Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More! Ends January 31st.

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Health Protocols

References

A.D.A.M. PubMed Health. Celiac disease - sprue. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001280/. 2/21/2014. Accessed 2/24/2015.

Abdulkarim AS, Burgart LJ, See J, et al. Etiology of nonresponsive celiac disease: results of a systematic approach. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97(8):2016-2021.

ACDA. American Celiac Disease Alliance. Diagnosis: What are the appropriate screening tests for celiac disease? Available at: http://americanceliac.org/celiac-disease/diagnosis/ Accessed 4/24/2015b.

ACDA. American Celiac Disease Alliance. What is Celiac Disease? Available at: http://americanceliac.org/celiac-disease/. Last updated 2/18/2015a. Accessed 3/6/2015.

Addolorato G, Stefanini GF, Capristo E, et al. Anxiety and depression in adult untreated celiac subjects and in patients affected by inflammatory bowel disease: a personality “trait” or a reactive illness? Hepatogastroenterology. 1996;Nov-Dec;43(12):1513-7.

Adelman D. Alvine Pharmaceuticals, Inc. National Institutes of Health. A phase 2b, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Dose-Ranging Study of the Efficacy and Safety of ALV003 Treatment in Symptomatic Celiac Disease Patients Maintained on a Gluten-Free Diet. In: ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2014- [cited 2014 Dec 2]. Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01917630?term=ALV003&rank=4. NLM Identifier: NCT01917630.

AGA. The American Gastroenterological Association. American Gastroenterological medical position statement: celiac sprue. Gastroenterology. 2001;120(6):1522-5.

AGA. The American Gastroenterological Association. The American Gastroenterological Association Institute. Digestive Disease Week 2014. The AGA Report. Available at: http://www.gastro.org/journals-publications/gi-hepatology-news/GI_-_Hepatology_News_2014_DDW_Report.pdf. Updated 2014. Accessed 12/10/14.

Aggarwal BB, Harikumar KB. Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin, the anti-inflammatory agent, against neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:40-59.

Agmon-Levin N, Theodor E, Segal RM, et al. Vitamin D in systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Clinic Rev Allerg Immunol. 2013;45:256-266.

Alhamdani MS, Al-Kassir AH, Abbas FK, Jaleel NA, Al-Taee MF. Antiglycation and antioxidant effect of carnosine against glucose degradation products in peritoneal mesothelial cells. Nephron. Clinical practice. 2007;107(1):c26-34.

Allred LK, Ritter BW. Recognition of gliadin and glutenin fractions in four commercial gluten assays. Journal of AOAC International. Jan-Feb 2010;93(1):190-196.

Alt Med Rev. Therapeutic applications of whey protein. Alternative Medicine Review. 2008;13(4):341-347.

Alwitry A. Vitamin A deficiency in coeliac disease. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2000;84(9):1075-1075.

Amgen, Inc. National Institutes of Health.  AMG 714 20060349 Multiple Dose Study in Moderate to Severe Psoriasis Subjects. In: ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2014- [cited 2014 Dec 9]. Available at: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00443326?term=AMG+714&rank=1. NLM Identifier: NCT00443326

Amgen, Inc. National Institutes of Health. Phase 2 AMG 714 in Rheumatoid Arthritis. In: ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2007- [cited 2014 Dec 8]. Available at: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00433875?term=AMG714&rank=2. NLM Identifier: NCT00433875.

Ammon HP. Boswellic acids in chronic inflammatory diseases. Planta Med. 2006;72:1100-1116.

Andrews R. All about gluten. Precision Nutrition. Available at: http://www.precisionnutrition.com/all-about-gluten. 2015. Accessed 12/22/2014.

Andrews R. All about gluten. Precision Nutrition. Available at: http://www.precisionnutrition.com/all-about-gluten. 2015a. Accessed 12/28/2014.

Antico A, Tampoia M, Tozzoli R, et al. Can supplementation with vitamin D reduce the risk or modify the course of autoimmune diseases? a systematic review of the literature. Autoimmunity Reviews 2012;12:127-136.

Antony B, Merina B, Iyer VS, et al. Bioavailability of BCM-95 CG (Biocurcumax), a novel bioenhanced preparation of curcumin. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008;Jul-Aug;70(4):445-9.

Arrieta MC, Bistritz L, Meddings JB. Alterations in intestinal permeability. Gut. 2006;55:1512:1520.

Aziz I, Evans KE, Papageorgiou V, et al. Are patients with celiac disease seeking alternative therapies to a gluten-free diet? J Gastrointest Liver Dis. 2011;Mar;20(1):27-31.

AZO Network. Alba Therapeutics reports positive results from Phase IIb trial of larazotide acetate for CeD treatment. Available at: http://www.news-medical.net/news/20140211/Alba-Therapeutics-reports-positive-results-from-Phase-IIb-trial-of-larazotide-acetate-for-CeD-treatment.aspx. 2/11/2014. Accessed 3/2/2015.

Babar MI, Ahmed I, Rao MS, et al. Celiac disease and celiac crisis in children. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2011;Aug;21(8):487-90.

Bai JC, Fried M, Corazza GR, et al. World gastroenterology organization global guidelines on celiac disease. J Clin Gastroenterol 2013; Feb;47(2):121-126.

Bakshi A, Stephen S, Borum ML, et al. Emerging therapeutic options for celiac disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;8(9):582-588.

Barker JM, Liu E. Celiac disease: pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and associated autoimmune conditions. Advances in pediatrics. 2008;55:349-365.

Barrett JS, Gibson PR. Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and nonallergic food intolerance: FODMAPs or food chemicals? Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology. Jul 2012;5(4):261-268.

Battisti C, Dotti MT, Formichi P, et al. Disappearance of skin lipofuscin storage and marked clinical improvement in adult onset coeliac disease and severe vitamin E deficiency after chronic vitamin E megatherapy. J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol. 1996;Jul;28(3):339-44.

Benjamin J, Makharia G, Ahuja V, et al. Glutamine and whey protein improve intestinal permeability and morphology in patients with Crohn’s disease: a randomized controlled trial. Dig Dis Sci. 2012;57:1000-1012.

Bernardo D, Martinez-Abad B, Vallejo-Diez S, et al. Ascorbate-dependent decrease of the mucosal immune inflammatory response to gliadin in celiac disease patients. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2012;40(1):3-8.

Berthoux E, Fabien N, Chayvialle JA, Ninet J, Durieu I. [Adult celiac disease with thrombosis: a case series of seven patients. Role of thrombophilic factors]. La Revue de medecine interne / fondee ... par la Societe nationale francaise de medecine interne. Oct 2011;32(10):600-604.

Beutheu S, Ghouzali I, Galas L, et al. Glutamine and arginine improve permeability and tight junction protein expression in methotrexate-treated Caco-2 cells. Clinical Nutrition. 2013;32:863-869.

Bianchi ML, Bardella MT. Bone in celiac disease. Osteoporos Int. 2008;19:1705-1716.

Biesiekierski JR, Appl B, Newnham ED, et al. Gluten causes gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects without celiac disease: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106:508-514.

Biesiekierski JR, Peters SL, Newnham ED, et al. No effects of gluten in patients with self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity after dietary reduction of fermentable, poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates. Gastroenterology. 2013;Aug;145(2):320-8.

