Free Shipping on Orders Over $75! Ends January 31st.

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Health Protocols


Abidov M, Ramazanov A, Jimenez Del Rio M, et al. Effect of Blueberin on fasting glucose, C-reactive protein and plasma aminotransferases, in female volunteers with diabetes type 2: double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study. 2006;141:66-72.

ACCORD Study Group. Effects of Intensive Glucose Lowering in Type 2 Diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 2008;358(24):2545-2559.

ADA. American Diabetes Association. A1C and eAG. Last updated 9/29/2014a. Accessed 8/19/2015.

ADA. American Diabetes Association. Checking Your Blood Glucose. Last updated 6/17/2015b. Accessed 9/1/2015.

ADA. American Diabetes Association. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015e;38(Suppl 1): S8-S16.

ADA. American Diabetes Association. Foundations of Care: Education, Nutrition, Physical Activity, Smoking Cessation, Psychosocial Care, and Immunization. Diabetes Care. 2015a;38(Suppl. 1): S20-S30.

ADA. American Diabetes Association. Glycemic Index and Diabetes. Last updated 5/14/2014b. Accessed 8/24/2015.

ADA. American Diabetes Association. Glycemic Targets. Diabetes Care. 2015f;38(Suppl. 1): S33-S40.

ADA. American Diabetes Association. Insulin Basics. Available at: Last updated: 3/9/2015c. Accessed 4/10/2015.

ADA. American Diabetes Association. What Are My Options? Available at: Last updated: 3/3/2015d. Accessed 4/12/2015.

ADA. Standards of medical care in diabetes--2014. Diabetes care. Jan 2014c;37 Suppl 1:S14-80.

Adams RJ, Appleton SL, Hill CL, et al. Independent association of HbA1C and incident cardiovascular disease in people without diabetes. Obesity. 2009;17:559-563.

Adiels M, Olofsson SO, Taskinen MR, Boren J. Overproduction of very low-density lipoproteins is the hallmark of the dyslipidemia in the metabolic syndrome. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. Jul 2008;28(7):1225-1236.

Afaghi A, Ziaee A, Afaghi M. Effect of low-glycemic load diet on changes in cardiovascular risk factors in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. Nov 2012;16(6):991-995.

AFAR. TAME: Targeting Aging with Metformin 4/14/2016.

Agrawal NK, Kant S. Targeting inflammation in diabetes: newer therapeutic options. World J Diabetes. 2014;5(5):697-710.

Agrawal P, Arora S, Bhawna S, et al. Association of macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus with serum magnesium levels. Diabetes & Metab Syndr: Clin Res Rev. 2011; 5:41-44.

AHA. American Heart Association. Glycemic Index and Diabetes., Copyright 2014. Accessed 8/24/2015.

Ahmadieh H, Azar ST. Liver disease and diabetes: association, pathophysiology, and management. Diabetes research and clinical practice. Apr 2014;104(1):53-62.

Ahmed S, Mahmood Z, Zahid S. Linking insulin with Alzheimer's disease: emergence as type III diabetes. Neurological sciences: official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology. Oct 2015;36(10):1763-1769.

AKAY. AKAY Flavours & Aromatics Pvt. Ltd. Supplier Internal Study. Effect of Clovinol on Random Blood Sugar Levels - A Pilot Study. Data on File. 2017.

Albert BB, Derraik JG, Brennan CM, Biggs JB, Smith GC, Garg ML, . . . Cutfield WS. Higher omega-3 index is associated with increased insulin sensitivity and more favourable metabolic profile in middle-aged overweight men. Scientific reports. 2014;4:6697.

Aleem E, Nehrbass D, Klimek F, et al. Upregulation of the insulin receptor and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor are early events in hepatocarcinogenesis. Toxicol Pathol. 2011;39(3):524-43.

Aleidi S, Issa A, Bustanji H, Khalil M, Bustanji Y. Adiponectin serum levels correlate with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Saudi pharmaceutical journal: SPJ: the official publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society. Jul 2015;23(3):250-256.

Alfaris N, Minnick AM, Hopkins CM, Berkowitz RI, Wadden TA. Combination phentermine and topiramate extended release in the management of obesity. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. Jun 2015;16(8):1263-1274.

Alssema M, Schindhelm RK, Dekker JM, et al. Postprandial glucose and not triglyceride concentrations are associated with carotid intima media thickness in women with normal glucose metabolism: The Hoorn prandial study. Atherosclerosis. 2008;196:712-719.

Al-Tabakha MM. Future prospect of insulin inhalation for diabetic patients: The case of Afrezza versus Exubera. Journal of controlled release: official journal of the Controlled Release Society. Jul 26 2015;215:25-38.

Alvarado J, Schoenlau F, Leschot A, Salgad AM, Vigil Portales P. Delphinol(R) standardized maqui berry extract significantly lowers blood glucose and improves blood lipid profile in prediabetic individuals in three-month clinical trial. Panminerva medica. Sep 2016;58(3 Suppl 1):1-6.

Alvarado JL, Leschot A, Olivera-Nappa A, Salgado AM, Rioseco H, Lyon C, Vigil P. Delphinidin-Rich Maqui Berry Extract (Delphinol(R)) Lowers Fasting and Postprandial Glycemia and Insulinemia in Prediabetic Individuals during Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests. BioMed research international. 2016;2016:9070537.

Amin MM, Asaad GF, Abdel Salam RM, et al. Novel CoQ10 antidiabetic mechanisms underlie its positive effect: modulation of insulin and adiponectine receptors, tyrosine kinase, Pl3K, glucose transporters, sRAGE and visfatin in insulin resistant/diabetic rats. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e89169.

