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Lactoferrin, Green tea, Milk thistle, Omega-7, and Testosterone

May 2016

By Life Extension

Lactoferrin

Ocular surface damage and tear lactoferrin in dry eye syndrome.

We studied the relationship between the severity of ocular surface damage and the level of tear lactoferrin in primary and secondary Sjögren's syndrome and keratoconjunctivitis sicca not associated with Sjögren's syndrome. A significant negative correlation was found between Rose Bengal staining score and level of tear lactoferrin in all three groups. Analysis of covariance disclosed no significant differences in regression lines for Rose Bengal staining score vs tear lactoferrin level among the three groups. The three regression lines appeared to be identical to each other. These findings indicate that the severity of ocular surface damage due to dry eye largely depends on the tear secretory function of the lacrimal gland, and that the function of the lacrimal gland can be evaluated by determination of level of tear lactoferrin using the same standards regardless of differences in pathogenesis of underlying diseases.

Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1994 Aug;72(4):433-7

Bovine lactoferrin promotes corneal wound healing and suppresses IL-1 expression in alkali wounded mouse cornea.

PURPOSE: Using an in vitro cell culture model, bovine lactoferrin (BLF) stimulates healing of alkali-induced human corneal epithelial wounds. The present study examined the efficacy of BLF in promoting healing of corneal injury in vivo and explored BLF modulation of interleukin-1 (IL-1) during wound healing. METHODS: Alkali injury was induced to BALB/c mice by exposure of the mouse cornea to a sodium hydroxide (NaOH)-soaked filter disc for 2 min. The corneal surface was irrigated after the injury with saline. Topical BLF in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (10 µl, 62.5 µM), bovine serum albumin (BSA) (10 µl, 62.5 µM in PBS) or PBS only (10 µl) were applied three times daily to both the alkali-injured and uninjured eyes for 3 d. Wound healing was assessed using 0.1% fluorescein staining under slit lamp microscope. The corneas at 6 h, 24 h or 3 d post-injury and treatment were excised and examined histologically, homogenized corneal tissue was evaluated for expression of IL-1a and IL-1b. RESULTS: After 6 h post-wounding and treatment no significant reduction of wound area was observed between treatments and infiltrating cells or IL-1 expression were not elevated in any group. By 24 h, BLF-treatment resulted in accelerated wound closure (100%) compared to PBS and BSA treatment (70% and 65%, respectively). BLF treatment reduced infiltrating cells compared to controls and no elevation of IL-1, whereas controls displayed elevated infiltrating cells and increased levels of IL-1. After 3 d, mice treated with BLF exhibited complete wound closure while control corneas still exhibited some minor defects. Resolution of inflammation with minimal remaining infiltrating cells was observed in all corneas by day 3, coincident to normal levels of IL-1a and IL-1b. CONCLUSION: BLF accelerated healing of corneal alkali injury in BALB/c mice which was associated with suppression of IL-1 and reduced infiltrating cells.

Curr Eye Res . 2013 Nov;38(11):1110-7

Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) and the constituent delphinidin glycoside inhibit photoreceptor cell death induced by visible light.

The protective effects of maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) extract (MBE) and its major anthocyanins [delphinidin 3,5-O-diglucoside (D3G5G) and delphinidin 3-O-sambubioside-5-O-glucoside (D3S5G)] against light-induced murine photoreceptor cells (661W) death were evaluated. Viability of 661W after light treatment for 24 h, assessed by the tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assay and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining, was improved by addition of MBE, D3G5G, and D3S5G. Intracellular radical activation in 661W, evaluated using the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive probe 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydro fluorescein diacetate acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA), was reduced by MBE and its anthocyanins. The anti-apoptosis mechanism of MBE was evaluated by light-induced phosphorylation of p38. MBE significantly suppressed the light-induced phosphorylation of p38. These findings indicate that MBE and its anthocyanidins suppress the light-induced photoreceptor cell death by inhibiting ROS production, suggesting that the inhibition of phosphorylated-p38 may be involved in the underlying mechanism.

Food Chem. 2013 Aug 15;139(1-4):129-37

Dry eye after cataract surgery and associated intraoperative risk factors.

