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CoQ10 and Selenium, Diabetes/cardiovascular disease Conferences, Tocotrienols, and blood sugar

October 2016

CoQ10 and Selenium

Reduced Cardiovascular Mortality 10 Years after Supplementation with Selenium and Coenzyme Q10 for Four Years: Follow-Up Results of a Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial in Elderly Citizens.

BACKGROUND: Selenium and coenzyme Q10 are important antioxidants in the body. As the intake of selenium is low in Europe, and the endogenous production of coenzyme Q10 decreases as age increases, an intervention trial using selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years was performed. As previously reported, the intervention was accompanied by reduced cardiovascular mortality. The objective of the present study was to analyze cardiovascular mortality for up to 10 years after intervention, to evaluate if mortality differed in subgroups differentiated by gender, diabetes, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and functional class. METHODS: Four-hundred forty-three healthy elderly individuals were included from a rural municipality in Sweden. All cardiovascular mortality was registered, and no participant was lost to the follow-up. Based on death certificates and autopsy results mortality was registered. FINDINGS: Significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality could be seen in those on selenium and coenzyme Q10 intervention. A multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated a reduced cardiovascular mortality risk in the active treatment group (HR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.36–0.74; P = 0.0003). The reduced mortality could be seen to persist during the 10-year period. Subgroup analysis showed positive effects in both genders. An equally positive risk reduction could be seen in those with ischemic heart disease (HR: 0.51; 95% CI 0.27–0.97; P = 0.04), but also in the different functional classes. CONCLUSIONS: In a 10-year follow-up of a group of healthy elderly participants given four years of intervention with selenium and coenzyme Q10, significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality was observed. The protective action was not confined to the intervention period, but persisted during the follow-up period. The mechanism explaining the persistency remains to be elucidated. Since this was a small study, the observations should be regarded as hypothesis-generating.

PLoS One. 2015 12/01

Cardiovascular mortality and N-terminal-proBNP reduced after combined selenium and coenzyme Q10 supplementation: a 5-year prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial among elderly Swedish citizens.

BACKGROUND: Selenium and coenzyme Q10 are essential for the cell. Low cardiac contents of selenium and coenzyme Q10 have been shown in patients with cardiomyopathy, but inconsistent results are published on the effect of supplementation of the two components separately. A vital relationship exists between the two substances to obtain optimal function of the cell. However, reports on combined supplements are lacking. METHODS: A 5-year prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial among Swedish citizens aged 70 to 88 was performed in 443 participants given combined supplementation of selenium and coenzyme Q10 or a placebo. Clinical examinations, echocardiography and biomarker measurements were performed. Participants were monitored every 6th month throughout the intervention. The cardiac biomarker N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) and echocardiographic changes were monitored and mortalities were registered. End-points of mortality were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazard ratios were adjusted for potential confounding factors. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were applied. RESULTS: During a follow up time of 5.2 years a significant reduction of cardiovascular mortality was found in the active treatment group vs. the placebo group (5.9% vs. 12.6%; P=0.015). NT-proBNP levels were significantly lower in the active group compared with the placebo group (mean values: 214 ng/L vs. 302 ng/L at 48 months; P=0.014). In echocardiography a significant better cardiac function score was found in the active supplementation compared to the placebo group (P=0.03). CONCLUSION: Long-term supplementation of selenium/coenzyme Q10 reduces cardiovascular mortality. The positive effects could also be seen in NT-proBNP levels and on echocardiography.

Int J Cardiol. 2013 Sep 1; 167(5): 1860-1866.

Oral coenzyme Q10 supplementation improves clinical symptoms and recovers pathologic alterations in blood mononuclear cells in a fibromyalgia patient.

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome with unknown etiology. Recent studies have shown evidence demonstrating that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress may have a role in the pathophysiology of FM. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and a strong antioxidant. Low CoQ10 levels have been detected in patients with FM, and a significant decrease of clinical symptoms has been reported after oral CoQ10 supplementation. In this report, we show the effect of CoQ10 treatment on clinical symptoms, blood mononuclear cells, and mitochondrial and oxidative stress markers from a woman with FM. After CoQ10 treatment, the patient reported a significant improvement of clinical symptoms. At the cellular level, CoQ10 treatment restored mitochondrial dysfunction and the mtDNA copy number, decreased oxidative stress, and increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Our results suggest that CoQ10 could be an alternative therapeutic approach for FM.

Nutrition. 2012 Nov-Dec; 28(11-12): 1200-1203.

Increased bioavailability of ubiquinol compared to that of ubiquinone is due to more efficient micellarization during digestion and greater GSH-dependent uptake and basolateral secretion by Caco-2 cells.