Andallu B, Suryakantham V, Lakshmi Srikanthi B, Kesava Reddy G. Effect of mulberry (Morus indica L.) therapy on plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2001;314(1–2):47-53.

Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46(11):1786-91.

Anderson RA, Qin B, Canini F, Poulet L, Roussel AM. Cinnamon counteracts the negative effects of a high fat/high fructose diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes. PloS one. 2013;8(12):e83243.

Andrade-Cetto A, Vazquez RC. Gluconeogenesis inhibition and phytochemical composition of two Cecropia species. Journal of ethnopharmacology. Jul 6 2010;130(1):93-97.

Anisimov VN. Metformin: do we finally have an anti-aging drug? Cell Cycle. 2013;12(22):3483-3489.

Ansurudeen I, Sunkari VG, Grunler J, Peters V, Schmitt CP, Catrina SB, . . . Forsberg EA. Carnosine enhances diabetic wound healing in the db/db mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Amino acids. Jul 2012;43(1):127-134.

Antony B, Merina B, Iyer VS, Judy N, Lennertz K, Joyal S. A Pilot Cross-Over Study to Evaluate Human Oral Bioavailability of BCM-95CG (Biocurcumax), A Novel Bioenhanced Preparation of Curcumin. Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences. Jul-Aug 2008;70(4):445-449.

Arai Y, Takayama M, Abe Y, et al. Adipokines and aging. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2011;18(7):545-50.

Arion JW, Canfield WK, Ramos FC, et al. Chlorogenic acid and hydroxynitrobenzaldehyde: new inhibitors of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997;339(2):315-322.

Aroda VR, Edelstein SL, Goldberg RB, Knowler WC, Marcovina SM, Orchard TJ, . . . Crandall JP. Long-term Metformin Use and Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. Feb 22 2016:jc20153754.

Asai A, Nakagawa K, Higuchi O, Kimura T, Kojima Y, Kariya J, . . . Oikawa S. Effect of mulberry leaf extract with enriched 1-deoxynojirimycin content on postprandial glycemic control in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism. J Diabetes Investig. Aug 2 2011;2(4):318-323.

Atkinson FS, Foster-Powell K, Brand-Miller JC. International Tables of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values: 2008. Diabetes care. 2008;31(12):2281-2283.

Atzmon G, Pollin TI, Crandall J, et al. Adiponectin levels and genotype: a potential regulator of life span in humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63(5):447-53.

Azad KM, Sutradhar SR, Khan NA, et al. Serum magnesium in hospital admitted diabetic patients. Mymensingh Med J. 2014;23(1):28-34.

Azoulay L, Filion KB, Platt RW, Dahl M, Dormuth CR, Clemens KK, . . . Ernst P. Incretin based drugs and the risk of pancreatic cancer: international multicentre cohort study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2016;352:i581.

Azoulay L. Incretin-based drugs and adverse pancreatic events: almost a decade later and uncertainty remains. Diabetes care. Jun 2015;38(6):951-953.

Azzam H, Malnick S. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - the heart of the matter. World journal of hepatology. Jun 8 2015;7(10):1369-1376.

Bahr C, Groner B. The IGF-1 receptor and its contributions to metastatic tumor growth-novel approaches to the inhibition of IGF-1R function. Growth factors (Chur, Switzerland). Mar 2005;23(1):1-14.

Balakumar P, Rohilla A, Krishan P, et al. The multifaceted therapeutic potential of benfotiamine. Pharmacol Res. 2010;61(6):482-8.

Bales CW, Kraus WE. Caloric restriction: implications for human cardiometabolic health. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. Jul-Aug 2013;33(4):201-208.

Balkau B, Kahn HS, Courbon D, Eschwege E, Ducimetiere P. Hyperinsulinemia predicts fatal liver cancer but is inversely associated with fatal cancer at some other sites: the Paris Prospective Study. Diabetes care. May 2001;24(5):843-849.

Bansal N. Prediabetes diagnosis and treatment: a review. World J Diabetes. 2015;6(2):296-303.

Banu S, Jabir NR, Manjunath NC, et al. Reduction of post-prandial hyperglycemia by mulberry tea in type-2 diabetes patients. Saidi J Biol Sci. 2015;22:32-36.

Barbagallo M, Dominguez LJ. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer’s disease. World J Diabetes. 2014;5(6):889-893.

Barclay AW, Petocz P, McMillan-Price J, Flood VM, Prvan T, Mitchell P, Brand-Miller JC. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk--a meta-analysis of observational studies. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Mar 2008;87(3):627-637.

Barth E, Albuszies G, Baumgart K, et al. Glucose metabolism and catecholamines. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(9 Suppl):S508-18.

Bassi N, Karagodin I, Wang S, et al. Lifestyle modification for metabolic syndrome: a systematic review. Am J Med. 2014;127:1242.el-1242e10.

Bassoli BK, Cassolla P, Borba-Murad GR, Constantin J, Salgueiro-Pagadigorria CL, Bazotte RB, . . . de Souza HM. Chlorogenic acid reduces the plasma glucose peak in the oral glucose tolerance test: effects on hepatic glucose release and glycaemia. Cell biochemistry and function. Apr 2008;26(3):320-328.

Bastard JP, Maachi M, Lagathu C, Kim MJ, Caron M, Vidal H, . . . Feve B. Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. European cytokine network. Mar 2006;17(1):4-12.

Basu R, Chandramouli V, Dicke B, et al. Obesity and type 2 diabetes impair insulin-induced suppression of glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis. Diabetes. 2005;54(7):1942-1948.

Batterham RL, Cummings DE. Mechanisms of Diabetes Improvement Following Bariatric/Metabolic Surgery. Diabetes care. Jun 2016;39(6):893-901.

