Will Magnesium Become the Next Vitamin D?December 2016
By William Faloon
Vitamin D has emerged as a nutrient with astonishing value in disease prevention. Its low cost enables virtually everyone to supplement with enough potency to obtain broad-spectrum benefits.
Magnesium has similar attributes since it provides robust health effects, costs very little, and most Americans don’t get enough.
The best way to summarize vitamin D is that people who are deficient suffer more degenerative illness and premature death. The same holds true for magnesium.
Scientists recognize magnesium mostly as it relates to protection against cardiovascular disorders. Higher magnesium intake is associated with reduced risks of sudden cardiac death,1-3 stroke,4-6 type II diabetes,7-9 asthma,10 metabolic syndrome,11,12 heart disease,13,14 hypertension,15-19 and osteoporosis.20,21
What few publications discuss are findings showing cancer risk reductions in those who ingest higher amounts of magnesium.22-24
The challenge when assessing dietary magnesium intake is the inconsistency of the amount of magnesium contained in food.
Magnesium is not manufactured inside plants like disease-fighting polyphenols. This means the quantity of dietary magnesium is largely dictated by the amount of magnesium in the soil the food is grown in, or the mineral content of the water one drinks, both of which are highly variable.
In a landmark human study, there were marked reductions in pancreatic cancer risk in those who ingested higher amounts of magnesium primarily in dietary supplements. Other studies show colon cancer risk reductions in response to higher magnesium intake.
The totality of evidence supporting magnesium’s systemic benefits may soon transform this mineral into the next vitamin D as far as widespread public use is concerned.
This is great news for Americans, who face a phalanx of degenerative disorders that magnesium has been shown to protect against. It’s regrettable that it has taken so long for this realization to manifest.
Before the sun sets today, about 145 Americans will learn they have pancreatic cancer.25 It will likely be the worst day of their lives.
There are no “good” treatment options. The newly diagnosed cancer patient faces a litany of “bad” choices that are unlikely to be curative, but will inflict horrific side effects.
In recognition of lack of curative therapies, Life Extension Foundation® is funding clinical studies aimed at identifying better treatments for this malignancy that kills more than 40,000 Americans every year.25
Until a treatment breakthrough emerges, the best way to avoid becoming a casualty of pancreatic cancer is to not develop it in the first place.
Diabetics at Higher Risk for Pancreatic Cancer
A high percentage of pancreatic cancer patients also have type II diabetes.26-28 Research has shown that about 80% of pancreatic cancer patients had diabetes or glucose intolerance upon their cancer diagnosis.29,30
These findings support current research showing elevated cancer risks in people with higher blood glucose levels.31 In response to excess glucose, more insulin is secreted, which in turn fuels growth of malignant cells.32
An interesting finding we reported several years ago showed that type II diabetics that used the drug metformin had a 62% lower pancreatic cancer risk compared to those who had not taken the drug.33 One of metformin’s properties is to improve insulin sensitivity by activating a cell-energy enzyme, AMPK.34
The risk of contracting type II diabetes is lower in those with higher intakes of magnesium. A meta-analysis of human studies found that for every 100 mg increase in magnesium intake, risk of developing type II diabetes decreased by 15%.7
This understanding has led researchers to investigate whether people who consume more magnesium have lower pancreatic cancer incidence.
Higher Magnesium Intake Lowers Pancreatic Cancer Risk
A landmark study meticulously evaluated data from a large group of adults and found that a modest increase in assessed magnesium intake from a combination of diet and supplements resulted in profound reductions in pancreatic cancer risk.35
What struck us about this study’s findings is that it did not require a large amount of additional magnesium to produce a meaningful reduction in pancreatic cancer risk.
Researchers found that pancreatic cancer risk increased by 24% for every 100 mg decrease in magnesium intake below the recommended daily allowance (RDA). For example, an individual with a daily magnesium intake of 200 mg has a 24% increased risk of pancreatic cancer compared to a person who ingests 300 mg a day. Both of these intakes (200 mg and 300 mg a day) of magnesium are considered deficient even by government standards.
This study, published in late 2015, evaluated data from the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) trial involving more than 66,000 men and women aged 50-76 years who were followed for an eight-year period. The subjects were divided into the following three groups based upon their magnesium intake:
- Optimal Intake - Defined as ingesting greater or equal to 100% of the government RDA for magnesium (420 mg a day for males and 320 mg a day for females)
- Sub-optimal Intake - Daily intake of 75% to 99% of the government RDA for magnesium
- Deficient Intake - Less than 75% of the government RDA for magnesium (less than 315 mg a day for males and less than 240 mg a day for females)
Those who ingested 75%-99% of the government’s RDA for magnesium (sub-optimal intake) had a 42% greater risk of pancreatic cancer incidence compared with those ingesting greater than or equal to 100% of the magnesium RDA.
