease activity, between CF and radiation exposure, suggest the study of CF for monitoring these conditions. CF may also be useful as biochemical markers and intermediate endpoints for the evaluation of promising antioxidant drugs.CF formation represents a link between chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. Prophylactic use of superoxide scavengers as anticarcinogens is therefore suggested.

Biomark Insights. 2007 Dec 11;2:429-38