Blazina S, Bratanic N, Campa AS, et al. Bone mineral density and importance of strict gluten-free diet in children and adolescents with celiac disease. Bone. 2010;Sep;47(3):598-603.

Booth SL. Roles for vitamin K beyond coagulation. Annu Rev Nutr. 2009;29:89-110.

Briani C, Zara G, Alaedini A, et al. Neurological complications of celiac disease and autoimmune mechanisms: a prospective study. J Neuroimmunol. 2008;195:171-175.

Bright JJ. Curcumin and autoimmune disease. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:425-451.

Brown K, DeCoffe D, Molcan E, Gibson DL. Diet-induced dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota and the effects on immunity and disease. Nutrients. Aug 2012;4(8):1095-1119.

Brumatti LV, Marcuzzi A, Tricarico PM, et al. Curcumin and inflammatory bowel disease: potential and limits of innovative treatments. Molecules 2014;19:211270-21153.

Bucci C, Zingone F, Russo I, et al. Gliadin does not induce mucosal inflammation or basophil activation in patients with nonceliac gluten sensitivity. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;Oct;11(10):1294-1299.

Bushara KO. Neurologic presentation of celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:S92-S97.

Calder PC. Immunomodulation by omega-3 fatty acids. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2007;77:327-335.

Calder PC. Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance. Biochimica et biophysica acta. Apr 2015;1851(4):469-484.

Carroccio A, Mansueto P, Iacono G, et al. Non-celiac wheat sensitivity diagnosed by double-blind placebo-controlled challenge: exploring a new clinical entity. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107(12):1898-906.

Carta MG, Hardoy MC, Boi MF, et al. Association between panic disorder, major depressive disorder and celiac disease: a possible role of thyroid autoimmunity. J Psychosom Res. 2002;Sep;53(3):789-93.

CARTA. Center for Academic Research & Training in Anthropogeny. Small/Large Intestine Length Ratio. Available at: http://carta.anthropogeny.org/moca/topics/smalllarge-intestine-length-ratio. Accessed 2/25/2015.

Caruso R, Pallone F, Stasi E, et al. Appropriate nutrient supplementation in celiac disease. Ann Med. 2013;Dec;45(8):522-31.

Cascella NG, Kryszak D, Bhatti B, et al. Prevalence of celiac disease and gluten sensitivity in the United States clinical antipsychotic trials of intervention effectiveness study population. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2011;37(1):94-100.

Cascella NG, Santora D, Gregory P, et al. Increased prevalence of transglutaminase 6 antibodies in sera from schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2013;39(4):867-871.

Castillo NE, Theethira TG, Leffler DA. The present and the future in the diagnosis and management of celiac disease. Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf). 2014; Oct 17:1-9.

Catassi C, Bai JC, Bonaz B, et al. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: the new frontier of gluten related disorders. Nutrients. 2013;Oct;5(10):3839-3853.

Catassi C, Fasano A. Celiac disease diagnosis: simple rules are better than complicated algorithms. Am J Med. 2010 Aug;123(8):691-3.

CDF. Celiac Disease Foundation. What Can I Eat? Available at: http://celiac.org/live-gluten-free/glutenfreediet/food-options/. Copyright 2015. Accessed 3/2/2015.

Chen CS, Cumbler EU, Triebling AT. Coagulopathy due to celiac disease presenting as intramuscular hemorrhage. Journal of general internal medicine. Nov 2007;22(11):1608-1612.

Chen P, Ma QG, Ji C, et al. Dietary lipoic acid influences antioxidant capability and oxidative status of broilers. Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(12):8476-8488.

Choi K, Lee SS, Oh SJ, et al. The effect of oral glutamine on 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin-induced mucositis/stomatitis assessed by intestinal permeability test. Clin Nutr. 2007;26:57-62.

Choi K, Siegel M, Piper JL, et al. Chemistry and biology of dihydroisoxazole derivatives: selective inhibitors of human transglutaminase 2.  Chem Biol. 2005;Apr;12:469-475.

CHP. Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh. Organs: Small and Large Intestines. Available at: http://www.chp.edu/CHP/organs+intestine. Last updated 12/5/2014. Accessed 2/25/2015.

Ciacci C, Peluso G, Iannoni E, et al. L-carnitine in the treatment of fatigue in adult celiac disease patients: a pilot study. Dig Liver Dis. 2007;39:922-928.

Clemente MG, De Virgiliis S, Kang JS, et al. Early effects of gliadin on enterocyte intracellular signaling involved in intestinal barrier function. Gut. 2003;52:218-223.

Compston A, Coles A. Multiple sclerosis. Lancet. 2002;Apr 6;359(9313):1221-31.

Corvaglia L, Catamo R, Pepe G, et al. Depression in adult untreated celiac subjects: diagnosis by the pediatrician. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;Mar;94(3):839-43.

Costantino G, della Torre A, Lo Presti MA, et al. Treatment of life-threatening type 1 refractory celiac disease with long-term infliximab. Dig Liver Dis. 2008;40:74-7.

Cristofori F, Fontana C, Magista A, Capriati T, Indrio F, Castellaneta S, . . . Francavilla R. Increased prevalence of celiac disease among pediatric patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a 6-year prospective cohort study. JAMA pediatrics. Jun 2014;168(6):555-560.

Czaja-Bulsa G. Non coeliac gluten sensitivity – a new disease with gluten intolerance. Clin Nutr. 2014;Aug 29;1-6.

Dahele A, Ghosh S. Vitamin B12 deficiency in untreated celiac disease. Am J Gastroenterology. 2001;96(3):745-750.

De Angelis M, Rizzello CG, Fasano A, et al. VSL#3 probiotic preparation has the capacity to hydrolyze gliadin polypeptides responsible for Celiac Sprue. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;Jan;1762(1):80-93.

de Vasconcelos MI, Tirapegui J. [Nutritional importance of glutamine]. Arquivos de gastroenterologia. Jul-Sep 1998;35(3):207-215.

De Vivo G, Di Lorenzo R, Ricotta M, Gentile V. Role of the transglutaminase enzymes in the nervous system and their possible involvement in neurodegenerative diseases. Current medicinal chemistry. 2009;16(36):4767-4773.

Denham JM, Hill ID. Celiac disease and autoimmunity: review and controversies. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2013;13:347-353.

Di Sabatino A, Corazza GR. Coeliac disease. Lancet. 2009;373:1480-93.

Dickey W, Ward M, Whittle CR, et al. Homocysteine and related B-vitamin status in coeliac disease: effects of gluten exclusion and histological recovery. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2008;43:682-688.

Dickey W. Low serum vitamin B12 is common in coeliac disease and is not due to autoimmune gastritis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002;14(4):425-427.

Dieterich W, Ehnis T, Bauer M, et al. Identification of tissue transglutaminase as the autoantigen of celiac disease. Nat Med. 1997;3(7):797-801.

DiRaimondo TR, Klock C, Khosla C, et al. Interferon gamma activates transglutaminase 2 via a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent pathway: implications for celiac sprue therapy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;341(1):104-114.