Those who ingested less than 75% of the government’s RDA for magnesium (deficient intake) had a striking 76% greater risk of pancreatic cancer incidence compared to those whose intake of magnesium was equal to or greater than the government’s (optimal intake) RDA.
When analyzing those who met or exceeded the government’s RDA for total magnesium intake, only those who took dietary supplements containing magnesium were able to consistently achieve the benefits.
This led the authors to state that to gain the benefit of magnesium at least at the recommended daily allowance (RDA) level, that “dietary magnesium intake alone may not be sufficient.”35
What’s striking about these findings is that the amount of added magnesium needed to meet the government’s RDA was exceedingly small. For most people, taking one magnesium capsule a day, or obtaining it in a scientifically formulated multinutrient formula is all that is needed to produce this robust preventive effect against pancreatic cancer.
This and other studies you’re about to learn about are why we think that magnesium supplementation is destined to become as prevalent as vitamin D is today.
Prior Studies on Magnesium and Pancreatic Cancer
Previous studies sought to establish a link between magnesium ingestion and pancreatic cancer. Ascertaining the precise amount of magnesium ingested was challenging due to variability of magnesium content of food/water.
Two initial case-control studies showed an association between higher magnesium intake and lower pancreatic cancer rates,36,37 whereas a similar case-control study found no association.38
Other studies found a reduced rate of pancreatic cancer only in heavier men, which is significant because obesity is a pancreatic cancer risk factor.39 One of these studies published in 2010 showed a reduction in pancreatic cancer in men with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m2 or more who consumed higher amounts of magnesium.40
This study showed a 33% reduced pancreatic cancer risk in overweight men whose average daily magnesium intake was 423 mg compared to 281 mg.40 Another study showed that for each 100 mg increase in magnesium intake amongst overweight men, there was a 21% decreased risk.39
Once again, a relatively small amount of magnesium supplementation would have placed all these men into the higher protective category.
Since the majority of aging men are overweight, this finding has significant public health implications.41
These findings corroborate the 2015 report showing only a small increase in ingested magnesium significantly reduces pancreatic cancer risk.
Magnesium and Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer is expected to be diagnosed in almost 135,000 Americans and to cause about 50,000 deaths this year.72 It is less feared than pancreatic cancer because treatments are less mutilating and cure rates far higher.
A large study evaluating Japanese men found that those with the highest dietary intake of magnesium were over 50% less likely to contract colon cancer.22
A study emanating from the Netherlands showed that for each extra 100 mg increase in magnesium intake, there was a 19% reduction in colorectal adenomas (precursors to colon tumors).24 The second part of this study found that for each additional 100 mg of magnesium, there was a 12% reduction in colorectal cancer risk. Again, we’re seeing a relatively modest increase in magnesium ingestion inducing meaningful cancer risk reductions.
Magnesium plays essential roles in regulating genome stability,73,74 cell signaling,75,76 insulin sensitivity,77 systemic inflammation,78-81 and DNA maintenance and repair.73,74 It is therefore not surprising that low intake of magnesium is associated with increased risk of certain cancers.
Food Sources of Magnesium Are Not Reliable
A website for medical professionals lists magnesium-rich foods as “Leafy vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, fruits and fish.”82
While these fit into the “healthy food” category, one cannot reliably expect to obtain consistent and sufficient amounts of magnesium by ingesting them.
Magnesium content in vegetables has seen huge declines since pre-1950 levels.83-87 Typical grain refining processes for bread and pasta remove 80%-95% of total magnesium.83
There needs to be sufficient soil concentration of magnesium for plants to absorb it in the first place. In some instances, soils have too much potassium which competes for absorption of magnesium into the plant.
There are certain bottled waters that naturally contain high amounts of magnesium, but these are rare on the commercial marketplace.88
Urgent Need for Magnesium Supplementation
Life Extension first advocated for higher-dose magnesium supplementation in 1981. Back in those days, calcium supplements were very popular, but few of them contained enough magnesium. Overlooked was the vital role that magnesium played in overall health including maintaining bone density.20,21,89
Most people today associate magnesium as a mineral that reduces cardiovascular risk. A wealth of published scientific data supports this.
With accumulating data showing that magnesium can slash risks of common cancers, we think the use of magnesium supplements will soon rise to the level of “must have” nutrients like vitamin D.