PURPOSE: To investigate changes in dry eye symptoms and diagnostic test values after cataract surgery and to address factors that might influence those symptoms and test results. METHODS: Twenty-eight eyes from 14 patients with preoperative dry eye (dry eye group) and 70 eyes from 35 patients without preoperative dry eye (non-dry eye group) were studied prospectively. In each group, we measured values such as tear break-up time (tBUT), Schirmer I test (ST-I), tear meniscus height (TMH), and subjective dry eye symptoms (Sx), and evaluated the postoperative changes in these values. We also evaluated the influence of corneal incision location and shape on these values. The correlations between these values and microscopic light exposure time and phacoemulsification energy were investigated. RESULTS: In the dry eye group, there were significant aggravations in Sx at 2 months postoperatively and in TMH at 3 days, 10 days, 1 month, and 2 months postoperatively, compared with preoperative values. All dry eye test values were significantly worse after cataract surgery in the non-dry eye group. With regard to incision location, there was no difference in tBUT, Sx, ST-I, or TMH in either the dry eye group or the non-dry eye group at any postoperative time point. Regarding incision shape, there was no difference in tBUT, Sx, ST-I or TMH at any postoperative time point in the dry eye group. In the superior incision sub-group of the non-dry eye group, tBUT and Sx were worse in the grooved incision group at day 1. In the temporal incision sub-group of the non-dry eye group, Sx were worse in the grooved incision group at 1 day, 3 days, and 10 days postoperatively. In both groups, significant correlations were noted between microscopic light exposure time and dry eye test values, but no correlation was noted between phacoemulsification energy and dry eye test values. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract surgery may lead to dry eye. A grooved incision can aggravate the symptoms during the early postoperative period in patients without dry eye preoperatively. Long microscopic light exposure times can have an adverse effect on dry eye test values.

Korean J Ophthalmol. 2009 Jun;23(2):65-73

Incidence and pattern of dry eye after cataract surgery.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence and severity pattern of dry eye after phacoemulsification. SETTING: King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. METHODS: Samples were collected from ninety-two uncomplicated cataract patients who were 18 years old or older. Dry eye incidence and pattern were analyzed at days 0, 7, 30 and 90 after phacoemulsification using (1) Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, (2) tear break up time (TBUT), (3) Oxford ocular surface staining system, and (4) Schirmer I test without anesthesia. RESULTS: Seven days after phacoemulsification, the incidence of dry eye was 9.8% (95% confidence interval; 3.6-16.0%). The severity of dry eye peaked seven days post-phacoemulsification and was measured by OSDI questionnaire and all three clinical tests. Within thirty days and 3 months post-surgery, both the symptoms and signs showed rapid and gradual improvements, respectively. However, dry eye post-phacoemulsification was not significantly associated with sex and systemic hypertension (P = 0.26, 0.17 and 0.73, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of dry eye after phacoemulsification was 9.8%. Symptoms and signs of dry eye occurred as early as seven days post-phacoemulsification and the severity pattern improved over time. We recommend that ophthalmologists should evaluate patients both before and after phacoemulsification to prevent further damage to the ocular surface and able to manage the patient promptly and effectively so the patient will not have a poor quality of life and vision due to dry eye syndrome.

PLoS One . 2013 Nov 12;8(11):e78657

Mechanisms and management of dry eye in cataract surgery patients.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a summary of the mechanisms that may cause dry eye after cataract surgery and discuss available and upcoming treatment modalities. RECENT FINDINGS: Development or worsening of dry eye symptoms after cataract surgery is multifactorial with corneal nerve transection, inflammation, goblet cell loss, and meibomian gland dysfunction commonly cited as underlying disorders. With increasing awareness of the prevalence of dry eye disease, current surgical techniques are being analyzed for their contribution to the issue. Although many classic interventions, such as artificial tears and anti-inflammatory drops, remain first-line treatment options, they may not adequately address abnormalities of the tear film. The trend has been to create new drugs and technologies that target meibomian gland deficiencies and restore goblet cell numbers. SUMMARY: Therapy for postoperative dry eye symptoms should be determined based on symptom severity and which underlying cause is most prominent at a given time. Patients with high-level risk factors for dry eye should be evaluated preoperatively to determine whether they have preexisting dry eye disease or if they are susceptible to developing disease after surgery.

Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2015 Nov 13