Bazzano LA, Li TY, Joshipura KJ, Hu FB. Intake of fruit, vegetables, and fruit juices and risk of diabetes in women. Diabetes care. Jul 2008;31(7):1311-1317.

Belfiore A, Malaguarnera R. Insulin receptor and cancer. Endocrine-Related Cancer. 2011;18:R125-R147.

Beltramo E, Berrone E, Tarallo S, Porta M. Effects of thiamine and benfotiamine on intracellular glucose metabolism and relevance in the prevention of diabetic complications. Acta diabetologica. Sep 2008;45(3):131-141.

Benjamin EM. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose: The Basics. Clinical Diabetes. 2002;20(1):45-47.

Berstein LM. Metformin in obesity, cancer and aging: addressing controversies. Aging (Albany NY). 2012;4(5):320-329.

Bertinato J, Wu Xiao C, Ratnayake WM, Fernandez L, Lavergne C, Wood C, Swist E. Lower serum magnesium concentration is associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, and obesity in South Asian and white Canadian women but not men. Food Nutr Res. 2015;59:25974.

Beurel E, Grieco SF, Jope RS. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3): regulation, actions, and diseases. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2015;0:114-131.

Bhupathiraju SN, Tobias DK, Malik VS, Pan A, Hruby A, Manson JE, . . . Hu FB. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from 3 large US cohorts and an updated meta-analysis. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Jul 2014;100(1):218-232.

Bik W, Baranowska-Bik A, Wolinska-Witort E, et al. Assessment of adiponectin and its isoforms in Polish centenarians. Experimental Gerontology. 2013;48:401-407.

Bik W, Baranowska-Bik A, Wolinska-Witort E, et al. The relationship between adiponectin levels and metabolic status in centenarian, early elderly, young and obese women. Neuro Endocrinol. 2006;27(4):493-500.

Bjornholt JV, Erikssen G, Aaser E, et al. Fasting blood glucose: an underestimated risk factor for cardiovascular death. Diabetes Care. 1999;22:45-49.

Blagosklonny MV. Validation of anti-aging drugs by treating age-related diseases. Aging (Albany NY). 2009;1(3):281-288.

Bock G, Chittilapilly E, Basu R, Toffolo G, Cobelli C, Chandramouli V, . . . Rizza RA. Contribution of hepatic and extrahepatic insulin resistance to the pathogenesis of impaired fasting glucose: role of increased rates of gluconeogenesis. Diabetes. Jun 2007;56(6):1703-1711.

Boden G. Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in health and diabetes. J Investig Med. 2004;52(6):375-378.

Boers I, Muskiet FA, Berkelaar E, Schut E, Penders R, Hoenderdos K, . . . Jong MC. Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study. Lipids in health and disease. 2014;13:160.

Bogan KL, Brenner C. Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nicotinamide riboside: a molecular evaluation of NAD+ precursor vitamins in human nutrition. Annual review of nutrition. 2008;28:115-130.

Boldyrev AA, Aldini G, Derave W. Physiology and pathophysiology of carnosine. Physiological reviews. Oct 2013;93(4):1803-1845.

Bowker SL, Majumdar SR, Veugelers P, et al. Increased cancer-related mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes who use sulfonylureas or insulin. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(2):254-8.

Boyle JG, Salt IP, McKay GA. Metformin action on AMP-activated protein kinase: a translational research approach to understanding a potential new target. Diabet Med. 2010;27(10):1097-106.

Bozkaya G, Ozgu E, Karaca B. The association between estimated average glucose levels and fasting plasma glucose levels. Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil). 2010;65(11):1077-1080.

Braidy N, Guillemin GJ, Mansour H, Chan-Ling T, Poljak A, Grant R. Age Related Changes in NAD+ Metabolism Oxidative Stress and Sirt1 Activity in Wistar Rats. PloS one. 2011;6(4):e19194.

Brown AL, Lane J, Coverly J, Stocks J, Jackson S, Stephen A, . . . Hendrickx H. Effects of dietary supplementation with the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate on insulin resistance and associated metabolic risk factors: randomized controlled trial. The British journal of nutrition. Mar 2009;101(6):886-894.

Brown BE, Kim CH, Torpy FR, Bursill CA, McRobb LS, Heather AK, . . . van Reyk DM. Supplementation with carnosine decreases plasma triglycerides and modulates atherosclerotic plaque composition in diabetic apo E(-/-) mice. Atherosclerosis. Feb 2014;232(2):403-409.

Bruckbauer A, Zemel MB. Synergistic effects of metformin, reveratrol, and hydroxymethylbutyrate on insulin sensitivity. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2013;6:93-102.

Bruin JE, Saber N, Braun N, et al. Treating diet-induced diabetes and obesity with human embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic progenitor cells and antidiabetic drugs. Stem Cell Reports. 2015;4(4):605-620.

Bucala R, Makita Z, Koschinsky T, et al. Lipid advanced glycosylation: pathway for lipid oxidation in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1993;90:6434-6438.

Buse JB, DeFronzo RA, Rosenstock J, Kim T, Burns C, Skare S, . . . Fineman M. The Primary Glucose-Lowering Effect of Metformin Resides in the Gut, Not the Circulation: Results From Short-term Pharmacokinetic and 12-Week Dose-Ranging Studies. Diabetes care. Feb 2016;39(2):198-205.

Calder PC, Ahluwalia N, Brouns F, et al. Dietary factors and low-grade inflammation in relation to overweight and obesity. Br J Nutr. 2011;106 Suppl 3:S5-78.

Campbell LK, White JR, Campbell RK. Acarbose: its role in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. Nov 1996;30(11):1255-1262.