The oral bioavailability of ubiquinol recently has been reported to be greater than that of ubiquinone in healthy adults. The basis for this influence of redox state of coenzyme Q (CoQ) on bioavailability has been investigated using the coupled in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Solubilized ubiquinol and ubiquinone were added to yogurt and subjected to simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion. Partitioning of CoQ in mixed micelles during small intestinal digestion was significantly greater during digestion of yogurt enriched with ubiquinol. Similarly, apical uptake from mixed micelles and transepithelial transport of CoQ by Caco-2 cells were significantly greater after digestion of the ubiquinol-rich yogurt compared to digested ubiquinone-rich yogurt. Reduction of cellular GSH significantly decreased cell uptake and basolateral secretion of both ubiquinol and ubiquinone, although the adverse impact was much greater for ubiquinol. These data suggest that the enhanced bioaccessibility and bioavailability of ubiquinol compared to ubiquinone results from reduced coenzyme being more efficiently incorporated into mixed micelles during digestion and its greater uptake and basolateral secretion in a glutathione-dependent mechanism.

J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Jul 23; 62(29): 7174-7182.

Ubiquinol-10 ameliorates mitochondrial encephalopathy associated with CoQ deficiency.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency (MIM 607426) causes a mitochondrial syndrome with variability in the clinical presentations. Patients with CoQ10 deficiency show inconsistent responses to oral ubiquinone-10 supplementation, with the highest percentage of unsuccessful results in patients with neurological symptoms (encephalopathy, cerebellar ataxia or multisystemic disease). Failure in the ubiquinone-10 treatment may be the result of its poor absorption and bioavailability, which may be improved by using different pharmacological formulations. In a mouse model (Coq9(X/X)) of mitochondrial encephalopathy due to CoQ deficiency, we have evaluated oral supplementation with water-soluble formulations of reduced (ubiquinol-10) and oxidized (ubiquinone-10) forms of CoQ10. Our results show that CoQ10 was increased in all tissues after supplementation with ubiquinone-10 or ubiquinol-10, with the tissue levels of CoQ10 with ubiquinol-10 being higher than with ubiquinone-10. Moreover, only ubiquinol-10 was able to increase the levels of CoQ10 in mitochondria from cerebrum of Coq9(X/X) mice. Consequently, ubiquinol-10 was more efficient than ubiquinone-10 in increasing the animal body weight and CoQ-dependent respiratory chain complex activities, and reducing the vacuolization, astrogliosis and oxidative damage in diencephalon, septum-striatum and, to a lesser extent, in brainstem. These results suggest that water-soluble formulations of ubiquinol-10 may improve the efficacy of CoQ10 therapy in primary and secondary CoQ10 deficiencies, other mitochondrial diseases and neurodegenerative diseases.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Jul; 1842(7): 893-901.

Redox Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiovascular Diseases.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), a major cause of mortality in the world, has been extensively studied over the past decade. However, the exact mechanism underlying its pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in the progression of CVD. Particularly, ROS are commonly engaged in developing typical characteristics of atherosclerosis, one of the dominant CVDs. This review will discuss the involvement of ROS in atherosclerosis, specifically their effect on inflammation, disturbed blood flow and arterial wall remodeling. Pharmacological interventions target ROS in order to alleviate oxidative stress and CVD symptoms, yet results are varied due to the paradoxical role of ROS in CVD. Lack of effectiveness in clinical trials suggests that understanding the exact role of ROS in the pathophysiology of CVD and developing novel treatments, such as antioxidant gene therapy and nanotechnology-related antioxidant delivery, could provide a therapeutic advance in treating CVDs. While genetic therapies focusing on specific antioxidant expression seem promising in CVD treatments, multiple technological challenges exist precluding its immediate clinical applications.

Int J Mol Sci. 2015 16(11): 27770-27780.

Effect of selenium and Q10 on the cardiac biomarker NT-proBNP.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the effect of 48-month usage of coenzyme Q10 and selenium on cardiac function was different for participants with different levels of cardiac wall tension as measured by plasma levels of N-terminal natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) at baseline. METHODS: A 48-month randomized double-blind controlled trial in a cohort of community-dwelling elderly (mean age 78 years) was carried out. A total of 443 participants were given coenzyme Q10 combined with selenium, or a placebo. NT-proBNP measured at baseline and 48 months was used to evaluate the cardiac wall tension. RESULTS: After 48 months, supplementation of coenzyme Q10 and selenium had varying impacts depending on the severity of impairment of cardiac function. Analyses of the responses in the different quintiles of baseline NT-proBNP showed that those with active supplementation, and a plasma level of NT-proBNP in the second to fourth quintiles demonstrated significantly reduced NT-proBNP levels (p = 0.022) as well as cardiovascular mortality after 48 months (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Long-term supplementation of coenzyme Q10/selenium reduces NT-proBNP levels and cardiovascular mortality in those with baseline NT-proBNP in the second to fourth quintiles indicating those who gain from supplementation are patients with mild to moderate impaired cardiac function.

Scand Cardiovasc J. 2013 Oct; 47(5): 281-288.

Improved Health-Related Quality of Life, and More Days out of Hospital with Supplementation with Selenium and Coenzyme Q10 Combined. Results from a Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Prospective Study.

