Dietary and Lifestyle Considerations
Diet and dietary factors may be of value in preventing cervical dysplasia and the progression of cervical dysplasia to cancer. For instance, a study conducted in China showed that greater consumption of green tea and vegetables was associated with a reduced risk of cervical cancer or CIN II or III (Jia 2012). A hospital-based study found that higher dietary intakes of fiber and fruits and vegetables, as well as several micronutrients—vitamins C, E, and A, beta-carotene, lutein, and folate—were associated with reduced risk of cervical cancer among 239 cervical cancer cases and 979 controls (Ghosh 2008). In a large European study involving nearly 300 000 women, greater intake of fruits and vegetables was associated with lower risk of invasive squamous cervical cancer (Gonzalez 2011).
A more detailed study found that those with the highest dietary intake of vitamin A, beta-carotene, and vitamin C were at significantly lower risk for cervical cancer compared with those with the lowest intake. In this study, those in the high vitamin A or vitamin C dietary consumption group had a 64% lower risk of cervical cancer, while those in the high beta-carotene group had a 52% reduced risk. Higher total consumption of vitamins A, C, and E—including dietary supplements—was associated with reduced risk of cervical cancer by 65%, 65%, and 47%, respectively (Kim 2010). A study that examined blood levels of carotenoid and tocopherol (vitamin E) compounds found that nearly all of them were lower in patients with cervical cancer (Peng 1998).