Dirks MH. Practical considerations for the identification and follow-up of children with celiac disease. Paediatrics & child health. Dec 2004;9(10):714-718.

Duerksen DR. Dramatic effect of vitamin D supplementation and a gluten-free diet on bone mineral density in a patient with celiac disease. J Clin Densitom. 2012;Jan-Mar;15(1):120-123.

Eberman LE, Cleary MA. Celiac disease in an elite female collegiate volleyball athlete: a case report. Journal of athletic training. Oct-Dec 2005;40(4):360-364.

Elfström P, Montgomery SM, Kämpe O, et al. Risk of primary adrenal insufficiency in patients with celiac disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(9):3595-8.

El-Salhy M, Gundersen D. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome. Nutrition journal. Apr 14 2015;14(1):36.

Eren E, Ellidag HY, Aydin O, Yilmaz N. Homocysteine, Paraoxonase-1 and Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction: Omnibus viis Romam Pervenitur. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. Sep 2014;8(9):Ce01-04.

Esposito C, Caputo I, Troncone R. New therapeutic strategies for coeliac disease: tissue transglutaminase as a target. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14:2572-2580.

Eswaran S, Goel A, Chey WD. What role does wheat play in the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome? Gastroenterology & hepatology. Feb 2013;9(2):85-91.

Evans KE, Leeds JS, Morley S, Sanders DS. Pancreatic insufficiency in adult celiac disease: do patients require long-term enzyme supplementation? Digestive diseases and sciences. Oct 2010;55(10):2999-3004.

Fahey AJ, Adrian Robins R, Constantinescu CS. Curcumin modulation of IFN-beta and IL-12 signalling and cytokine induction in human T cells. Journal of cellular and molecular medicine. Sep-Oct 2007;11(5):1129-1137.

FARE. Food Allergy Research & Education. About Food Allergies. Blood Tests. Available at: http://www.foodallergy.org/diagnosis-and-testing/blood-tests. Copyright 2015c. Accessed 3/6/2015.

FARE. Food Allergy Research & Education. About Food Allergies. Skin Prick Test. Available at: http://www.foodallergy.org/diagnosis-and-testing/skin-tests. Copyright 2015b. Accessed 3/6/2015.

FARE. Food Allergy Research & Education. About Food Allergies. Wheat Allergy. Available at: http://www.foodallergy.org/allergens/wheat-allergy. Copyright 2015a. Accessed 3/6/2015.

Fasano A, Catassi C. Celiac disease. N Engl J Med. 2012;Dec 20;367(25):2419-2426.

Fasano A, Catassi C. Current approaches to diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease: an evolving spectrum. Gastroenterology. 2001;Feb;120(3):636-651.

Fasano A, Shea-Donohue T. Mechanisms of disease: the role of intestinal barrier function in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal autoimmune diseases. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;Sep;2(9):416-22.

Fasano A. Intestinal permeability and its regulation by zonulin: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. Oct 2012a;10(10):1096-1100.

Fasano A. Leaky gut and autoimmune diseases. Clinic Rev Allerg Immunol. 2012b;42:71-78.

Fasano A. Physiological, pathological, and therapeutic implications of zonulin-mediated intestinal barrier modulation: living life on the edge of the wall. Am J Pathol. 2008;Nov;173:1243-52.

Fasano A. Surprises from celiac disease. Scientific American. 2009;301(2):54-61.

Fasano A. Zonulin and its regulation of intestinal barrier function: the biological door to inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer. Physiological Reviews. 2011;Jan1;91(1):151-175.

Ferretti G, Bacchetti T, Masciangelo S, Saturni L. Celiac disease, inflammation and oxidative damage: a nutrigenetic approach. Nutrients. Apr 2012;4(4):243-257.

Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor. Celiac Disease. Available at: www.clinicalkey.com. Copyright 2015. Accessed 2/3/2015.

Finsterer J, Leutmezer F. Celiac disease with cerebral and peripheral nerve involvement mimicking multiple sclerosis. J Med Life. 2014;Sep 15;7(3):440-4.

Ford AC, Chey WD, Talley NJ, et al. Yield of diagnostic tests for celiac disease in individuals with symptoms suggestive of Irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2009;Apr 13;169(7):651-8.

Gass J, Bethune MT, Siegel M, et al. Combination enzyme therapy for gastric digestion of dietary gluten in patients with celiac sprue. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:472-480.

Gillett HR, Arnott IDR, McIntyre M, et al. Successful infliximab treatment for steroid-refractory celiac disease: a case report. Gastroenterology. 2002;122:800-805.

Goldman AS, Van Fossan DD, Baird EE. Magnesium deficiency in celiac disease. Pediatrics. Jun 1962;29:948-952.

Gopalakrishnan S, Tripathi A, Tamiz AP, et al. Larazotide acetate promotes tight junction assembly in epithelial cells. Peptides. 2012;35:95-101.

Goronzy JJ, Weyand CM. The Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems. In: Goldman's Cecil Medicine, 24th edition. Available at: www.clinicalkey.com. Copyright 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Green PHR, Jabri B. Coeliac disease. Lancet. 2003;Aug 2;362:383-391.

Grey V, Mohammed SR, Smountas AA, et al. Improved glutathione status in young adult patients with cystic fibrosis supplemented with whey protein. J Cyst Fibros. 2003;2:195-198.

Guandalini S, Assiri A. Celiac disease: a review. JAMA Pediatr 2014;168(3):272-278.

Guevara Pacheco G, Chavez Cortes E, Castillo-Duran C. [Micronutrient deficiencies and celiac disease in Pediatrics]. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2014;Oct;112(5):457-63.

Gujral N, Freeman HJ, Thomson ABR. Celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(42):6036-6059.

Guo Y, Lu N, Bai A. Clinical use and mechanisms of infliximab treatment on inflammatory bowel disease: a recent update. BioMed research international. 2013;2013:581631.

Gupta SC, Patchva S, Aggarwal BB. Therapeutic roles of curcumin: lessons learned from clinical trials. AAPS J. 2013;Jan;15(1):195-218.

Haapalahti M, Kulmala P, Karttunen TJ, et al. Nutritional status in adolescents and young adults with screen-detected celiac disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol of Nutr. 2005;May;40:566-570.

Hadithi M, Mulder CJJ, Stam f, et al. Effect of B vitamin supplementation on plasma homocysteine levels in celiac disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;Feb 28;15(8):955-960.

Hadjivassiliou M, Aeschlimann P, Strigun A, et al. Autoantibodies in gluten ataxia recognize a novel neuronal transglutaminase. Ann Neurol. 2008;Sep;64(3):332-43.

Halfdanarson TR, Litzow MR, Murray JA. Hematologic manifestations of celiac disease. Blood. 2007;Jan 15;109(2):412-421.

Hallert C, Grant C, Grehn S, et al. Evidence of poor vitamin status in coeliac patients on a gluten-free diet for 10 years. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002;16:1333-1339.

Hardwick LL, Jones MR, Brautbar N, Lee DB. Magnesium absorption: mechanisms and the influence of vitamin D, calcium and phosphate. The Journal of nutrition. Jan 1991;121(1):13-23.

