Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More!

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Health Protocols

Seasonal Affective Disorder


Allen JM, Lam RW, et al. Depressive symptoms and family history in seasonal and nonseasonal mood disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150(3):443–8.

Arendt J, Skene DJ. Melatonin as a chronobiotic. Sleep Med Rev. 2005;9(1):25–39.

Birdsall TC. 5-Hydroxytryptophan: A clinically-effective serotonin precursor. Altern Med Rev. 1998;3(4):271–80.

Carlsson A, Svennerholm L, et al. Seasonal and circadian monoamine variations in human brains examined post mortem. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1980;280:75–85.

Checkley SA, Murphy DG, et al. Melatonin rhythms in seasonal affective disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 1993;163:332–7.

Childs PA, Rodin I, et al. Effect of fluoxetine on melatonin in patients with seasonal affective disorder and matched controls. Br J Psychiatry. 1995;166(2):196–8.

Cott J, Hibbeln JR. Lack of seasonal mood change in Icelanders. Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Feb;158(2):328.

Das YT, Bagchi M, et al. Safety of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan. Toxicol Lett. 2004 Apr 15;150(1):111–22. Review.

DeBattista C, Doghramji K, et al. Adjunct modafinil for the short-term treatment of fatigue and sleepiness in patients with major depressive disorder: A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(9):1057–64.

Depue RA, Arbisi P, et al. Seasonal and mood independence of low basal prolactin secretion in premenopausal women with seasonal affective disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1989;146(8):989–95.

Depue RA, Arbisi P, et al. Seasonal independence of low prolactin concentration and high spontaneous eye blink rates in unipolar and bipolar II seasonal affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990;47(4):356–64.

Durlach J, Pages N, et al. Chronopathological forms of magnesium depletion with hypofunction or with hyperfunction of the biological clock. Magnes Res. 2002;15(3–4):263–8.

Eastman CI, Young MA, et al. Bright light treatment of winter depression: A placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55(10):883–9.

Ford K. A seasonal depression: Management of seasonal affective disorder. Prof Nurse. 1992;8(2):94–8.

Ghadirian AM, Murphy BE, et al. Efficacy of light versus tryptophan therapy in seasonal affective disorder. J Affect Disord. 1998;50(1):23–7.

Gross F, Gysin F. [Phototherapy in psychiatry: clinical update and review of indications]. Encephale. 1996;22(2):143–8.

Guilleminault C, Cathala JP, et al. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan on sleep of a patient with a brain-stem lesion. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1973;34(2):177–84.

Hebert M, Beattie CW, et al. Electroretinography in patients with winter seasonal affective disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2004;127(1–2):27–34.

Hilger E, Willeit M, et al. Reboxetine in seasonal affective disorder: An open trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001;11(1):1–5.

Hirota T, Fukada Y. Resetting mechanism of central and peripheral circadian clocks in mammals. Zoolog Sci. 2004;21(4):359–68.

Hoekstra R, Fekkes D, et al. Effect of light therapy on biopterin, neopterin and tryptophan in patients with seasonal affective disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2003;120(1):37–42.

Hvas AM, Juul S, et al. Vitamin B6 level is associated with symptoms of depression. Psychother Psychosom. 2004;73(6):340–3.

Ising H, Bertschat F, et al. Measurement of free magnesium in blood, serum and plasma with an ion-sensitive electrode. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 1995;33(6):365–71.

Jacobsen FM, Sack DA, et al. Neuroendocrine response to 5-hydroxytryptophan in seasonal affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1987 Dec;44(12):1086–91.

Jepson TL, Ernst ME, et al. Current perspectives on the management of seasonal affective disorder. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 1999;39(6):822–9.

Kasper S. Treatment of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) with hypericum extract. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997;30(Suppl 2): 89–93.

Kasper S, el Giamal N, et al. Reboxetine: The first selective noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2000;1(4):771–82.

Lam RW, Levitan RD. Pathophysiology of seasonal affective disorder: A review. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2000a;25(5):469–80.

Lam RW, Bowering TA, et al. Effects of rapid tryptophan depletion in patients with seasonal affective disorder in natural summer remission. Psychol Med. 2000b;30(1):79–87.

Lam RW, Gorman CP, et al. Multicenter, placebo-controlled study of fluoxetine in seasonal affective disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152(12):1765–70.

Lam RW, Levitan RD, et al. L-tryptophan augmentation of light therapy in patients with seasonal affective disorder. Can J Psychiatry. 1997;42(3):303–6.

Lam RW, Zis AP, et al. Effects of rapid tryptophan depletion in patients with seasonal affective disorder in remission after light therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996;53(1):41–4.

Lambert GW, Reid C, et al. Effect of sunlight and season on serotonin turnover in the brain. Lancet. 2002;360(9348):1840–2.

Lansdowne AT, Provost SC. Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998;135(4):319–23.

Leu SJ, Shiah IS, et al. Immune-inflammatory markers in patients with seasonal affective disorder: Effects of light therapy. J Affect Disord. 2001;63(1–3):27–34.

Lewy AJ, Bauer VK, et al. Melatonin treatment of winter depression: A pilot study. Psychiatry Res. 1998a;77(1):57–61.

Lewy AJ, Bauer VK, et al. Morning vs evening light treatment of patients with winter depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998b;55(10):890–6.

Lewy AJ, Sack RL, et al. Antidepressant and circadian phase-shifting effects of light. Science. 1987a;235(4786):352–4.

Lewy AJ, Sack RL, et al. The phase shift hypothesis for bright light’s therapeutic mechanism of action: Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1987b;23(3):349–53.