Canto C, Houtkooper RH, Pirinen E, Youn DY, Oosterveer MH, Cen Y, . . . Auwerx J. The NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside enhances oxidative metabolism and protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity. Cell Metab. Jun 6 2012;15(6):838-847.

Canto C, Menzies KJ, Auwerx J. NAD(+) Metabolism and the Control of Energy Homeostasis: A Balancing Act between Mitochondria and the Nucleus. Cell Metab. Jul 7 2015;22(1):31-53.

Capasso I, Esposito E, Pentimalli F, Montella M, Crispo A, Maurea N, . . . Giordano A. Homeostasis model assessment to detect insulin resistance and identify patients at high risk of breast cancer development: National Cancer Institute of Naples experience. Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research: CR. 2013;32:14.

Capel I, Rigla M, Garcia-Saez G, Rodriguez-Herrero A, Pons B, Subias D, . . . Hernando ME. Artificial pancreas using a personalized rule-based controller achieves overnight normoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes technology & therapeutics. Mar 2014;16(3):172-179.

Carter P, Gray LJ, Talbot D, Morris DH, Khunti K, Davies MJ. Fruit and vegetable intake and the association with glucose parameters: a cross-sectional analysis of the Let's Prevent Diabetes Study. European journal of clinical nutrition. Jan 2013;67(1):12-17.

Cavalot F, Petrelli A, Traversa M, et al. Postprandial blood glucose is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than fasting glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly in women: lessons from the San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(3):813-9.

CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data and Statistics. Available at: Last updated: 3/4/2015b. Accessed 4/2/2015.

CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetes Home. Basics About Diabetes. Available at: Last updated: 3/31/2015a. Accessed 4/3/2015.

CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetes in Youth. <>. Last updated 12/9/2014. Accessed 8/12/2015.

Ceriello A, Ihnat MA, Thorpe JE. The “metabolic memory”: is more than just tight glucose control necessary to prevent diabetic complications? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(2):410-415.

Ceriello A. Diabetic complications: from oxidative stress to inflammatory cardiovascular disorders. Medicographia. 2011;33:29-34.

Ceriello A. Point: Postprandial glucose levels are a clinically important treatment target. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(8):1905-1907.

Ceriello A. The emerging challenge in diabetes: the “metabolic memory.” Vascul Pharmacol. 2012;57:133-138.

Chakrabarti R, Chen M, Liu W, Chen S. Preventive effects of benfotiamine in chronic diabetic complications. J Diabetes Investig. Apr 7 2011;2(2):123-131.

Chan JH, Lim S, Wong WS. Antisense oligonucleotides: from design to therapeutic application. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. May-Jun 2006;33(5-6):533-540.

Chen K, Li F, Li J, et al. Induction of leptin resistance through direct interaction of C-reactive protein with leptin. Nature Medicine. 2006;12(4):425-432.

Cheng P, Neugaard B, Foulis P, Conlin PR. Hemoglobin A1C as a predictor of incident diabetes. Diabetes care. Mar 2011;34(3):610-615.

Chi Y, Sauve AA. Nicotinamide riboside, a trace nutrient in foods, is a vitamin B3 with effects on energy metabolism and neuroprotection. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. Nov 2013;16(6):657-661.

Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Gomis R, et al. Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomized trial. Lancet. 2002;359(9323):2072-7.

Chiu C-T, Chuang D-M. Molecular actions and therapeutic potential of lithium in preclinical and clinical studies of CNS disorders. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2010;128(2):281-304.

Chiva-Blanch G, Urpi-Sarda M, Ros E, Valderas-Martinez P, Casas R, Arranz S, . . . Estruch R. Effects of red wine polyphenols and alcohol on glucose metabolism and the lipid profile: a randomized clinical trial. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). Apr 2013;32(2):200-206.

Cho YM. A gut feeling to cure diabetes: potential mechanisms of diabetes remission after bariatric surgery. Diabetes Metab J. Dec 2014;38(6):406-415.

Choi YK, Park KG. Metabolic roles of AMPK and metformin in cancer cells. Molecules and cells. Oct 2013;36(4):279-287.

Chokrungvaranon N, Deer J, Reaven PD. Intensive glycemic control and cardiovascular disease: are there patients who may benefit? Postgraduate medicine. Nov 2011;123(6):114-123.

Chou HC, Chen WW, Hsiao FY. Acute pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: a population-based nested case-control study. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. Jul 2014;37(7):521-528.

Chou SC, Chen KW, Hwang JS, et al. The add-on effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Altern Ther Health Med. 2006;12(3):34-9.

Chuengsamarn S, Rattanamongkolgul S, Luechapudiporn R, et al. Curcumin extract for prevention of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(11):2121-7.

Chung ST, Hsia DS, Chacko SK, Rodriguez LM, Haymond MW. Increased gluconeogenesis in youth with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. Mar 2015;58(3):596-603.

Clemente-Postigo M, Munoz-Garach A, Serrano M, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and adipose tissue vitamin D receptor gene expression: relationship with obesity and type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100:E591-E595.

Clore JN, Stillman J, Sugerman H. Glucose-6-phosphatase flux in vitro is increased in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2000;49:969-974.

Cohen O, Gillam M. First Consult. Diabetes mellitus type 1 in adults. Available at: Copyright by Elsevier BV, Inc. Last updated 10/17/2013. Accessed 3/19/2015.

Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Fernhall B, Regensteiner JG, Blissmer BJ, Rubin RR, . . . Braun B. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement. Diabetes care. Dec 2010;33(12):e147-167.

Colman RJ, Anderson RM, Johnson SC, Kastman EK, Kosmatka KJ, Beasley TM, . . . Weindruch R. Caloric restriction delays disease onset and mortality in rhesus monkeys. Science (New York, N.Y.). Jul 10 2009;325(5937):201-204.

