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Abdulla SY, Southerst D, Cote P, Shearer HM, Sutton D, Randhawa K, . . . Taylor-Vaisey A. Is exercise effective for the management of subacromial impingement syndrome and other soft tissue injuries of the shoulder? A systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration. Manual therapy. Oct 2015;20(5):646-656.

ACSM. American College of Sports Medicine. High-Intensity Interval Training. https://www.acsm.org/docs/brochures/high-intensity-interval-training.pdf. Copyright 2014. Accessed 4/6/2017.

ACSM. American College of Sports Medicine. Resistance Training for Health and Fitness. https://www.acsm.org/docs/brochures/resistance-training.pdf. Copyright 2013. Accessed 1/3/2017.

Ainslie PN, Cotter JD, George KP, Lucas S, Murrell C, Shave R, . . . Atkinson G. Elevation in cerebral blood flow velocity with aerobic fitness throughout healthy human ageing. The Journal of physiology. 2008;586(16):4005-4010.

Alt Med Rev. Monograph: L-Glutamine. Vol. 6; No. 4, pp. 406-410. Copyright 2001 by Thorne Research. http://www.altmedrev.com/publications/6/4/406.pdf. Accessed 4/7/2017.

Anderson L, Oldridge N, Thompson DR, Zwisler AD, Rees K, Martin N, Taylor RS. Exercise-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation for Coronary Heart Disease: Cochrane Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Jan 5 2016;67(1):1-12.

Anisimov VN. Metformin: do we finally have an anti-aging drug? Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.). Nov 15 2013;12(22):3483-3489.

Aragon AA, Schoenfeld BJ. Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window? Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2013;10(1):5.

Arem H, Moore SC, Patel A, Hartge P, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Visvanathan K, . . . Matthews CE. Leisure time physical activity and mortality: a detailed pooled analysis of the dose-response relationship. JAMA Intern Med. Jun 2015;175(6):959-967.

Armanfar M, Jafari A, Dehghan GR, Abdizadeh L. Effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on exercise-induced response of inflammatory indicators and blood lactate in male runners. Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 2015;29:202.

Asano RY, Sales MM, Browne RA, Moraes JF, Coelho Junior HJ, Moraes MR, Simoes HG. Acute effects of physical exercise in type 2 diabetes: A review. World J Diabetes. Oct 15 2014;5(5):659-665.

Astorino TA, Roberson DW. Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: a systematic review. Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association. Jan 2010;24(1):257-265.

Avin KG, Coen PM, Huang W, Stolz DB, Sowa GA, Dube JJ, . . . Ambrosio F. Skeletal muscle as a regulator of the longevity protein, Klotho. Front Physiol. 2014;5:189.

Bae EA, Choo MK, Park EK, Park SY, Shin HY, Kim DH. Metabolism of ginsenoside R(c) by human intestinal bacteria and its related antiallergic activity. Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin. Jun 2002;25(6):743-747.

Baker JS, McCormick MC, Robergs RA. Interaction among Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Energy Systems during Intense Exercise. Journal of nutrition and metabolism. 2010;2010:905612.

Barrou Z, Charru P, Lidy C. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and aging. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. May-Jun 1997;24(3):233-241.

Bartlett JD, Close GL, MacLaren DP, Gregson W, Drust B, Morton JP. High-intensity interval running is perceived to be more enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise: implications for exercise adherence. Journal of sports sciences. Mar 2011;29(6):547-553.

Barzilai N, Crandall JP, Kritchevsky SB, Espeland MA. Metformin as a Tool to Target Aging. Cell metabolism. Jun 14 2016;23(6):1060-1065.

Beck BR, Daly RM, Singh MA, Taaffe DR. Exercise and Sports Science Australia (ESSA) position statement on exercise prescription for the prevention and management of osteoporosis. Journal of science and medicine in sport / Sports Medicine Australia. Oct 31 2016.

Beedie CJ. All in the mind? Pain, placebo effect, and ergogenic effect of caffeine in sports performance. Open Access J Sports Med. 2010;1:87-94.