Similar to vitamin D, magnesium costs so little that it is readily affordable by almost everyone, which has huge implications in improving public health.
This month’s issue contains an article that pays tribute to an early pioneer who advocated for higher magnesium ingestion. We also provide an update of the latest findings demonstrating the vital importance of obtaining sufficient magnesium to diminish risk of degenerative illness.
For longer life,
- Eisenberg MJ. Magnesium deficiency and sudden death. Am Heart J. 1992;124(2):544-9.
- Chiuve SE, Korngold EC, Januzzi JL, Jr., et al. Plasma and dietary magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(2):253-60.
- Kieboom BC, Niemeijer MN, Leening MJ, et al. Serum Magnesium and the Risk of Death From Coronary Heart Disease and Sudden Cardiac Death. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5(1).
- Ohira T, Peacock JM, Iso H, et al. Serum and dietary magnesium and risk of ischemic stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;169(12):1437-44.
- Akarolo-Anthony SN, Jimenez MC, Chiuve SE, et al. Plasma magnesium and risk of ischemic stroke among women. Stroke. 2014;45(10):2881-6.
- Larsson SC, Orsini N, Wolk A. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95(2):362-6.
- Larsson SC, Wolk A. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. J Intern Med. 2007;262(2):208-14.
- Lopez-Ridaura R, Willett WC, Rimm EB, et al. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(1):134-40.
- Villegas R, Gao YT, Dai Q, et al. Dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and the risk of type 2 diabetes: the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(4):1059-67.
- Gontijo-Amaral C, Ribeiro MA, Gontijo LS, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in asthmatic children: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007;61(1):54-60.
- He K, Liu K, Daviglus ML, et al. Magnesium intake and incidence of metabolic syndrome among young adults. Circulation. 2006;113(13):1675-82.
- Song Y, Ridker PM, Manson JE, et al. Magnesium intake, C-reactive protein, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older U.S. women. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(6):1438-44.
- Del Gobbo LC, Imamura F, Wu JH, et al. Circulating and dietary magnesium and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(1):160-73.
- Mathers TW, Beckstrand RL. Oral magnesium supplementation in adults with coronary heart disease or coronary heart disease risk. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2009;21(12):651-7.
- Jee SH, Miller ER, 3rd, Guallar E, et al. The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Am J Hypertens. 2002;15(8):691-6.
- Widman L, Wester PO, Stegmayr BK, et al. The dose-dependent reduction in blood pressure through administration of magnesium. A double blind placebo controlled cross-over study. Am J Hypertens. 1993;6(1):41-5.
- Itoh K, Kawasaka T, Nakamura M. The effects of high oral magnesium supplementation on blood pressure, serum lipids and related variables in apparently healthy Japanese subjects. Br J Nutr. 1997;78(5):737-50.
- Witteman JC, Grobbee DE, Derkx FH, et al. Reduction of blood pressure with oral magnesium supplementation in women with mild to moderate hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60(1):129-35.
- Rosanoff A, Plesset MR. Oral magnesium supplements decrease high blood pressure (SBP>155 mmHg) in hypertensive subjects on anti-hypertensive medications: a targeted meta-analysis. Magnes Res. 2013;26(3):93-9.
- Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, et al. Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(4):727-36.
- Ryder KM, Shorr RI, Bush AJ, et al. Magnesium intake from food and supplements is associated with bone mineral density in healthy older white subjects. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(11):1875-80.
- Ma E, Sasazuki S, Inoue M, et al. High dietary intake of magnesium may decrease risk of colorectal cancer in Japanese men. J Nutr. 2010;140(4):779-85.
- Larsson SC, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Magnesium intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in women. Jama. 2005;293(1):86-9.
- Wark PA, Lau R, Norat T, et al. Magnesium intake and colorectal tumor risk: a case-control study and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(3):622-31.
- Available at: http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/pancreas.html. Accessed September 13, 2016.
- Huxley R, Ansary-Moghaddam A, Berrington de Gonzalez A, et al. Type-II diabetes and pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis of 36 studies. Br J Cancer. 2005;92(11):2076-83.
- Everhart J, Wright D. Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. A meta-analysis. Jama. 1995;273(20):1605-9.
- Calle EE, Murphy TK, Rodriguez C, et al. Diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer mortality in a prospective cohort of United States adults. Cancer Causes Control. 1998;9(4):403-10.
- Wang F, Herrington M, Larsson J, et al. The relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Mol Cancer. 2003;2:4.
- Chari ST, Leibson CL, Rabe KG, et al. Probability of pancreatic cancer following diabetes: a population-based study. Gastroenterology. 2005;129(2):504-11.