Coniff RF, Shapiro JA, Robbins D, Kleinfield R, Seaton TB, Beisswenger P, McGill JB. Reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin and postprandial hyperglycemia by acarbose in patients with NIDDM. A placebo-controlled dose-comparison study. Diabetes care. Jun 1995;18(6):817-824.

Considine RV, Sinha MK, Heiman ML, et al. Serum immunoreactive-leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese humans. NEJM. 1996;334:292-5.

Cordera R, Adami GF. From bariatric to metabolic surgery: Looking for a "disease modifier" surgery for type 2 diabetes. World journal of diabetes. Jan 25 2016;7(2):27-33.

Costemale-Lacoste JF, Guilloux JP, Gaillard R. The role of GSK-3 in treatment-resistant depression and links with the pharmacological effects of lithium and ketamine: A review of the literature. L'Encephale. Apr 2016;42(2):156-164.

Coughlan KA, Valentine RJ, Ruderman NB, et al. AMPK activation: a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes? Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2014;7:241-253.

Coutinho M, Gerstein HC, Wang Y, Yusuf S. The relationship between glucose and incident cardiovascular events. A metaregression analysis of published data from 20 studies of 95,783 individuals followed for 12.4 years. Diabetes care. Feb 1999;22(2):233-240.

Couturier K, Batandier C, Awada M, Hininger-Favier I, Canini F, Anderson RA, . . . Roussel AM. Cinnamon improves insulin sensitivity and alters the body composition in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics. Sep 1 2010;501(1):158-161.

Cowey S, Hardy RW. The metabolic syndrome: a high-risk state for cancer? Am J Pathol. 2006;169(5):1505-1522.

Currie CJ, Poole CD, Gale EAM. The influence of glucose-lowering therapies on cancer risk in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1766-1777.

Dandona P, Aljada A, Bandyopadhyay A. Inflammation: the link between insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes. Trends in immunology. Jan 2004;25(1):4-7.

Dankner R, Shanik MH, Keinan-Boker L, Cohen C, Chetrit A. Effect of elevated basal insulin on cancer incidence and mortality in cancer incident patients: the Israel GOH 29-year follow-up study. Diabetes care. Jul 2012;35(7):1538-1543.

Davidson MB, Peters AL. An overview of metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American journal of medicine. Jan 1997;102(1):99-110.

Davis PA, Yokoyama W. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis. J Med Food. 2011;14(9):884-9.

de Bree A, Verschuren WM, Blom HJ, Kromhout D. Association between B vitamin intake and plasma homocysteine concentration in the general Dutch population aged 20-65 y. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Jun 2001;73(6):1027-1033.

de Carvalho Vidigal F, Guedes Cocate P, Goncalves Pereira L, de Cassia Goncalves Alfenas R. The role of hyperglycemia in the induction of oxidative stress and inflammatory process. Nutr Hosp. Sep-Oct 2012;27(5):1391-1398.

De Felice FG, Lourenco MV, Ferreira ST. How does brain insulin resistance develop in Alzheimer’s disease? Alzheimer’s Dement. 2014;10(Suppl):S26-32.

de Heer J, Goke B. Are incretin mimetics and enhancers linked to pancreatitis and malignant transformations in pancreas? Expert opinion on drug safety. Nov 2014;13(11):1469-1481.

de Jager J, Kooy A, Lehert P, et al. Long term treatment with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and risk of vitamin B12 deficiency: randmised placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 2010;340:c2181.

de la Monte SM, Wands JR. Alzheimer’s disease is type 3 diabetes-evidence reviewed. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2008;2(6):1101-1113.

De Tata V. Age-related impairment of pancreatic beta-cell function: pathophysiological and cellular mechanisms. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2014;5:138.

de Vries MA, Klop B, Janssen HW, Njo TL, Westerman EM, Castro Cabezas M. Postprandial inflammation: targeting glucose and lipids. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2014;824:161-170.

DeFronzo RA, Tripathy D. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is the primary defect in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care. Nov 2009;32 Suppl 2:S157-163.

DeFronzo RA, Triplitt CL, Abdul-Ghani M, et al. Novel agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum. 2014;27(2):100-112.

DeFuria J, Bennett G, Strissel KJ, Perfield JW, 2nd, Milbury PE, Greenberg AS, Obin MS. Dietary blueberry attenuates whole-body insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice by reducing adipocyte death and its inflammatory sequelae. The Journal of nutrition. Aug 2009;139(8):1510-1516.

Del Bene A, Ciolli L, Borgheresi L, et al. Is type 2 diabetes related to leukoaraiosis? an updated review. Acta Neurol Scand. 2015;Mar 16. Doi:10.1111/ane.12398.

Delamater AM. Clinical Use of Hemoglobin A1C to Improve Diabetes Management. Clinical Diabetes. January 1, 2006 2006;24(1):6-8.

Delgado H, Lehmann T, Bobbioni-Harsch E, Ybarra J, Golay A. Acarbose improves indirectly both insulin resistance and secretion in obese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes & metabolism. Jun 2002;28(3):195-200.

Derdemezis CS, Lovegrove JA. Glycemic index, glycemic control and beyond. Current pharmaceutical design. 2014;20(22):3620-3630.

Derosa G, Maffioli P. Efficacy and safety profile evaluation of acarbose alone and in association with other antidiabetic drugs: a systematic review. Clin Ther. 2012;34(6):1221-1236.

Despres JP, Lamarche B, Mauriege P, et al. Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1996;334.15:952-958.