BACKGROUND: The impact of supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on health-care usage and health-related quality of life (Hr-QoL) in community-dwelling elderly people has, to our knowledge, not previously been investigated. AIM: To investigate the effect of 48 months supplementation with CoQ10 and selenium on community-dwelling elderly as regards: (I) the number of days out of hospital, and (II) the effect on Hr-QoL. METHODS: A 48-month double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out. A total of 443 participants were given CoQ10 and organic selenium yeast combined, or a placebo. All admissions to the Department of Internal Medicine or Cardiology were evaluated. Hr-QoL were measured with the Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Cardiac Health Profile (CHP) and one item overall-quality of life (overall-QoL). RESULTS: A total of 206 participants were evaluated after 48 months. No changes were found in the number of days out of hospital or Hr-QoL. A sub-analysis of participants matched for age, gender and baseline cardiac wall tension as measured by NT-proBNP was performed. The mean number of days out of hospital was 1,779 for those taking the active substance compared to 1,533 for those taking the placebo (p=0.03). Those with active substance declined significantly less in the HR-QoL domains of physical role performance (p=0.001), vitality (p=0.001), physical component score (p=0.001), overall QoL (p=0.001), somatic dimension (p=0.001), conative dimension (p=0.001) and global function (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: In a match-group analysis selenium and CoQ10 increased the number of days out of hospital and slowed the deterioration in Hr-QoL.

J Nutr Health Aging. 2015 Nov; 19(9): 870-877.

Comparison study of plasma coenzyme Q10 levels in healthy subjects supplemented with ubiquinol versus ubiquinone.

The bioavailability of the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinol) was compared to oxidized coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) with identical soft gel capsule excipients by measuring steady state plasma coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) levels in 12 healthy volunteers. After baseline levels of ubiquinol, ubiquinone, total CoQ10 , alpha-tocopherol, and total cholesterol were obtained, follow-up lab work was performed after 4 weeks of 200 mg/day of ubiquinone, after 4 weeks washout, and after 4 weeks of 200 mg/day of ubiquinol. Plasma total CoQ10 increased from 0.9 to 2.5 microg/mL (P < 0.001) after 4 weeks of ubiquinone and increased from 0.9 to 4.3 microg/mL (P < 0.001) after 4 weeks of ubiquinol. Total CoQ10 /cholesterol ratio increased from 0.2 to 0.7 micromol/mmol after 4 weeks of ubiquinone and increased from 0.2 to 1.2 micromol/mmol after 4 weeks of ubiquinol. Both the increase in plasma CoQ10 and the increase in CoQ10 /cholesterol ratio were significantly better after ubiquinol (P < 0.005 and P < 0.001, respectively) than after ubiquinone indicating superior bioavailability. Plasma ubiquinol/total CoQ10 ratio increased from baseline during ubiquinol supplementation (P < 0.005) and remained unchanged after ubiquinone supplementation. No side effects were noted in this study.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev. 2014 Jan; 3(1): 13-17.

Coenzyme Q10 supplementation reduces oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzyme activity in patients with coronary artery disease.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: This was an intervention study. Patients who were identified by cardiac catheterization as having at least 50% stenosis of one major coronary artery or receiving percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (n = 51) were randomly assigned to the placebo group (n = 14) or one of the two coenzyme Q10-supplemented groups (60 mg/d, n = 19 [Q10-60 group]; 150 mg/d, n = 18 [Q10-150 group]). Intervention was administered for 12 wk. Patients’ blood samples were analyzed every 4 wk for plasma coenzyme Q10 concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme (catalase [CAT], superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase) activity. RESULTS: Forty-three subjects with CAD completed intervention study. Plasma coenzyme Q10 concentration increased significantly after coenzyme the Q10-150 intervention (P < 0.01). The MDA levels were significantly lower than baseline in the Q10-150 group at week 4 (P = 0.03). The Q10-150 group had significantly lower MDA levels than the placebo group at week 8 (P = 0.03). With respect to antioxidant enzyme activity, subjects in the Q10-150 group had significantly higher CAT (P = 0.03) and SOD (P = 0.03) activity than the placebo group at week 12. The plasma coenzyme Q10 concentration was significantly correlated with MDA levels (r = -0.35, P = 0.02) and CAT (r = 0.43, P = 0.01) and SOD activity (r = 0.39, P = 0.01). The ratio of plasma coenzyme Q10 to total cholesterol was significantly correlated with SOD activity (r = 0.39, P = 0.02). The ratio of plasma coenzyme Q10 to low-density lipoprotein was significantly correlated with CAT (r = 0.35, P = 0.04) and SOD (r = 0.45, P = 0.01) activity. However, there was no relation between coenzyme Q10 concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. CONCLUSION: Coenzyme Q10 supplements at a dose of 150 mg can decrease oxidative stress and increase antioxidant enzyme activity in patients with CAD. A higher dose of coenzyme Q10 supplements (>150 mg/d) might promote rapid and sustainable antioxidation in patients with CAD.

Nutrition. 2012 Mar; 28(3): 250-255.