Hausch F, Shan L, Santiago NA, et al. Intestinal digestive resistance of immunodominant gliadin peptides. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002;June5;283:G996-G1003.

Helander HF, Fandriks L. Surface area of the digestive tract – revisited. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2014;Jun;49(6):681-9.

Henri-Bhargava A, Melmed C, Glikstein R, et al. Neurologic impairment due to vitamin E and copper deficiencies in celiac disease. Neurology. 2008;Sep 9;71(11):860-1.

Higdon J. Oregon State University. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Magnesium. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/magnesium/. Last updated 10/2013a. Accessed 2/11/2015.

Higdon J. Oregon State University. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Vitamin B12. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminB12/. Last updated 1/2014a. Accessed 3/5/2015.

Higdon J. Oregon State University. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Vitamin B6. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminB6/. Last updated 5/2014b. Accessed 3/5/2015.

Higdon J. Oregon State University. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Zinc. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/zinc/. Last updated 6/2013b. Accessed 3/5/2015.

Higdon J. Oregon State University. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Vitamin E. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminE/. Last updated 6/2008. Accessed 3/5/2015.

Higdon J. Oregon State University. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Vitamin A. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminA/. Last updated 11/2007a. Accessed 3/5/2015.

Higdon J. Oregon State University. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Selenium. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/selenium/. Last updated 11/2007b. Accessed 3/5/2015.

Higdon J. Oregon State University. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. L-carnitine. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/othernuts/carnitine/. Last updated 4/2012a. Accessed 3/5/2015.

Higdon J. Oregon State University. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Curcumin. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/curcumin/. Last updated 1/2009. Accessed 3/5/2005.

Higdon J. Oregon State University. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Vitamin C. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminC/#function. Last updated 11/2013c. Accessed 3/5/2015.

Higdon J. Oregon State University. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Lipoic Acid. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/othernuts/la/. Last updated 1/2012b. Accessed 3/5/2015.

Holmes G. Non coeliac gluten sensitivity. Gastroenterology and hepatology from bed to bench. Summer 2013;6(3):115-119.

Horowitz S. Celiac Disease: New Directions in Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 2011;17(2):92-98.

Hoseney RC, Rodgers DE. The formation and properties of wheat flour doughs. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1990;29(2):73-93.

Hu WT, Murray JA, Greenaway MC, et al. Cognitive impairment and celiac disease. Arch Neurol. 2006;63:1440:1446.

Huan J, Meza-Romero R, Mooney JL, et al. Single-chain recombinant HLA-DQ2.5/peptide molecules block alpha2-gliadin-specific pathogenic CD4+ T-cell proliferation and attenuates production of inflammatory cytokines: a potential therapy for celiac disease. Mucosal Immunol. 2011;Jan;4(1):112-120.

Husby S, Koletzko S, Korponay-Szabo I, Mearin M, Phillips A, Shamir R, . . . Catassi C. European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines for the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. 2012;54(1):136-160.

Ilus T, Kaukinen K, Virta LJ, et al. Incidence of malignancies in diagnosed celiac patients: a population-based estimate. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;Sep;109(9):1471-7.

Jackson JR, Eaton WW, Cascella NG, et al. Neurologic and psychiatric manifestations of celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Psychiatr Q. 2012;83:91-102.

James JM, Sixbey JP, Helm RM, Bannon GA, Burks AW. Wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor: a second route of allergic sensitization. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. Feb 1997;99(2):239-244.

Jeitner TM, Pinto JT, Krasnikov BF, Horswill M, Cooper AJL. Transglutaminases and neurodegeneration. Journal of neurochemistry. 2009;109(Suppl 1):160-166.

Jiang X, Dong J, Wang B, Yin X, Qin L. [Effects of organic selenium supplement on glutathione peroxidase activities: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials]. Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research. Jan 2012;41(1):120-123.

Jones W, Li X, Qu ZC, et al. Uptake recycling, and antioxidant actions of alpha-lipoic acid in endothelial cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002;33(1):83-93.

Junker Y, Zeissig S, Kim SJ, et al. Wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors drive intestinal inflammation via activation of toll-like receptor 4. J Exp Med. 2012;209(13):2395-2408.

Juse U, van de Wal Y, Koning F, et al. Design of new high-affinity peptide ligands for human leukocyte antigen-DQ2 using a positional scanning peptide library. Hum Immunol. 2010;71:475-481.

Kagnoff M. Celiac disease: pathogenesis of a model immunogenetic disease. J Clin Invest. 2007;117(1):41-49.

Kapoerchan VV, Wiesner M, Overhand M, et al. Design of azidoproline containing gluten peptides to suppress CD4+ T-cell responses associated with celiac disease. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008;16:2053-2062.

Karaahmet OZ, Unlu E, Karaahmet F, Gurcay E, Cakci A. Myopathy related to vitamin D deficiency in patient with celiac disease. Muscle & nerve. Jul 2014;50(1):147-148.

Katta R, Schlichte M. Diet and dermatitis: food triggers. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014;Mar;7(3):30-6.

Kelly CP, Leffler DA. ePocrates online. Celiac disease. Available at: https://online.epocrates.com/noFrame/showPage?method=diseases&MonographId=636. Last updated 4/11/2014. Accessed 2/3/2015.

Kemppainen T, Kroger H, Janatuinen E. Osteoporosis in adult patients with celiac disease. Bone. 1999;24(3):249-255.

Kent KD, Harper WJ, Bomser JA. Effect of whey protein isolate on intracellular glutathione and oxidant-induced cell death in human prostate epithelial cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2003;17:27-33.

Keshav S, Vanasek T, Niv Y, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of CCX282-B, an orally-administered blocker of chemokine receptor CCR9, for patients with Crohn’s disease. PLoS One 2013;8(3):e60094.

Kidd PM. Glutathione: systemic protectant against oxidative and free radical damage. Alternative medicine review: a journal of clinical therapeutic. 1997;2(3):155-176.

Kleopa KA, Kyriacou K, Zamba-Papanicolaou E, et al. Reversible inflammatory and vacuolar myopathy with vitamin E deficiency in celiac disease. Muscle Nerve. 2005;31:260-265.

Kolgazi M, Jahovic N, Yuksel M, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid modulates gut inflammation induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in rats. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;22:1859-1865.

Korponay-Szabo IR, Simon-Vecsei Z, De Leo L, Not T. Gluten-dependent intestinal autoimmune response. Current pharmaceutical design. 2012;18(35):5753-5758.

Kriegel MA, Manson JE, Costenbader KH. Does vitamin D affect risk of developing autoimmune disease?: a systematic review. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2011;40:512-531.

Krzywicka B, Herman K, Kowalczyk-Zajac M, Pytrus T. Celiac disease and its impact on the oral health status - review of the literature. Advances in clinical and experimental medicine: official organ Wroclaw Medical University. Sep-Oct 2014;23(5):675-681.

Kuhn KS, Muscaritoli M, Wischmeyer P, Stehle P. Glutamine as indispensable nutrient in oncology: experimental and clinical evidence. European journal of nutrition. Jun 2010;49(4):197-210.

Kupfer SS, Jabri B. Pathophysiology of celiac disease. Gastrointestinal endoscopy clinics of North America. Oct 2012;22(4):639-660.