Benardot D. Advanced Sports Nutrition. Champaign, Il.: Human Kinetics; 2006.

Bermon S, Petriz B, Kajeniene A, Prestes J, Castell L, Franco OL. The microbiota: an exercise immunology perspective. Exercise immunology review. 2015;21:70-79.

Bherer L, Erickson KI, Liu-Ambrose T. A review of the effects of physical activity and exercise on cognitive and brain functions in older adults. Journal of aging research. 2013;2013:657508.

Bishop-Bailey D. Mechanisms governing the health and performance benefits of exercise. British journal of pharmacology. Nov 2013;170(6):1153-1166.

Blain H, Rolland Y, Beauchet O, Annweiler C, Benhamou CL, Benetos A, . . . Thomas T. Usefulness of bone density measurement in fallers. Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme. Oct 2014;81(5):403-408.

Boozer CN, Nasser JA, Heymsfield SB, Wang V, Chen G, Solomon JL. An herbal supplement containing Ma Huang-Guarana for weight loss: a randomized, double-blind trial. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. Mar 2001;25(3):316-324.

Borg WP. Point/Counterpoint: The Case Against Bioidentical Hormones. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons. 2008;13(2):47.

Bouchard C, Blair SN, Katzmarzyk PT. Less Sitting, More Physical Activity, or Higher Fitness? Mayo Clinic proceedings. Nov 2015;90(11):1533-1540.

Boutcher SH. High-intensity intermittent exercise and fat loss. Journal of obesity. 2011;2011:868305.

Bray GA, Fruhbeck G, Ryan DH, Wilding JP. Management of obesity. Lancet. Feb 8 2016.

Brown WM, Davison GW, McClean CM, Murphy MH. A Systematic Review of the Acute Effects of Exercise on Immune and Inflammatory Indices in Untrained Adults. Sports medicine - open. 2015;1(1):35.

Bucci LR. Selected herbals and human exercise performance. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Aug 2000;72(2 Suppl):624s-636s.

Buckley JD, Thomson RL, Coates AM, Howe PR, DeNichilo MO, Rowney MK. Supplementation with a whey protein hydrolysate enhances recovery of muscle force-generating capacity following eccentric exercise. Journal of science and medicine in sport / Sports Medicine Australia. Jan 2010;13(1):178-181.

Burns J, Yokota T, Ashihara H, Lean ME, Crozier A. Plant foods and herbal sources of resveratrol. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. May 22 2002;50(11):3337-3340.

Burton DA, Stokes K, Hall GM. Physiological effects of exercise. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain. December 1, 2004 2004;4(6):185-188.

Camic CL, Housh TJ, Zuniga JM, Hendrix RC, Mielke M, Johnson GO, Schmidt RJ. Effects of arginine-based supplements on the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold. Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association. May 2010;24(5):1306-1312.

Campbell BI, La Bounty PM, Roberts M. The ergogenic potential of arginine. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2004;1(2):35-38.

Campbell SC, Wisniewski PJ, Noji M, McGuinness LR, Haggblom MM, Lightfoot SA, . . . Kerkhof LJ. The Effect of Diet and Exercise on Intestinal Integrity and Microbial Diversity in Mice. PloS one. 2016;11(3):e0150502.

Castell LM, Poortmans JR, Newsholme EA. Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. 1996;73(5):488-490.

Castrogiovanni P, Trovato FM, Szychlinska MA, Nsir H, Imbesi R, Musumeci G. The importance of physical activity in osteoporosis. From the molecular pathways to the clinical evidence. Histology and histopathology. Nov 2016;31(11):1183-1194.

Cerda B, Perez M, Perez-Santiago JD, Tornero-Aguilera JF, Gonzalez-Soltero R, Larrosa M. Gut Microbiota Modification: Another Piece in the Puzzle of the Benefits of Physical Exercise in Health? Front Physiol. 2016;7:51.

Chen CK, Muhamad AS, Ooi FK. Herbs in exercise and sports. Journal of physiological anthropology. 2012;31:4.