Devi KP, Rajavel T, Nabavi SF, Setzer WN, Ahmadi A, Mansouri K, Nabavi SM. Hesperidin: A promising anticancer agent from nature. Industrial Crops and Products. 2015;76:582-589.

di Salvo ML, Safo MK, Contestabile R. Biomedical aspects of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate availability. Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition). 2012;4:897-913.

Diabetes Care. 2014;37(2):419-27.

Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Research Group. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP): description of lifestyle intervention. Diabetes care. Dec 2002;25(12):2165-2171. Treatment: Medication. Metformin Side Effects Copyright 2016. Accessed 8/8/2016.

Dimsdale JE, Moss J. Short-term catecholamine response to psychological stress. Psychosomatic medicine. Sep 1980;42(5):493-497.

Dineley KT, Jahrling JB, Denner L. Insulin resistance in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2014;Dec;72Pt A:92-103.

Ding D, Qiu J, Li X, et al. Hyperglycemia and mortality among patients with coronary artery disease. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(2):546-54.

Djiogue S, Nwabo Kamdje AH, Vecchio L, et al. Insulin resistance and cancer: the role of insulin and IGFs. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013;20:R1-R17.

Djousse L, Biggs ML, Lemaitre N, et al. Plasma omega-3 fatty acids and incident diabetes in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(2):527-533.

Dong JY, Zhang WG, Chen JJ, Zhang ZL, Han SF, Qin LQ. Vitamin D intake and risk of type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutrients. Sep 2013;5(9):3551-3562.

Dowling RJO, Goodwin PJ, Stambolic V. Understanding the benefit of metformin use in cancer treatment. BMC Medicine. 2011;9:33.

Drager LF, Togeiro SM, Polotsky VY, Lorenzi-Filho G. Obstructive sleep apnea: a cardiometabolic risk in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Aug 13 2013;62(7):569-576.

Draznin B. Mechanism of the mitogenic influence of hyperinsulinemia. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome. 2011;3:10.

Drucker DJ, Nauck MA. The incretin system: glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes. The Lancet. 2006;368(9548):1696-1705.

DTU. Diabetes Trial Unit: The Oxford Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism. The Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation (ACE) Overview. Accessed 9/4/2015.

Du X, Edelstein D, Brownlee M. Oral benfotiamine plus alpha-lipoic acid normalises complication-causing pathways in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia. Oct 2008;51(10):1930-1932.

Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T, Reda D, Emanuele N, Reaven PD, . . . Huang GD. Glucose Control and Vascular Complications in Veterans with Type 2 Diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 2009;360(2):129-139.

Dworatzek PD, Arcudi K, Gougeon R, Husein N, Sievenpiper JL, Williams SL. Nutrition therapy. Canadian journal of diabetes. Apr 2013;37 Suppl 1:S45-55.

Edgerton DS, Cardin S, Pan C, et al. Effects of insulin deficiency or excess on hepatic gluconeogenesis flux during glycogenolytic inhibition in the conscious dog. Diabetes. 2002;51(11):3151-3162.

Egan AG, Blind E, Dunder K, de Graeff PA, Hummer BT, Bourcier T, Rosebraugh C. Pancreatic Safety of Incretin-Based Drugs — FDA and EMA Assessment. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014;370(9):794-797.

Eldar-Finkelman H, Martinez A. GSK-3 Inhibitors: Preclinical and Clinical Focus on CNS. Front Mol Neurosci. 2011;4:32.

El-Gohary Y, Tulachan S, Wiersch J, Guo P, Welsh C, Prasadan K, . . . Gittes G. A Smad Signaling Network Regulates Islet Cell Proliferation. Diabetes. 2013;63(1):224-236.

Emslie-Smith A, Dowall J, Morris A. The problem of polypharmacy in type 2 diabetes. The British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease. 2003;3(1):54-56.

Eriksson JG, Forsen TJ, Mortensen SA, et al. The effect of coenzyme Q10 administration on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. BioFactors 9. 1999;315-318.

Esposito K, Giugliano D. Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. Mar 2014;30 Suppl 1:34-40.

Esser N, Paquot N, Scheen AL, Anti-inflammatory agents to treat or prevent type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2015;24(3):283-307.

Fadini GP, Avogaro A. Cardiovascular effects of DPP-4 inhibition: Beyond GLP-1. Vascular Pharmacology. 2011;55(1–3):10-16.

Farah A, Monteiro M, Donangelo CM, Lafay S. Chlorogenic Acids from Green Coffee Extract are Highly Bioavailable in Humans. The Journal of nutrition. 2008;138(12):2309-2315.

Farsi PF, Djazayery A, Eshraghian MR, Koohdani F, Saboor-Yaraghi AA, Derakhshanian H, . . . Djalali M. Effects of supplementation with omega-3 on insulin sensitivity and non-esterified free fatty acid (NEFA) in type 2 diabetic patients. Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia. Jun 2014;58(4):335-340.

FDA. U.S.  Food and Drug Administration. News and Events. FDA News Release. FDA approves Afrezza to treat diabetes. Available at: Updated: 6/30/2014. Accessed 4/19/2015.

FDA. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Safety. Exubera (insulin human [rDNA origin] Inhalation Powder September 2008. Available at: Last updated: 6/19/2009. Accessed 6/21/2015.

FDA. What is the pancreas? What is an artificial pancreas device system? HomeHealthandConsumer/ConsumerProducts/ArtificialPancreas/ucm259548.htm. 2016. 3/30/2016.

Ferensztajn-Rochowiak E, Rybakowski JK. The effect of lithium on hematopoietic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells. Pharmacological reports: PR. Apr 2016;68(2):224-230.

Feringa HH, Laskey DA, Dickson JE, Coleman CI. The effect of grape seed extract on cardiovascular risk markers: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Aug 2011;111(8):1173-1181.