Kupper C. Dietary guidelines and implementation for celiac disease. Gastroenterology. Apr 2005;128(4 Suppl 1):S121-127.

Lähdeaho ML, Kaukenin K, Laurila K, et al. Glutenase ALV003 attenuates gluten-induced mucosal injury in patients with celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 2014;146:1649-1658.

Lawson A, West J, Aithal GP, Logan RF. Autoimmune cholestatic liver disease in people with coeliac disease: a population-based study of their association. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. Feb 15 2005;21(4):401-405.

Lee S, Han KH, Nakamura Y, Kawakami S, Shimada K, Hayakawa T, . . . Fukushima M. Dietary L-cysteine improves the antioxidative potential and lipid metabolism in rats fed a normal diet. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry. 2013;77(7):1430-1434.

Lee SA, Kim HJ, Chang KC, et al. DHA and EPA down-regulate COX-2 expression through suppression of NF-kappaB activity in LPS-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;Aug;13:301-307.

Lerner A, Blank M. Hypercoagulability in celiac disease--an update. Autoimmunity reviews. Nov 2014;13(11):1138-1141.

Lerner A, Gruener N, Iancu TC. Serum carnitine concentrations in coeliac disease. Gut. 1993;34:933-935.

Lerner A, Shapira Y, Agmon-Levin N, et al. The clinical significance of 25OH-vitamin D status in celiac disease. Clinic Rev Allerg Immunol. 2012;42:322-330.

Li N, Lewis P, Samuelson D, et al. Glutamine regulates Caco-2 tight junction proteins. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004;287:G726-G733.

Lidums I, Mechaber AJ. First Consult. Celiac disease. Available at: www.clinicalkey.com. Copyright 2015 by Elsevier Inc.

Lindfors K, Blomqvist T, Juuti-Uusitalo K, et al. Live probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis bacteria inhibit the toxic effects induced by wheat gliadin in epithelial cell culture. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;152:552-558.

Lionetti E, Catassi C. New clues in celiac disease epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment. Int Rev Immunol. 2011;30:219-231.

Lohi S, Mustalahti K, Kaukinen K, et al. Increasing prevalence of celiac disease over time. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Nov 1;26(9):1217-25.

Lowe AW, Moseley RH. Role of dietary FODMAPs in IBS-related symptoms. Gastroenterology. Jan 2014;146(1):1.

Lucendo AJ, Garcia-Manzanares A. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: an updated review. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2013;Mar;105(3):154-62.

Ludvigsson JF, Bai JC, Biagi F, et al. Diagnosis and management of adult coeliac disease: guidelines from the British Society of Gastroenterology. Gut. June 10, 2014.

Lundin KEA, Alaedini A. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Gastrointest Endoscopy Clin N Am. 2012;22:723-734.

Mager DR, Qiao J, Turner J. Vitamin D and K status influences bone mineral density and bone accrual in children and adolescents with celiac disease. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66:488-495.

Magge S, Lembo A. Low-FODMAP Diet for Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterology & hepatology. Nov 2012;8(11):739-745.

Mahmood A, FitzGerald AJ, Marchbank T, et al. Zinc carnosine, a health food supplement that stabilizes small bowel integrity and stimulates gut repair processes. Gut. 2007;56:168-175.

Malterre T. Digestive and nutritional considerations in celiac disease: could supplementation help? Alternative medicine review: a journal of clinical therapeutic. Sep 2009;14(3):247-257.

Mancini LA, Trojian T, Mancini AC. Celiac disease and the athlete. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2011;Mar-Apr;10(2):105-8.

Mansueto P, Seidita A, D'Alcamo A, Carroccio A. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: literature review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2014;33(1):39-54.

Marchioni Beery RM, Birk JW. Wheat-related disorders reviewed: making a grain of sense. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;3:1-14. [Epub ahead of print]

Martin A, De Vivo G, Gentile V. Possible role of the transglutaminases in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. International journal of Alzheimer's disease. 2011;2011:865432.

Matsumura Y, Niitsuma T, Ito H. A study of factors contributing to bakers' allergy symptoms. Arerugi = [Allergy]. May 1994;43(5):625-633.

Mauro A, Orsi L, Mortara P, et al. Cerebellar syndrome in adult celiac disease with vitamin E deficiency. Acta Neurol Scand. 1991;84:167-170.

Mayo Clinic. Diseases and Conditions page. What allergy. Definition. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/wheat-allergy/basics/definition/con-20031834. 5/17/2014. Accessed 3/6/2015.

Mazzon E, Muia C, Paola RD, et al. Green tea polyphenol extract attenuates colon injury induced by experimental colitis. Free Radic Res. 2005;Sep;39(9):1017-25.

Middleton N, Jelen P, Bell G. Whole blood and mononuclear cell glutathione response to dietary whey protein supplementation in sedentary and trained male human subjects. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2004;55(2):131-141.

Miller AL. Therapeutic considerations of L-glutamine: a review of the literature. Alternative medicine review: a journal of clinical therapeutic. Aug 1999;4(4):239-248.

Molberg O, Kjersti Uhlen A, Jensen T, et al. Mapping of gluten T-cell epitopes in the bread wheat ancestors: implications for celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:393-401.

Moleski SM. The Merck Manual online. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal_disorders/irritable_bowel_syndrome_ibs/irritable_bowel_syndrome_ibs.html. Last updated 7/2013. Accessed 2/9/2015.

Molina-Infante J, Santolaria S, Montoro M, Esteve M, Fernandez-Banares F. [Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: a critical review of current evidence]. Gastroenterologia y hepatologia. Jun-Jul 2014;37(6):362-371.

Molteni N, Bardella MT, Vezzoli G, et al. Intestinal calcium absorption as shown by stable strontium test in celiac disease before and after gluten-free diet. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995; Nov;90(11):2025-8.

Monteleone G, Pender SL, Alstead E, Hauer AC, Lionetti P, McKenzie C, MacDonald TT. Role of interferon alpha in promoting T helper cell type 1 responses in the small intestine in coeliac disease. Gut. Mar 2001;48(3):425-429.

Mulder CJ, Cardile AP, Dickert J. Celiac disease presenting as severe osteopenia. Hawaii medical journal. Nov 2011;70(11):242-244.

Murray JA, McLachlan S, Adams PC, Eckfeldt JH, Garner CP, Vulpe CD, . . . McLaren CE. Association between celiac disease and iron deficiency in Caucasians, but not non-Caucasians. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. Jul 2013;11(7):808-814.

NIDDK. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders. Health Information page. Celiac Disease. Available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/celiac-disease/Pages/facts.aspx. Last updated 1/27/2012. Accessed 3/2/2015.

Nikpour S. Neurological manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of celiac disease: A comprehensive review. Iranian Journal of Neurology. 2012;11(2):59-64.

Nilsen EM, Jahnsen FL, Lundkin KE, et al. Gluten induces an intestinal cytokine response strongly dominated by interferon gamma in patients with celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 1998;Sep;115(3):551-63.

NLM. US National Library of Medicine. Compound Summary for CID 124886. Glutathione. Pharmacology and Biochemistry. Available at: http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/glutathione#section=Pharmacology-and-Biochemistry. Accessed 3/5/2015.