Chen CY, Hou CW, Bernard JR, Chen CC, Hung TC, Cheng LL, . . . Kuo CH. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training. High altitude medicine & biology. Sep 2014;15(3):371-379.

Chen S, Li Z, Krochmal R, Abrazado M, Kim W, Cooper CB. Effect of Cs-4 (Cordyceps sinensis) on exercise performance in healthy older subjects: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.). May 2010;16(5):585-590.

Chen S, Zhao X, Ran L, Wan J, Wang X, Qin Y, . . . Mi M. Resveratrol improves insulin resistance, glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial. Dig Liver Dis. Mar 2015;47(3):226-232.

Chen Y, Parrish TB. Caffeine dose effect on activation-induced BOLD and CBF responses. NeuroImage. Jul 1 2009;46(3):577-583.

Chi A, Tang L, Zhang J, Zhang K. Chemical composition of three polysaccharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and their antioxidant activity in skeletal muscle of exercised mice. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. Dec 2012;22(6):479-485.

Chin APMJ, van Uffelen JG, Riphagen I, van Mechelen W. The functional effects of physical exercise training in frail older people : a systematic review. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.). 2008;38(9):781-793.

Chodzko-Zajko WJ, Proctor DN, Fiatarone Singh MA, Minson CT, Nigg CR, Salem GJ, Skinner JS. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. Jul 2009;41(7):1510-1530.

Choi JJ, Eum SY, Rampersaud E, Daunert S, Abreu MT, Toborek M. Exercise attenuates PCB-induced changes in the mouse gut microbiome. Environ Health Perspect. Jun 2013;121(6):725-730.

Ciolac EG. High-intensity interval training and hypertension: maximizing the benefits of exercise? American journal of cardiovascular disease. 2012;2(2):102-110.

Clark I, Landolt HP. Coffee, caffeine, and sleep: A systematic review of epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials. Sleep medicine reviews. Feb 2017;31:70-78.

Clarke SF, Murphy EF, O'Sullivan O, Lucey AJ, Humphreys M, Hogan A, . . . Cotter PD. Exercise and associated dietary extremes impact on gut microbial diversity. Gut. Dec 2014;63(12):1913-1920.

Colberg SR, Albright AL, Blissmer BJ, Braun B, Chasan-Taber L, Fernhall B, . . . Sigal RJ. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement. Exercise and type 2 diabetes. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. Dec 2010;42(12):2282-2303.

Colcombe SJ, Erickson KI, Raz N, Webb AG, Cohen NJ, McAuley E, Kramer AF. Aerobic fitness reduces brain tissue loss in aging humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. Feb 2003;58(2):176-180.

Conaway E. Bioidentical hormones: an evidence-based review for primary care providers. J Am Osteopath Assoc. Mar 2011;111(3):153-164.

Cooke M, Iosia M, Buford T, Shelmadine B, Hudson G, Kerksick C, . . . Kreider R. Effects of acute and 14-day coenzyme Q10 supplementation on exercise performance in both trained and untrained individuals. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2008;5:8.

Cooper R, Naclerio F, Allgrove J, Jimenez A. Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2012;9(1):33.

Corder KE, Newsham KR, McDaniel JL, Ezekiel UR, Weiss EP. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women. J Sports Sci Med. Mar 2016;15(1):176-183.

Crowe MJ, Weatherson JN, Bowden BF. Effects of dietary leucine supplementation on exercise performance. European journal of applied physiology. Aug 2006;97(6):664-672.

Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, Boirie Y, Cederholm T, Landi F, . . . Zamboni M. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: Report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing. Jul 2010;39(4):412-423.

Dahlquist DT, Dieter BP, Koehle MS. Plausible ergogenic effects of vitamin D on athletic performance and recovery. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2015;12:33.

Dalbo VJ, Roberts MD, Lockwood CM, Tucker PS, Kreider RB, Kerksick CM. The effects of age on skeletal muscle and the phosphocreatine energy system: can creatine supplementation help older adults. Dynamic medicine: DM. 2009;8:6.