Lundt L. Modafinil treatment in patients with seasonal affective disorder/winter depression: An open-label pilot study. J Affect Disord. 2004;81(2):173–8.

Macchi MM, Bruce JN. Human pineal physiology and functional significance of melatonin. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2004;25(3–4):177–95.

Madden PA, Heath AC, et al. Seasonal changes in mood and behavior: The role of genetic factors. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996;53(1):47–55.

Magnusson A, Axelsson J, et al. Lack of seasonal mood change in the Icelandic population: Results of a cross-sectional study. Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Feb;157(2):234–8.

Magnusson A, Boivin D. Seasonal affective disorder: An overview. Chronobiol Int. 2003;20(2):189–207.

Magnusson A, Partonen T. The diagnosis, symptomatology, and epidemiology of seasonal affective disorder. CNS Spectr. 2005 Aug;10(8):625–34;quiz 1–14. Review.

Maini RN, Taylor PC, et al. Insights into the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis from application of anti-TNF therapy. Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi. 2000;23(6):487–9.

Martin TG. Serotonin syndrome. Ann Emerg Med. 1996 Nov;28(5):520-6. Review.

Martinez B, Kasper S, et al. Hypericum in the treatment of seasonal affective disorders. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1994;7(Suppl 1):S29-S33.

McGeer PL, McGeer EG. The inflammatory response system of brain: implications for therapy of Alzheimer and other neurodegenerative diseases. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1995 Sep;21(2):195-218. Review.

McGrath-Hanna NK, Greene DM, et al. Diet and mental health in the Arctic: Is diet an important risk factor for mental health in circumpolar peoples?—a review. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2003 Sep;62(3):228–41. Review.

McKee T, McKee J. Nitrogen metabolism I: Synthesis. In Peterson K, Horn M, eds. Biochemistry—An Introduction. 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1999:359–408.

Menza MA, Kaufman KR, et al. Modafinil augmentation of antidepressant treatment in depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61(5):378–81.

Moscovitch A, Blashko CA, et al. A placebo-controlled study of sertraline in the treatment of outpatients with seasonal affective disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004;171(4):390–7.

Nangia M, Syed W, et al. Efficacy and safety of St. John’s wort for the treatment of major depression. Public Health Nutr. 2000;3(4A):487–94.

Partonen T, Vakkuri O, et al. Effects of bright light on sleepiness, melatonin, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in winter seasonal affective disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;39(10):865–72.

Pjrek E, Winkler D, et al. Bright light therapy in seasonal affective disorder—does it suffice? Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004;14(4):347–51.

Potter W, Hollister L. Antidepressant agents. In Katzung B, ed. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2001:498–511.

Rohr UD, Herold J. Melatonin deficiencies in women. Maturitas. 2002;41(Suppl 1):S85–104.

Rosen LN, Targum SD, et al. Prevalence of seasonal affective disorder at four latitudes. Psychiatry Res. 1990 Feb;31(2):131-44.

Rosenthal NE, Sack DA, et al. Seasonal affective disorder: A description of the syndrome and preliminary findings with light therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1984;41(1):72–80.

Scammell TE, Estabrooke IV, et al. Hypothalamic arousal regions are activated during modafinil-induced wakefulness. J Neurosci. 2000;20(22):8620–28.

Schlager DS. Early-morning administration of short-acting beta blockers for treatment of winter depression. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151(9):1383–5.

Schwartz PJ, Murphy DL, et al. Effects of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine infusions in patients with seasonal affective disorder and healthy control subjects. Diurnal responses and nocturnal regulatory mechanisms. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997;54(4):375–85.

Sher L. Genetic studies of seasonal affective disorder and seasonality. Compr Psychiatry. 2001;42(2):105–10.

Soulairac A, Lambinet H. [Effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan, a serotonin precursor, on sleep disorders]. Ann Med Psychol (Paris). 1977;1(5):792–8.

Stastny J, Konstantinidis A, et al. Effects of tryptophan depletion and catecholamine depletion on immune parameters in patients with seasonal affective disorder in remission with light therapy. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;53(4):332–7.

Terman JS, Terman M. Photopic and scotopic light detection in patients with seasonal affective disorder and control subjects. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;46(12):1642–8.

Terman JS, Terman M, et al. Circadian time of morning light administration and therapeutic response in winter depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(1):69–75.

Thompson C, Isaacs G. Seasonal affective disorder—a British sample: Symptomatology in relation to mode of referral and diagnostic subtype. J Affect Disord. 1988;14(1):1–11.

Thornton AE, Raz N. Memory impairment in multiple sclerosis: A quantitative review. Neuropsychology. 1997;11(3):357–66.

Touitou Y, Touitou C, et al. Serum magnesium circadian rhythm in human adults with respect to age, sex and mental status. Clin Chim Acta. 1978;87(1):35–41.

Vorbach EU, Arnoldt KH, Hubner WD. Efficacy and tolerability of St. John's wort extract LI 160 versus imipramine in patients with severe depressive episodes according to ICD-10. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997 Sep;30 Suppl 2:81-5.

White DM, Lewy AJ, et al. Is winter depression a bipolar disorder? Compr Psychiatry. 1990;31(3):196–204.

Winton F, Corn T, et al. Effects of light treatment upon mood and melatonin in patients with seasonal affective disorder. Psychol Med. 1989;19(3):585–90.

Wirz-Justice A, Bucheli C, et al. Light treatment of seasonal affective disorder in Switzerland. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1986;74(2):193–204.

Wyatt RJ, Zarcone V, et al. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan on the sleep of normal human subjects. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1971 Jun;30(6):505-9.