Nordström C, Dahlqvist A, Josefsson L. Quantitative determination of enzymes in different parts of the villi and crypts of rat small intestine. Comparison of alkaline phosphatase, disaccharidases and dipepeptidases. J Histochem Cytochem. 1967;15(12):713-21.

Odetti P, Valentini S, Aragno I, et al. Oxidative stress in subjects affected by celiac disease. Free Radic Res. 1998;Jul;29(1):17-24.

Olaussen RW, Karlsson MR, Lundin KEA, et al. Reduced chemokine receptor 9 on intraepithelial lymphocytes in celiac disease suggests persistent epithelial activation. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:2371-2382.

Packer L, Cadenas E. Lipoic acid: energy metabolism and redox regulation of transcription and cell signaling. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2011;Jan;48:26-32.

Pantaleoni S, Luchino M, Adriani A, et al. Bone mineral density at diagnosis of celiac disease and after 1 year of gluten-free diet. Scientific World Journal. 2014;2014:173082.

Paterson BM, Lammers KM, Arrieta C, et al. The safety, tolerance, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of single doses of AT-1001 in coeliac disease subjects: a proof of concept study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007;26:757-766.

Pena AS, Garrote JA, Crusius JB. Advances in the immunogenetics of coeliac disease. Clues for understanding the pathogenesis and disease heterogeneity. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. Supplement. 1998;225:56-58.

Peters SL, Biesiekierski JR, Yelland GW, et al. Randomized clinical trial: gluten may cause depression in subjects with non-coeliac gluten sensitivity – an exploratory clinical study. 2014;May;39(10):1104-12.

Pischon T, Hankinson SE, Hotamisligil GS, et al. Habitual dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in relation to inflammatory markers among US men and women. Circulation. 2003;108:155-160.

Pozo-Rubio T, Olivares M, Nova E, et al. Immune development and intestinal microbiota in celiac disease. Clin Dev Immunol. 2012;2012:654143.

PR Newswire. Alba Therapeutics Announces Positive Results of Phase IIb Trial in Celiac Disease. [News Release]. Available at: http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/alba-therapeutics-announces-positive-results-of-phase-iib-trial-in-celiac-disease-244877451.html. 2/11/2014. Accessed 3/27/2015.

Presutti, RJ, Cangemi JR, Cassidy HD, et al. Celiac disease. Am Fam Physician. 2007;Dec15;76(12):1795-1802.

Prietl B, Treiber G, Pieber TR, et al. Vitamin D and immune function. Nutrients. 2013;5:2502-2521.

Pushpakumar S, Kundu S, Sen U. Endothelial dysfunction: the link between homocysteine and hydrogen sulfide. Current medicinal chemistry. 2014;21(32):3662-3672.

Rabelink NM, Westgeest HM, Bravenboer N, Jacobs MA, Lips P. Bone pain and extremely low bone mineral density due to severe vitamin D deficiency in celiac disease. Archives of osteoporosis. Dec 2011;6(1-2):209-213.

Rajani S, Huynh HQ, Turner J. The changing frequency of celiac disease diagnosed at the Stollery Children’s Hospital. Can J Gastroenterol. 2010;24(2):109-112.

Rashtak S, Murray A. Review article: celiac disease, new approaches to therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35:768-781.

Rastogi A, Bhadada SK, Bhansali A, et al. Celiac disease: a missed cause of metabolic bone disease. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012;Sep-Oct;16(5):780-785.

Real A, Comino I, de Lorenzo L, et al. Molecular and Immunological Characterization of Gluten Proteins Isolated from Oat Cultivars That Differ in Toxicity for Celiac Disease. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e48365.

Regan PT, DiMagno EP. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in celiac sprue: a cause of treatment failure. Gastroenterology. Mar 1980;78(3):484-487.

Reinken L, Zieglauer H. Vitamin B-6 absorption in children with acute celiac disease and in control subjects. J Nutr. 1978;108:1562-1565.

Richards JB, Valdes AM, Gardner JP, Paximadas D, Kimura M, Nessa A, . . . Aviv A. Higher serum vitamin D concentrations are associated with longer leukocyte telomere length in women. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Nov 2007;86(5):1420-1425.

Richie JPJ, Nichenametla S, Neidig W, Calcagnotto A, Haley JS, Schell TD, Muscat JE. Randomized controlled trial of oral glutathione supplementation on body stores of glutathione. European journal of nutrition. 2014:1-13.

Rodrigo L, Blanco I, Bobes J, et al. Remarkable prevalence of coeliac disease in patients with Irritable bowel syndrome plus fibromyalgia in comparison with those with isolated Irritable bowel syndrome: a case-finding study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:R201.

Rodrigo L, Hernandez-Lahoz C, Fuentes D, et al. Prevalence of celiac disease in multiple sclerosis. BMS Neurology, 2011;11:31.

Roma E, Panayiotou J, Karantana H, et al. Changing pattern in the clinical presentation of pediatric celiac disease: a 30-year study. Digestion. 2009;80:185-191.

Round JL, Mazmanian SK. The gut microbiota shapes intestinal immune responses during health and disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2009;May;9:313-323.

Rubio-Tapia A, Hill ID, Kelly CP, et al. ACG clinical guidelines: diagnosis and management of celiac disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108:656-676.

Rubio-Tapia A, Kyle RA, Kaplan EL, et al. Increased prevalence and mortality in undiagnosed celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:88-93.

Rude RK, Olerich M. Magnesium deficiency: possible role in osteoporosis associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Osteoporos Int. 1996;6(6):453-61.

Rujner J, Socha J, Syczewska M, Wojtasik A, Kunachowicz H, Stolarczyk A. Magnesium status in children and adolescents with coeliac disease without malabsorption symptoms. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). Oct 2004;23(5):1074-1079.

Rujner J, Socha J, Wojtasik A, et al. Magnesium status in children and adolescents with celiac disease. Wiad Lek. 2001;54(5-6):277-285.

Saibeni S, Lecchi A, Meucci G, et al. Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in adult gluten-sensitive enteropathy at diagnosis: role of B12, folate, and genetics. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;3:574-580.

Salcedo G, Quirce S, Diaz-Perales A. Wheat allergens associated with Baker's asthma. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2011;21(2):81-92.

Sanders DS, Carter MJ, Hurlstone DP, et al. Association of adult coeliac disease with Irritable bowel syndrome: a case-control study in patients fulfilling ROME II criteria referred to secondary care. Lancet. 2001;358:1504-08.

Sanmukhani J, Satodia V, Trivedi J, et al. Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Phytother Res. 2014;Apr;28(4):579-85.

Sapone A, Bai JC, Ciacci C, et al. Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification. BMC Med. 2012;Feb 7;10:13.

Sapone A, Lammers KM, Casolaro V, et al. Divergence of gut permeability and mucosal immune gene expression in two gluten-associated conditions: celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. BMC Med. 2011;9:23.

Sekhar RV, Patel SG, Guthikonda AP, Reid M, Balasubramanyam A, Taffet GE, Jahoor F. Deficient synthesis of glutathione underlies oxidative stress in aging and can be corrected by dietary cysteine and glycine supplementation. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Sep 2011;94(3):847-853.