De Bock K, Eijnde BO, Ramaekers M, Hespel P. Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. Jun 2004;14(3):298-307.

Despres JP. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviours, and Cardiovascular Health: When Will Cardiorespiratory Fitness Become a Vital Sign? The Canadian journal of cardiology. Apr 2016;32(4):505-513.

Devries MC, Phillips SM. Creatine supplementation during resistance training in older adults-a meta-analysis. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. Jun 2014;46(6):1194-1203.

Dhanoa TS, Housner JA. Ribose: more than a simple sugar? Current sports medicine reports. Jul 2007;6(4):254-257.

DHHS. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. https://health.gov/paguidelines/pdf/paguide.pdf. 10/2008. Accessed 3/31/2017.

Diaz M, Degens H, Vanhees L, Austin C, Azzawi M. The effects of resveratrol on aging vessels. Exp Gerontol. Dec 01 2016;85:41-47.

Doherty M, Smith PM. Effects of caffeine ingestion on rating of perceived exertion during and after exercise: a meta-analysis. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. Apr 2005;15(2):69-78.

Dolinsky VW, Jones KE, Sidhu RS, Haykowsky M, Czubryt MP, Gordon T, Dyck JR. Improvements in skeletal muscle strength and cardiac function induced by resveratrol during exercise training contribute to enhanced exercise performance in rats. The Journal of physiology. Jun 1 2012;590(11):2783-2799.

Duncan MJ, Clarke ND. The Effect of Acute Rhodiola rosea Ingestion on Exercise Heart Rate, Substrate Utilisation, Mood State, and Perceptions of Exertion, Arousal, and Pleasure/Displeasure in Active Men. Journal of sports medicine (Hindawi Publishing Corporation). 2014;2014:563043.

Edwards MH, Dennison EM, Aihie Sayer A, Fielding R, Cooper C. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia in older age. Bone. Nov 2015;80:126-130.

Eijsvogels TM, Molossi S, Lee DC, Emery MS, Thompson PD. Exercise at the Extremes: The Amount of Exercise to Reduce Cardiovascular Events. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Jan 26 2016;67(3):316-329.

EIM. American College of Sports Medicine. Exercise is Medicine: A Global Health Initiative. http://www.exerciseismedicine.org/. Copyright 2017. Accessed 4/6/2017.

Falavigna G, Alves de Araujo J, Jr., Rogero MM, Pires IS, Pedrosa RG, Martins E, Jr., . . . Tirapegui J. Effects of diets supplemented with branched-chain amino acids on the performance and fatigue mechanisms of rats submitted to prolonged physical exercise. Nutrients. Nov 2012;4(11):1767-1780.

Farup J, Rahbek SK, Knudsen IS, de Paoli F, Mackey AL, Vissing K. Whey protein supplementation accelerates satellite cell proliferation during recovery from eccentric exercise. Amino acids. Nov 2014;46(11):2503-2516.

Farup J, Rahbek SK, Vendelbo MH, Matzon A, Hindhede J, Bejder A, . . . Vissing K. Whey protein hydrolysate augments tendon and muscle hypertrophy independent of resistance exercise contraction mode. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. Oct 2014;24(5):788-798.

Flanigan R, MacCarter D, Shecterle LM, St Cyr JA. D-ribose aids fatigue in aging adults. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.). May 2010;16(5):529-530.

Fujita S, Volpi E. Amino acids and muscle loss with aging. The Journal of nutrition. Jan 2006;136(1 Suppl):277s-280s.

Gahche J, Fakhouri T, Carroll DD, Burt VL, Wang CY, Fulton JE. Cardiorespiratory fitness levels among U.S. youth aged 12-15 years: United States, 1999-2004 and 2012. NCHS Data Brief. May 2014(153):1-8.

Garatachea N, Pareja-Galeano H, Sanchis-Gomar F, Santos-Lozano A, Fiuza-Luces C, Moran M, . . . Lucia A. Exercise attenuates the major hallmarks of aging. Rejuvenation Res. Feb 2015;18(1):57-89.

Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, Franklin BA, Lamonte MJ, Lee IM, . . . Swain DP. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. Jul 2011;43(7):1334-1359.

Gebel K, Ding D, Chey T, Stamatakis E, Brown WJ, Bauman AE. Effect of Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity on All-Cause Mortality in Middle-aged and Older Australians. JAMA Intern Med. Jun 2015;175(6):970-977.

Giannoulis MG, Martin FC, Nair KS, Umpleby AM, Sonksen P. Hormone replacement therapy and physical function in healthy older men. Time to talk hormones? Endocr Rev. Jun 2012;33(3):314-377.

Gibala MJ. Protein metabolism and endurance exercise. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.). 2007;37(4-5):337-340.

Gibala MJ, Little JP, Macdonald MJ, Hawley JA. Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease. The Journal of physiology. Mar 1 2012;590(5):1077-1084.

Gillen JB, Martin BJ, MacInnis MJ, Skelly LE, Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala MJ. Twelve Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves Indices of Cardiometabolic Health Similar to Traditional Endurance Training despite a Five-Fold Lower Exercise Volume and Time Commitment. PloS one. 2016;11(4):e0154075.

Go SW, Cha YH, Lee JA, Park HS. Association between Sarcopenia, Bone Density, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Men. Korean journal of family medicine. Jul 2013;34(4):281-288.

Gokbel H, Gul I, Belviranl M, Okudan N. The effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on performance during repeated bouts of supramaximal exercise in sedentary men. Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association. Jan 2010;24(1):97-102.

Gomez-Pinilla F, Hillman C. The influence of exercise on cognitive abilities. Compr Physiol. Jan 2013;3(1):403-428.

Goronzy JJ, Weyand CM. Understanding immunosenescence to improve responses to vaccines. Nat Immunol. 2013;14(5):428-436.

Gregg EW, Chen H, Wagenknecht LE, Clark JM, Delahanty LM, Bantle J, . . . Bertoni AG. Association of an intensive lifestyle intervention with remission of type 2 diabetes. Jama. Dec 19 2012;308(23):2489-2496.

Gualano AB, Bozza T, Lopes De Campos P, Roschel H, Dos Santos Costa A, Luiz Marquezi M, . . . Herbert Lancha Junior A. Branched-chain amino acids supplementation enhances exercise capacity and lipid oxidation during endurance exercise after muscle glycogen depletion. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness. Mar 2011;51(1):82-88.

Hasegawa H. Proof of the mysterious efficacy of ginseng: basic and clinical trials: metabolic activation of ginsenoside: deglycosylation by intestinal bacteria and esterification with fatty acid. Journal of pharmacological sciences. Jun 2004;95(2):153-157.

Hayes A, Cribb PJ. Effect of whey protein isolate on strength, body composition and muscle hypertrophy during resistance training. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. Jan 2008;11(1):40-44.

HCHS. Huntington College of Health Sciences. Smart Supplementation. A Primer on Branched Chain Amino Acids. http://www.hchs.edu/literature/BCAA.pdf. Copyright 2009. Accessed 4/7/2017.

He H, Liu Y, Tian Q, Papasian CJ, Hu T, Deng HW. Relationship of sarcopenia and body composition with osteoporosis. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. Feb 2016;27(2):473-482.

Hegde SM, Solomon SD. Influence of Physical Activity on Hypertension and Cardiac Structure and Function. Curr Hypertens Rep. Oct 2015;17(10):77.

Hellsten Y, Skadhauge L, Bangsbo J. Effect of ribose supplementation on resynthesis of adenine nucleotides after intense intermittent training in humans. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology. Jan 2004;286(1):R182-188.

Higgins JP, Higgins CL. Prescribing exercise to help your patients lose weight. Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine. Feb 2016;83(2):141-150.

Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, . . . Weaver CM. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. Jul 2011;96(7):1911-1930.

Holtorf K. The bioidentical hormone debate: are bioidentical hormones (estradiol, estriol, and progesterone) safer or more efficacious than commonly used synthetic versions in hormone replacement therapy? Postgrad Med. Jan 2009;121(1):73-85.