Ferre’ P. The biology of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: relationship with lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Daibetes. 2004;53(suppl 1):S43-S50.

Feskens EJM, Kromhout D. Glucose tolerance and the risk of cardiovascular disease: The Zutphen Study. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992;45(11):1327-1334.

Feuers RJ, Desai VG, Chen FX, Hunter JD, Duffy PH, Oriaku ET. Effects of dietary restriction on insulin resistance in obese mice. J Am Aging Assoc. Apr 2000;23(2):95-101.

Fiori JL, Shin YK, Kim W, et al. Resveratrol prevents beta-cell dedifferentiation in nonhuman primates given a high-fat/high-sugar diet. Diabetes. 2013;62(10):3500-13.

Fleischman A, Shoelson SE, Bernier R, Goldfine AB. Salsalate improves glycemia and inflammatory parameters in obese young adults. Diabetes care. Feb 2008;31(2):289-294.

Fleming LW, Fleming JW, Davis CS. Afrezza: an inhaled approach to insulin delivery. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2015;Mar 12. doi: 10.1002/2327-6924.12247.

Flora SJ. Structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants for strategies against metal and metalloid exposure. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. Sep-Oct 2009;2(4):191-206.

Fonseca V, Levinson P, Toth DW, Gillam M. First Consult. Diabetes mellitus type 2 in adults. Available at: Copyright by Elsevier BV, Inc. Last updated 8/26/2013. Accessed 3/19/2015.

Forouzandeh F, Salazar G, Patrushev N, et al. Metformin beyond diabetes: pleiotropic benefits of metformin in attenuation of atherosclerosis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3(6):e001202.

Forslund K, Hildebrand F, Nielsen T, Falony G, Le Chatelier E, Sunagawa S, . . . Pedersen O. Disentangling type 2 diabetes and metformin treatment signatures in the human gut microbiota. Nature. Dec 10 2015;528(7581):262-266.

Fowler MJ. Microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. Clinical Diabetes. 2008;26(2):77-82.

Franciosi M, Lucisano G, Lapice E, et al. Metformin therapy and risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes: systematic review. PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e71583.

Franekova V, Angin Y, Hoebers NT, Coumans WA, Simons PJ, Glatz JF, . . . Larsen TS. Marine omega-3 fatty acids prevent myocardial insulin resistance and metabolic remodeling as induced experimentally by high insulin exposure. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. Feb 15 2015;308(4):C297-307.

Fukino Y, Ikeda A, Maruyama K, Aoki N, Okubo T, Iso H. Randomized controlled trial for an effect of green tea-extract powder supplementation on glucose abnormalities. European journal of clinical nutrition. Aug 2008;62(8):953-960.

Fung TT, van Dam RM, Hankinson SE, Stampfer M, Willett WC, Hu FB. Low-Carbohydrate Diets and All-Cause and Cause-Specific MortalityTwo Cohort Studies. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2010;153(5):289-298.

Galic S, Oakhill JS, Steinberg GR. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Molecular and cellular endocrinology. Mar 25 2010;316(2):129-139.

Galli-Tsinopoulou A, Maggana I, Kyrgios I, et al. Association between magnesium concentration and HbA1C in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes. 2014;6(4):369-77.

Galli-Tsinopoulou A, Stergidou D. Insulin analogues for type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents. Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain : 1998). Dec 2012;48(12):795-809.

Garber AJ. Long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists: a review of their efficacy and tolerability. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(Suppl2):S279-S284.

Garvey WT, Ryan DH, Look M, Gadde KM, Allison DB, Peterson CA, . . . Bowden CH. Two-year sustained weight loss and metabolic benefits with controlled-release phentermine/topiramate in obese and overweight adults (SEQUEL): a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 extension study. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Feb 2012;95(2):297-308.

Garvey WT. Phentermine and topiramate extended-release: a new treatment for obesity and its role in a complications-centric approach to obesity medical management. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2013;12(5):741-56.

Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Genuth S, Ismail-Beigi F, Buse JB, Goff DC, Jr., . . . Friedewald WT. Long-term effects of intensive glucose lowering on cardiovascular outcomes. The New England journal of medicine. Mar 3 2011;364(9):818-828.

Gerstein HC, Pais P, Pogue J, et al. Relationship of glucose and insulin levels to the risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;33:612-9.

Giacco F, Brownlee M. Oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Circ Res. 2010;107(9):1058-1070.

Gilgun-Sherki Y, Melamed E, Offen D. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: the need for effective antioxidant therapy. Journal of neurology. Mar 2004;251(3):261-268.

Godsland IF. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia in the development and progression of cancer. Clin Sci (Lond). 2009;118(Pt 5):315-332.

Godsland IF. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia in the development and progression of cancer. Clinical science (London, England : 1979). Mar 2010;118(5):315-332.

Golbidi S, Badran M, Laher I. Diabetes and alpha lipoic acid. Front Pharmacol. 2011;2:69.

Gold Standard. Drug Monograph. Acarbose. Copyright 2015a Elsevier, Inc. Accessed 8/12/2015.

Gold Standard. Drug Monograph. Colesevelam. Copyright 2014 Elsevier, Inc. Last updated 1/28/2014. Accessed 9/9/2015.

Gold Standard. Drug Monograph. Lorcaserin. Copyright 2015b Elsevier, Inc. Accessed 7/17/2015.

Gold Standard. Drug Monograph. Metformin. Copyright 2015c Elsevier, Inc. Accessed 7/16/2015.

Gold Standard. Drug Monograph. Pioglitazone. Copyright 2013 Elsevier, Inc. Accessed 9/9/2015.