- Liao WC, Tu YK, Wu MS, et al. Blood glucose concentration and risk of pancreatic cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Bmj. 2015;349:g7371.
- Trajkovic-Arsic M, Kalideris E, Siveke JT. The role of insulin and IGF system in pancreatic cancer. J Mol Endocrinol. 2013;50(3):R67-74.
- Li D, Yeung SC, Hassan MM, et al. Antidiabetic therapies affect risk of pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterology. 2009;137(2):482-8.
- Zhou G, Myers R, Li Y, et al. Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in mechanism of metformin action. J Clin Invest. 2001;108(8):1167-74.
- Dibaba D, Xun P, Yokota K, et al. Magnesium intake and incidence of pancreatic cancer: the VITamins and Lifestyle study. Br J Cancer. 2015;113(11):1615-21.
- Jansen RJ, Robinson DP, Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, et al. Nutrients from fruit and vegetable consumption reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2013;44(2):152-61.
- Baghurst PA, McMichael AJ, Slavotinek AH, et al. A case-control study of diet and cancer of the pancreas. Am J Epidemiol. 1991;134(2):167-79.
- Manousos O, Trichopoulos D, Koutselinis A, et al. Epidemiologic characteristics and trace elements in pancreatic cancer in Greece. Cancer Detect Prev. 1981;4(1-4):439-42.
- Molina-Montes E, Wark PA, Sanchez MJ, et al. Dietary intake of iron, heme-iron and magnesium and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort. Int J Cancer. 2012;131(7):E1134-47.
- Kesavan Y, Giovannucci E, Fuchs CS, et al. A prospective study of magnesium and iron intake and pancreatic cancer in men. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;171(2):233-41.
- Available at: http://www.healthdata.org/news-release/vast-majority-american-adults-are-overweight-or-obese-and-weight-growing-problem-among#main-menu. Accessed September 14, 2016.
- Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/types/pancreatic/hp/pancreatic-treatment-pdq. Accessed September 14, 2016.
- Available at: http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsstatistics/cancerfactsfigures2016/. Accessed September 14, 2016.
- Iodice S, Gandini S, Maisonneuve P, et al. Tobacco and the risk of pancreatic cancer: a review and meta-analysis. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2008;393(4):535-45.
- Vrieling A, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Boshuizen HC, et al. Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Int J Cancer. 2010;126(10):2394-403.
- Leenders M, Chuang SC, Dahm CC, et al. Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study. Int J Cancer. 2012;131(4):997-1002.
- Ben Q, Xu M, Ning X, et al. Diabetes mellitus and risk of pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur J Cancer. 2011;47(13):1928-37.
- Chari ST, Leibson CL, Rabe KG, et al. Pancreatic cancer-associated diabetes mellitus: prevalence and temporal association with diagnosis of cancer. Gastroenterology. 2008;134(1):95-101.
- Luo J, Margolis KL, Adami HO, et al. Obesity and risk of pancreatic cancer among postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative (United States). Br J Cancer. 2008;99(3):527-31.
- Aune D, Greenwood DC, Chan DS, et al. Body mass index, abdominal fatness and pancreatic cancer risk: a systematic review and non-linear dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(4):843-52.
- Li D, Day RS, Bondy ML, et al. Dietary mutagen exposure and risk of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16(4):655-61.
- Anderson KE, Kadlubar FF, Kulldorff M, et al. Dietary intake of heterocyclic amines and benzo(a)pyrene: associations with pancreatic cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(9):2261-5.
- Bosetti C, Bravi F, Turati F, et al. Nutrient-based dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk. Ann Epidemiol. 2013;23(3):124-8.
- Bravi F, Polesel J, Bosetti C, et al. Dietary intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of pancreatic cancer: an Italian case-control study. Ann Oncol. 2011;22(1):202-6.
- Peng L, Liu X, Lu Q, et al. Vitamin E intake and pancreatic cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Med Sci Monit. 2015;21:1249-55.
- Jeurnink SM, Ros MM, Leenders M, et al. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: a nested case-control study: plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk. Int J Cancer. 2015;136(6):E665-76.
- Li D. Diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Mol Carcinog. 2012;51(1):64-74.
- Song S, Wang B, Zhang X, et al. Long-Term Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0134321.
- Batabyal P, Vander Hoorn S, Christophi C, et al. Association of diabetes mellitus and pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a meta-analysis of 88 studies. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014;21(7):2453-62.
- Elena JW, Steplowski E, Yu K, et al. Diabetes and risk of pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium. Cancer Causes Control. 2013;24(1):13-25.