Howe TE, Shea B, Dawson LJ, Downie F, Murray A, Ross C, . . . Creed G. Exercise for preventing and treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Jul 06 2011(7):Cd000333.

Huang A, Owen K. Role of supplementary L-carnitine in exercise and exercise recovery. Medicine and sport science. 2012;59:135-142.

Huang CC, Tsai SC, Lin WT. Potential ergogenic effects of L-arginine against oxidative and inflammatory stress induced by acute exercise in aging rats. Exp Gerontol. Jun 2008;43(6):571-577.

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Jenkins PJ, Mukherjee A, Shalet SM. Does growth hormone cause cancer? Clinical endocrinology. Feb 2006;64(2):115-121.

Jeromson S, Gallagher IJ, Galloway SD, Hamilton DL. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health. Mar Drugs. Nov 2015;13(11):6977-7004.

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Jin H, Seo JH, Uhm YK, Jung CY, Lee SK, Yim SV. Pharmacokinetic comparison of ginsenoside metabolite IH-901 from fermented and non-fermented ginseng in healthy Korean volunteers. Journal of ethnopharmacology. Jan 31 2012;139(2):664-667.

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Jouris KB, McDaniel JL, Weiss EP. The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Inflammatory Response to eccentric strength exercise. J Sports Sci Med. 2011;10(3):432-438.

Jung K, Kim IH, Han D. Effect of medicinal plant extracts on forced swimming capacity in mice. Journal of ethnopharmacology. Jul 2004;93(1):75-81.

Jung ME, Bourne JE, Beauchamp MR, Robinson E, Little JP. High-intensity interval training as an efficacious alternative to moderate-intensity continuous training for adults with prediabetes. J Diabetes Res. 2015;2015:191595.

Kaminsky LA, Arena R, Beckie TM, Brubaker PH, Church TS, Forman DE, . . . Williams MA. The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness in the United States: the need for a national registry: a policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. Feb 5 2013;127(5):652-662.

Kanda A, Nakayama K, Fukasawa T, Koga J, Kanegae M, Kawanaka K, Higuchi M. Post-exercise whey protein hydrolysate supplementation induces a greater increase in muscle protein synthesis than its constituent amino acid content. The British journal of nutrition. Sep 28 2013;110(6):981-987.

Karlsson HK, Nilsson PA, Nilsson J, Chibalin AV, Zierath JR, Blomstrand E. Branched-chain amino acids increase p70S6k phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle after resistance exercise. American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism. Jul 2004;287(1):E1-7.

Kelly ME, Loughrey D, Lawlor BA, Robertson IH, Walsh C, Brennan S. The impact of exercise on the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ageing Res Rev. Jul 2014;16:12-31.

Kerksick C, Harvey T, Stout J, Campbell B, Wilborn C, Kreider R, . . . Antonio J. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: nutrient timing. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Oct 03 2008;5:17.

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Lakoski SG, Willis BL, Barlow CE, Leonard D, Gao A, Radford NB, . . . Jones LW. Midlife Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Incident Cancer, and Survival After Cancer in Men: The Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. JAMA Oncol. May 2015;1(2):231-237.

Landi F, Marzetti E, Martone AM, Bernabei R, Onder G. Exercise as a remedy for sarcopenia. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. Jan 2014;17(1):25-31.

Lee DC, Artero EG, Sui X, Blair SN. Mortality trends in the general population: the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). Nov 2010;24(4 Suppl):27-35.

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Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, Puska P, Blair SN, Katzmarzyk PT. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet. Jul 21 2012;380(9838):219-229.

Legault Z, Bagnall N, Kimmerly DS. The Influence of Oral L-Glutamine Supplementation on Muscle Strength Recovery and Soreness Following Unilateral Knee Extension Eccentric Exercise. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. Oct 2015;25(5):417-426.

Liang MT, Podolka TD, Chuang WJ. Panax notoginseng supplementation enhances physical performance during endurance exercise. Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association. Feb 2005;19(1):108-114.

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