Sevastiadou S, Malamitsi-Puchner A, Costalos C, et al. The impact of oral glutamine supplementation on the intestinal permeability and incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis/septicemia in premature neonates. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011;24(10):1294-1300.

Shan L, Molberg O, Parrot I, et al. Structural basis for gluten intolerance in celiac sprue. Science. 2002;297:2275-2279.

SHC. Stanford Hospital & Clinics. The Low FODMAP Diet. Available at: https://stanfordhealthcare.org/content/dam/SHC/for-patients-component/programs-services/clinical-nutrition-services/docs/pdf-lowfodmapdiet.pdf. 1/2014. Accessed 2/27/2015.

Shepherd SJ, Gibson PR. Nutritional inadequacies of the gluten-free diet in both recently-diagnosed and long-term patients with coeliac disease. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2013;Aug;26(4):349-58.

Shewry PR, Halford NG. Cereal seed storage proteins: structures, properties and role in grain utilization. J Exp Bot. 2002;Apr;53(370):947-58.

Siegel M, Bethune MT, Gass J, et al. Rational design of combination enzyme therapy for celiac sprue. Chem Biol. 2006;13:649-658.

Siegel M, Garber ME, Spencer AG, Botwick W, Kumar P, Williams RN, . . . Adelman DC. Safety, tolerability, and activity of ALV003: results from two phase 1 single, escalating-dose clinical trials. Digestive diseases and sciences. Feb 2012;57(2):440-450.

Siegel M, Khosla C. Transglutaminase 2 inhibitors and their therapeutic role in disease states. Pharmacol Ther. 2007;115:232-245.

Silvester J, Duerksen D. Five things to know about...celiac disease. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. Jan 8 2013;185(1):60.

Skovbjerg H. Immunoelectrophoretic studies on human small intestinal brush border proteins – the longitudinal distribution of peptidases and disaccharidases. Clin Chim Acta. 1981;May 5;112(2):205-12.

Skulas-Ray AC. Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammation: A perspective on the challenges of evaluating efficacy in clinical research. Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators. Feb 16 2015.

Smecuol E, Hwang HJ, Sugai E, et al. Exploratory, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of Bifidobacterium infantis natren life start strain super strain in active celiac disease. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013;47:139-147.

Smith DF, Gerdes LU. Meta-analysis on anxiety and depression in adult celiac disease. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2012;Mar;125(3):189-93.

Snyder CL, O Young D, Green PHR, et al. Celiac Disease. In: GeneReviews. Pagon RA, Adam MP, Amemiya A, et al. eds. Seattle WA: University of Washington, Seattle; 2015. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1727/>

Solakivi T, Kaukinen K, Kunnas T, et al. Serum fatty acid profile in celiac disease patients before and after a gluten-free diet. Scand J Gastrolenterol. 2009;44:826-830.

Sollid LM, Khosla C. Novel therapies for coeliac disease. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2011;269(6):604-613.

Spaenij-Dekking L, Kooy-Winkelaar Y, Van Veelen P, et al. Natural variation in toxicity of wheat: potential for selection of nontoxic varieties for celiac disease patients. Gastroenterology. 2005;129:797-806.

Sperandeo MP, Tosco A, Izzo V, Tucci F, Troncone R, Auricchio R, . . . Greco L. Potential celiac patients: a model of celiac disease pathogenesis. PloS one. 2011;6(7):e21281.

Spiegel BMR, DeRosa VP, Gralnek IM, et al. Testing for celiac sprue in Irritable bowel syndrome with predominant diarrhea: a cost-effective analysis. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:1721-1732.

Staudacher HM, Irving PM, Lomer MC, Whelan K. Mechanisms and efficacy of dietary FODMAP restriction in IBS. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. Apr 2014;11(4):256-266.

Stazi AV, Trinti B. Selenium deficiency in celiac disease: risk of autoimmune thyroid diseases. Minerva Med. 2008;Dec;99(6):643-53.

Stazi AV, Trinti B. Selenium status and over-expression of interleukin-15 in celiac disease and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2010;46(4):389-399.

Stenman SM, Lindfors K, Venalainen JI, Hautala A, Mannisto PT, Garcia-Horsman JA, . . . Kaukinen K. Degradation of coeliac disease-inducing rye secalin by germinating cereal enzymes: diminishing toxic effects in intestinal epithelial cells. Clinical and experimental immunology. Aug 2010;161(2):242-249.

Stepniak D, Spaenij-Dekking L, Mitea C, et al. Highly efficient gluten degradation with a newly identified prolyl endoprotease: implications for celiac disease. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;291:G621-G629.

Stern M. Gluten effects, analysis, and limits in celiac disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000;Nov;31(5):468.

Stojiljkovic V, Pejic S, Kasapovic J, et al. Glutathione redox cycle in small intestinal mucosa and peripheral blood of pediatric celiac disease patients. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2012;84(1):175-184.

Stojiljkovic V, Todorovic A, Pejic S, et al. Antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in small intestinal mucosa of children with celiac disease. Clin Biochem. 2009;Sep;42(13-14):1432-7.

Stojiljkovic V, Todorovic A, Radlovic N, et al. Antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and lipid peroxidation in peripheral blood of children affected by coeliac disease. Ann Clin Biochem. 2007;44:537-543.

Stoven S, Murray JA, Marietta EV. Latest in vitro and in vivo models of celiac disease. Expert opinion on drug discovery. Apr 2013;8(4):445-457.

Suh JH, Wang H, Liu RM, et al. (R)-alpha-lipoic acid reverses the age-related loss in GSH redox status in post-mitotic tissues: evidence for increased cysteine requirement for GSH synthesis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;423:126-135.

SUMC. Stanford University Medical Center. The Low FODMAP Diet. Available at: https://stanfordhealthcare.org/content/dam/SHC/for-patients-component/programs-services/clinical-nutrition-services/docs/pdf-lowfodmapdiet.pdf. 1/2014. Accessed 4/29/2015.

Surette ME. The science behind dietary omega-3 fatty acids. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. Jan 15 2008;178(2):177-180.

Szymczak J, Bohdanowicz-Pawlak A, Waszczuk E, et al. Low bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease. Endokrynol Pol. 2012;63(4):270-6.

Tarnok A, Marosvolgyi T, Szabo E, Gyorei E, Decsi T. Low n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease in Children With Preexisting Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. Feb 2015;60(2):255-258.

Tatham AS, Gilbert SM, Fido RJ, et al. Extraction, separation, and purification of wheat gluten proteins and related proteins of barley, rye, and oats. Methods Mol Med. 2000;41:55-73.

Telega G, Bennet TR, Werlin S. Emerging new clinical patterns in the presentation of celiac disease. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(2):164-168.

Thomas H, Beck K, Adamczyk M, Aeschlimann P, Langley M, Oita RC, . . . Aeschlimann D. Transglutaminase 6: a protein associated with central nervous system development and motor function. Amino acids. Jan 2013;44(1):161-177.

Thompson T. Folate, iron, and dietary fiber contents of the gluten-free diet. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Nov 2000;100(11):1389-1396.