- Gapstur SM, Gann PH, Lowe W, et al. Abnormal glucose metabolism and pancreatic cancer mortality. Jama. 2000;283(19):2552-8.
- Permert J, Ihse I, Jorfeldt L, et al. Pancreatic cancer is associated with impaired glucose metabolism. Eur J Surg. 1993;159(2):101-7.
- Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Graubard BI, Chari S, et al. Insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, and pancreatic cancer in male smokers. Jama. 2005;294(22):2872-8.
- Wolpin BM, Bao Y, Qian ZR, et al. Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, impaired pancreatic beta-cell function, and risk of pancreatic cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105(14):1027-35.
- Fisher WE, Boros LG, Schirmer WJ. Insulin promotes pancreatic cancer: evidence for endocrine influence on exocrine pancreatic tumors. J Surg Res. 1996;63(1):310-3.
- Chan MT, Lim GE, Skovso S, et al. Effects of insulin on human pancreatic cancer progression modeled in vitro. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:814.
- Jee SH, Ohrr H, Sull JW, et al. Fasting serum glucose level and cancer risk in Korean men and women. Jama. 2005;293(2):194-202.
- Batty GD, Shipley MJ, Marmot M, et al. Diabetes status and post-load plasma glucose concentration in relation to site-specific cancer mortality: findings from the original Whitehall study. Cancer Causes Control. 2004;15(9):873-81.
- Evans JM, Donnelly LA, Emslie-Smith AM, et al. Metformin and reduced risk of cancer in diabetic patients. Bmj. 2005;330(7503):1304-5.
- Lee MS, Hsu CC, Wahlqvist ML, et al. Type 2 diabetes increases and metformin reduces total, colorectal, liver and pancreatic cancer incidences in Taiwanese: a representative population prospective cohort study of 800,000 individuals. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:20.
- Wang LW, Li ZS, Zou DW, et al. Metformin induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(47):7192-8.
- Available at: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/detailedguide/colorectal-cancer-key-statistics. Accessed September 14, 2016.
- Hartwig A. Role of magnesium in genomic stability. Mutat Res. 2001;475(1-2):113-21.
- Arigony AL, de Ol iveira IM, Machado M, et al. The influence of micronutrients in cell culture: a reflection on viability and genomic stability. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:597282.
- Li FY, Chaigne-Delalande B, Kanellopoulou C, et al. Second messenger role for Mg2+ revealed by human T-cell immunodeficiency. Nature. 2011;475(7357):471-6.
- Wolf FI, Trapani V. MagT1: a highly specific magnesium channel with important roles beyond cellular magnesium homeostasis. Magnes Res. 2011;24(3):S86-91.
- Guerrero-Romero F, Tamez-Perez HE, Gonzalez-Gonzalez G, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Diabetes Metab. 2004;30(3):253-8.
- Chacko SA, Song Y, Nathan L, et al. Relations of dietary magnesium intake to biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in an ethnically diverse cohort of postmenopausal women. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(2):304-10.
- Maier JA, Malpuech-Brugere C, Zimowska W, et al. Low magnesium promotes endothelial cell dysfunction: implications for atherosclerosis, inflammation and thrombosis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1689(1):13-21.
- King DE, Mainous AG, 3rd, Geesey ME, et al. Dietary magnesium and C-reactive protein levels. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005;24(3):166-71.
- Mazur A, Maier JA, Rock E, et al. Magnesium and the inflammatory response: potential physiopathological implications. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;458(1):48-56.
- Available at: https://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/integrative-medicine/herbs/magnesium. Accessed September 14, 2016.
- Available at: http://www.ancient-minerals.com/magnesium-sources/dietary/. Accessed September 14, 2016.
- Thomas D. The mineral depletion of foods available to us as a nation (1940-2002)--a review of the 6th Edition of McCance and Widdowson. Nutr Health. 2007;19(1-2):21-55.
- Available at: https://www.organic-center.org/reportfiles/Yield_Nutrient_Density_Final.pdf. Accessed September 14, 2016.
- Available at: http://www.lifeextension.com/Magazine/2001/3/report_vegetables/Page-01. Accessed September 14, 2016.
- Davis DR. Declining fruit and vegetable nutrient composition: What is the evidence? HortScience. 2009;44(1):15-9.
- Azoulay A, Garzon P, Eisenberg MJ. Comparison of the mineral content of tap water and bottled waters. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16(3):168-75.
- Aydin H, Deyneli O, Yavuz D, et al. Short-term oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010;133(2):136-43.