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Homocysteine, Erectile dysfunction, Skin care, and Blood sugar

August 2017

Skin care

The cosmetic treatment of wrinkles.

Wrinkles now have a greater social impact because people live longer. Science and hedonism overlap in the search for causes, treatments and prevention of wrinkles. The cosmetic approach to wrinkles includes: i Cleansing ii Photoprotection iii Active ingredients Active ingredients go well beyond simple moisturisers and exert a more complex activity in protecting skin from external injuries, nourishing it and removing its superficial layers. Transport systems and excipients are increasingly effective. Functional agents currently include alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), poly-AHAs, complex poly-AHAs, retinoids, fish polysaccharides, anti-enzymatic agents, antioxidants (including ascorbic acid, pycnogenol, ursolic acid, vegetable isoflavones, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10, lipoic acid, resveratorol, l-carnosine and taurine) as well as agaricic acid and various plant extracts. All are reviewed in this text. Most are topical, some can be given by mouth, even as food supplements. Cosmetics are becoming closer to drugs in preventing and treating wrinkles. Included amongst the cosmeceuticals are the anti-wrinkle agents described herein.

J Cosmet Dermatol. 2004 Jan;3(1):26-34

The effect of a vitamin A palmitate and antioxidant-containing oil-based moisturizer on photodamaged skin of several body sites.

BACKGROUND: Cumulative lifetime sun exposure is accepted as having a very important role to play in the expression of the signs of photoaging, which is then superimposed on the intrinsic processes involved in th emulsion-based products, mostly although not exclusively, on the face using a variety of actives including retinoids and antioxidants. Nevertheless, the effect of a topical anhydrous product on photodamaged skin has not been reported in the literature. AIMS: The objective of this study was to clinically evaluate the effect of a vitamin A palmitate and antioxidant-containing oil-based moisturizer on facial, neck, decolletage, arms, and lower leg body sites. METHODS: In a randomized, controlled and efficacy grader-blinded clinical study conducted over 12 weeks, while at the same time recording the changes in skin condition for a no-treatment group over the same time period, live clinical expert grading of all body sites and also grading of photographs for the face and neck assessed changes in the signs of photodamage was performed for the treatment and no-treatment groups. RESULTS: Compared to the no-treatment group, and to baseline, the oil improved fine lines, coarse wrinkles, mottled pigmentation, uneven skin tone, roughness, firmness, and clarity of the skin on the face and neck and was also shown to improve crepey skin texture, dryness, scaling and roughness on the decolletage, arms and lower legs at the primary end point at 12 weeks (P < 0.001). Moreover, improvements in a variety of parameters were observed as quickly as 2 weeks. In general, the degree of improvement was greatest in the order legs > arms > decolletage > face > neck. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results show the cumulative improvements in the signs of photoaging compared to a no-treatment control group for the oil-based antiaging moisturizer for the first time. The differences in the efficacy of the vitamin A palmiate and antioxidant oil-based moisturizer on different body sites probably reflect the differences in likely photodamage.

J Cosmet Dermatol. 2013 Mar;12(1):25-35

Penetration and metabolism of topical retinoids in ex vivo organ-cultured full-thickness human skin explants.

The human epidermis contains endogenous retinoids [retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl esters] and carotenoids (mostly beta-carotene). Previous studies in the mouse have shown that the enzymes involved in retinoid metabolism are present in the epidermis. In this study, we wanted to assess the skin penetration and metabolism of topical retinoids in the human. To do this, fresh surgically excised human abdominal skin was mounted on Franz perfusion cells. Topical retinoic acid, retinal, retinol and retinyl palmitate were applied at 2.5 mg/cm(2) in oil-in-water creams containing 0.05% retinoids on the donor compartment, while the receptor compartment was filled with culture medium. The skin was incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C, then epidermal retinoid concentrations were determined by HPLC. The same experiment was performed with mouse back skin mounted on Franz cells. Finally, topical retinoids were applied on the back of hairless mice for 24 h; then the mice were sacrificed and retinoid concentrations were assayed in the epidermis. In all three models, retinol and its esters were found to be endogenous, as was the case in previous studies in the mouse in vivo. The four applied retinoids penetrated well into the epidermis. Topical retinoic acid did not increase endogenous retinoids, whereas the latter were greatly increased following topical retinal in the mouse. Retinal was also metabolized into retinoic acid, unlike topical retinol and retinyl palmitate, which only increased endogenous retinoids. Topical retinal and retinol did undergo a higher metabolism in both mouse models than in human skin. In summary, the penetration and metabolism patterns of topical retinoids were quite similar in the two mouse models used, indicating that the Franz cells appear to be a good model to predict in vivo metabolism of topical retinoids. When applying this concept to our results obtained in Franz cells with human skin, we conclude that topical retinol and retinal load human skin with both storage and functional vitamin A.

Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2004 May-Jun;17(3):124-8

Age-related changes in skin barrier function - quantitative evaluation of 150 female subjects.

The protection against water loss and the prevention of substances and bacteria penetrating into the body rank as the most important functions of the skin. This so-called 'skin barrier function' is the natural frontier between the inner organism and the environment, and is primarily formed by the epidermis. An impairment of the skin barrier function is often found in diseased and damaged skin. An influence of ageing on skin barrier function is widely accepted, but has not been conclusively evaluated yet. Therefore, the aim of this clinical study was to assess the potential influence of ageing on skin barrier function, including transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration, sebum content and pH value. One hundred and fifty healthy women aged 18-80, divided into five age groups with 30 subjects each, were evaluated in this study. TEWL, hydration level, sebum secretion and pH value of hydro-lipid acid film were measured with worldwide acknowledged biophysical measuring methods at cheek, neck, décolleté, volar forearm and dorsum of hand. Whereas TEWL and stratum corneum hydration showed only very low correlation with subject's age, the sebum production decreased significantly with age, resulting in the lowest skin surface lipids levels measured in subjects older than 70 years. The highest skin surface pH was measured in subjects between 50 and 60 years, whereas the eldest age group had the lowest mean pH. The dorsum of the hand was the location with the highest TEWL and lowest stratum corneum hydration in all age groups. The results show that only some parameters related to skin barrier function are influenced by ageing. Whereas sebum production decreases significantly over lifetime and skin surface pH is significantly increased in menopausal woman, TEWL and stratum corneum hydration show only minor variations with ageing.

Int J Cosmet Sci. 2013 Apr;35(2):183-90

Effecting skin renewal: a multifaceted approach.

The skin undergoes intrinsic aging as a normal course, but exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light results in major cumulative damage that manifests as the typical aged photodamaged skin. UV irradiation produces a sequence of changes within the skin layers starting with signaling processes following DNA damage and culminating in nonabsorbed fragmentation of collagen and other proteins within the extracellular matrix. These fragments promote the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that further aggravate the damage to the ground substance and add to fragment accumulation. This study describes a unique sequential approach to controlling this photodamage - inhibition of signaling, inhibition of MMPs, proteasome stimulation and mopping up of fragments, stimulation of procollagen and collagen production, and uniform packaging of new collagen fibers. Thus, a multifaceted approach is introduced with presentation of a unique product formulation based on these research principles.

J Cosmet Dermatol. 2011 Jun;10(2):126-30

Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015;2015:709628.

Heptapeptide-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for cosmetic anti-aging applications.

The cosmetic industry requires more and more expensive actives and ingredients such as retinol, coenzyme Q10, proteins, peptides and biotechnologically produced molecules. In this study, we demonstrate the development of a cost effective formulation of a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) or solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) improving peptide delivery into skin. NLC or SLN are very suitable vehicles for the delivery of active ingredients into skin. The SLN, produced by using hot high pressure homogenization method combine advantages such as physical stability, protection of incorporated labile actives and controlled release. By the used method we dispersed the amorphous heptapeptide DEETGEF in shea butter and homogenized this pre-dispersion at 60°C together with the water phase using a Microfluidizer at 1000bar. The analysis of the obtained SLN-P7 showed a particle size of 173nm, incorporated peptide of 0.014%, entrapment efficiency of 90.8%, melting peak (DSC) of the core lipid of 27°C and a zeta potential of -54mV. By an ex vivo study with skin explants we could stimulate NQO1 (NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase), HMOX1 (Heme oxygenase-1) and PRDX1 (Peroxiredoxin-1) genes all of which are cell protecting enzymes. In a multicellular protection against UV induced stress study with skin explants we detected the formation of sun burn cells and the number and morphology of Langerhans cells. The application of our SLN-P7 formulation on skin explants led to a significant and dose dependent protection against UV irradiation. In the clinical suction blister study, irradiation with UVA light for two hours after final product application led to a statistically significant increase of the 8-OhdG (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) concentration in the human epidermis. The skin treated with our verum formulation showed a statistically significant 20% decrease in DNA damage compared to placebo. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that SLN technology enabled peptide delivery into skin allowing it to perform protective functions

Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2016 Nov;108:304-309