Tikkakoski S, Savilahti E, Kolho KL. Undiagnosed coeliac disease and nutritional deficiencies in adults screened in primary health care. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2007;Jan;’42(1):60-65.

Tilley KA, Benjamin RE, Bagorogoza KE, et al. Tyrosine cross-links: molecular basis of gluten structure and function. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49:2627-2632.

Toouli J, Blankin AV, Oliver MR, et al. Management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: Australasian Pancreatic Club recommendations. Med J Aust. 2010;193(8):461-7.

Tripathi A, Lammers KM, Goldblum S, Shea-Donohue T, Netzel-Arnett S, Buzza MS, . . . Fasano A. Identification of human zonulin, a physiological modulator of tight junctions, as prehaptoglobin-2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Sep 29 2009;106(39):16799-16804.

Turner J, Pellerin G, Mager D. Prevalence of metabolic bone disease in children with celiac disease is independent of symptoms at diagnosis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009;49:589-593.

UCLA Health. Celiac Disease Program. For Patients page. Celiac vs Gluten-Sensitivity vs Wheat Allergies. Available at: http://gastro.ucla.edu/site.cfm?id=281. Accessed 3/6/2015.

UCMC. University of Chicago Medical Center. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center. Celiac disease facts and figures. Available at: http://www.cureceliacdisease.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/CeliacDiseaseFactsAndFigures0614.pdf. Updated 2014. Accessed 10/14/2014.

UCMC. University of Chicago Medical Center. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center. Jump start your gluten-free diet. Available at: http://www.cureceliacdisease.org/living-with-celiac/resources/jump-start-your-gluten-free-diet-ebook. Updated 2013. Accessed 10/17/2014.

Vahedi K, Mascart F, Mary JY, et al. Reliability of antitransglutaminase antibodies as predictors of gluten-free diet compliance in adult celiac disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98(5):1079-1087.

van den Broeck HC, van Herpen TWJM, Schuit C, et al. Removing celiac disease-related gluten proteins from bread wheat while retaining technological properties: a study with chinese spring deletion lines. BMC Plant Biol. 2009;9:41.

van Elburg RM, Uil JJ, Mulder CJJ, et al. Intestinal permeability in patients with coeliac disease and relatives of patients with coeliac disease. Gut. 1993;34:354-357.

Vaynshtein G, Rosenbaum H, Groisman GM, Markel A. Celiac sprue presenting as severe hemorrhagic diathesis due to vitamin K deficiency. The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ. Dec 2004;6(12):781-783.

Vazquez-Roque MI, Camilleri M, Smyrk T, et al. A controlled trial of gluten-free diet in patients with Irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea: effects on bowel frequency and intestinal function. Gastroenterology. 2013;144:903-911.

Ventura A, Magazzu G, Greco L. Duration of exposure to gluten and risk for autoimmune disorders in patients with celiac disease. SIGEP Study Group for Autoimmune Disorders in Celiac Disease. Gastroenterology. Aug 1999;117(2):297-303

Veraverbeke WS, Delcour JA. Wheat protein composition and properties of wheat glutenin in relation to breadmaking functionality. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. 2002;42(3):179-208.

Verdu EF, Armstrong D, Murray JA. Between celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome: the "no man's land" of gluten sensitivity. The American journal of gastroenterology. Jun 2009;104(6):1587-1594.

Vilela RM, Lands LC, Chan HM, et al. High hydrostatic pressure enhances whey protein digestibility to generate whey peptides that improve glutathione status in CFTR-deficient lung epithelial cells. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2006;50:1013-1029.

Vincentini O, Quaranta MG, Viora M, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid modulates in vitro the inflammation of celiac disease in intestinal epithelial cells via the inhibition of cPLA2. Clin Nutr. 2011;30:541-546.

Volta U, Caio G, Tovoli F, et al. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: questions still to be answered despite increasing awareness. Cell Mol Immunol. 2013;10:383-392.

Volta U, De Giorgio R. New understanding of gluten sensitivity. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;9:295-299.

Volta U, Tovoli F, Cicola R, Parisi C, Fabbri A, Piscaglia M, . . . Caio G. Serological tests in gluten sensitivity (nonceliac gluten intolerance). Journal of clinical gastroenterology. Sep 2012;46(8):680-685.

Watson JL, Ansari S, Cameron H, et al. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate blocks epithelial barrier dysfunction provoked by IFN-gamma but not byIL-4. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004;Nov;287(5):G954-61.

Watts RE, Siegel M, Khosla C. Structure – activity relationship analysis of the selective inhibition of transglutaminase 2 by dihydroisoxazoles. J Med Chem. 2006;49:7493-7501.

Weizman Z, Hamilton JR, Kopelman HR, Cleghorn G, Durie PR. Treatment failure in celiac disease due to coexistent exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Pediatrics. Dec 1987;80(6):924-926.

Westphal C, Konkel A, Schunck WH. CYP-eicosanoids – a new link between omega-3 fatty acids and cardiac disease? Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2011;96:99-108.

Wierdsma NJ, van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren MA, Berkenpas M, et al. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are highly prevalent in newly diagnosed celiac disease patients. Nutrients. 2013;Sep 30;5(10):3975-92.

Woodward J. The management of refractory coeliac disease. Therapeutic advances in chronic disease. Mar 2013;4(2):77-90.

Wu D, Wang J, Pae M, et al. Green tea EGCG, T cells, and T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Mol Aspects Med. 2012;33:107-118.

Xia J, Bergseng E, Fleckenstein B, et al. Cyclic and dimeric gluten peptide analogues inhibiting DQ2-mediated antigen presentation in celiac disease. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007;15:6565-6573.

Yan Y, Jiang W, Spinetti T, Tardivel A, Castillo R, Bourquin C, . . . Zhou R. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent inflammation and metabolic disorder through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Immunity. Jun 27 2013;38(6):1154-1163.

Yokoyama S, Watanabe N, Sato N, et al. Antibody-mediated blockade of Il-15 reverses the autoimmune intestinal damage in transgenic mice that overexpress Il-15 in enterocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009;Sep 15;106(37):15849-15854

Yuce A, Demir H, Temizel INS, et al. Serum carnitine and selenium levels in children with celiac disease. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2004;May-June;23:87-88.

Zapata-Gonzalez F, Rueda F, Petriz J, et al. Human dendritic cell activities are modulated by the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid, mainly through PPARgamma: RXR heterodimers: comparison with other polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;84:1172-1182.

Zavorsky GS, Kubow S, Grey V, et al. An open-label dose-response study of lymphocyte glutathione levels in healthy men and women receiving pressurized whey protein isolate supplements. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2007;58(6):429-436.

Zingone F, Capone P, Ciacci C. Celiac disease: Alternatives to a gluten free diet. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2010;1(1):36-39.

Zittermann A. Effects of vitamin K on calcium and bone metabolism. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. Nov 2001;4(6):483-487.

Zofkova I, Kancheva RL. The relationship between magnesium and calciotropic hormones. Magnes Res. 1995;Mar;8(1):77-84.

Zwolińska-Wcisło M, Galicka-Latala D, Rozpondek P, et al. [Frequency of celiac disease and Irritable bowel syndrome coexistence and its influence on the disease course].Przegl Lek. 2009;66(3):126-9.