Goldberg AD, Becker LC, Bonsall R, Cohen JD, Ketterer MW, Kaufman PG, . . . Sheps DS. Ischemic, hemodynamic, and neurohormonal responses to mental and exercise stress. Experience from the Psychophysiological Investigations of Myocardial Ischemia Study (PIMI). Circulation. Nov 15 1996;94(10):2402-2409.

Goldfine AB, Fonseca V, Jablonski KA, Pyle L, Staten MA, Shoelson SE. The effects of salsalate on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Annals of internal medicine. Mar 16 2010;152(6):346-357.

Gomes AP, Price NL, Ling AJY, Moslehi JJ, Montgomery MK, Rajman L, . . . Sinclair DA. Declining NAD(+) Induces a Pseudohypoxic State Disrupting Nuclear-Mitochondrial Communication during Aging. Cell. 2013;155(7):1624-1638.

Gomes MB, Negrato CA. Alpha-lipoic acid as a pleiotropic compound with potential therapeutic use in diabetes and other chronic diseases. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2014;6:80.

Gonzalez-Reyes RE, Aliev G, Avila-Rodrigues M, Barreto GE. Alterations in Glucose Metabolism on Cognition: A Possible Link Between Diabetes and Dementia. Current pharmaceutical design. 2016;22(7):812-818.

Gotsis E, Anagnostis P, Mariolis A, Vlachou A, Katsiki N, Karagiannis A. Health benefits of the Mediterranean Diet: an update of research over the last 5 years. Angiology. Apr 2015;66(4):304-318.

Gower BA, Goss AM. A lower-carbohydrate, higher-fat diet reduces abdominal and intermuscular fat and increases insulin sensitivity in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes. The Journal of nutrition. Jan 2015;145(1):177s-183s.

Graff CL, Pollack GM. Nasal drug administration: potential for targeted central nervous system delivery. J Pharm Sci. 2005;94:1187-1195.

Greb A, Bitsch R. Comparative bioavailability of various thiamine derivatives after oral administration. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. Apr 1998;36(4):216-221.

Greer EL, Dowlatshahi D, Banko MR, et al. An AMPK-FOXO pathway mediates longevity induced by a novel method of dietary restriction in C. elegans. Curr Biol. 2007;17(19):1646-56.

Gregg EW. Trends in death rates among U.S. adults with and without diabetes between 1997 and 2006: findings from the National Health Interview Survey. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(6):1252-1257.

Gu S, Shi J, Tang Z, et al. Comparison of glucose lowering effect of metformin and acarbose in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0126704.

Guerrero-Romero F, Rodriguez-Moran M. [Oral magnesium supplementation: an adjuvant alternative to facing the worldwide challenge of type 2 diabetes?] Cir Cir. 2014;82(3):282-9.

Gums JG. Magnesium in cardiovascular and other disorders. American journal of health-system pharmacy: AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Aug 1 2004;61(15):1569-1576.

Guo J, Zhao X. [Free-radical theory and the antisenescence effect of fruits and vegetables]. Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research. May 30 1999;28(3):190-192.

Gupta A, Bisht B, Dey CS. Peripheral insulin-sensitizer drug metformin ameliorates neuronal insulin resistance and Alzheimer’s-like changes. Neuropharmacology. 2011;60(6):910-20.

Haidar A, Legault L, Messier V, Mitre TM, Leroux C, Rabasa-Lhoret R. Comparison of dual-hormone artificial pancreas, single-hormone artificial pancreas, and conventional insulin pump therapy for glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes: an open-label randomised controlled crossover trial. The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology. Jan 2015;3(1):17-26.

Haidari F, Heybar H, Jalali MT, Ahmadi Engali K, Helli B, Shirbeigi E. Hesperidin supplementation modulates inflammatory responses following myocardial infarction. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2015;34(3):205-211.

Halmos T, Suba I. [Alzheimer's disease and diabetes - the common pathogenesis]. Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica: a Magyar Pszichofarmakologiai Egyesulet lapja = official journal of the Hungarian Association of Psychopharmacology. Mar 2016;18(1):5-19.

Hamdy O, Porramatikul S, Al-Ozairi E. Metabolic obesity: the paradox between visceral and subcutaneous fat. Current diabetes reviews. Nov 2006;2(4):367-373.

Hamilton SJ, Chew GT, Watts GF. Coenzyme Q10 improves endothelial dysfunction in statin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes care. May 2009;32(5):810-812.

Hammes HP, Du X, Edelstein D, et al. Benfotiamine blocks three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage and prevens experiemental diabetic retinopathy. Nat Med. 2003;9(3):294-9.

Handa K, Inukai K, Onuma H, Kudo A, Nakagawa F, Tsugawa K, . . . Ishida H. Long-term low carbohydrate diet leads to deleterious metabolic manifestations in diabetic mice. PloS one. 2014;9(8):e104948.

Hanefeld M, Cagatay M, Petrowitsch T, et al. Acarbose reduces the risk for myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetic patients: a meta-analysis of seven long-term studies. Eur Heart J. 2004;25(1):10-6.

Hanefeld M. The role of acarbose in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Journal of diabetes and its complications. Jul-Aug 1998;12(4):228-237.

Hansawasdi C, Kawabata J. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effect of mulberry (Morus alba) leaves on Caco-2. Fitoterapia. Dec 2006;77(7-8):568-573.

Hansen J, Rinnov A, Krogh-Madsen R, Fischer CP, Andreasen AS, Berg RM, . . . Plomgaard P. Plasma follistatin is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes: relationship to hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and systemic low-grade inflammation. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. Sep 2013;29(6):463-472.

Hanssen NM, Beulens JW, van Dieren S, Scheijen JL, van der AD, Spijkerman AM, . . . Schalkwijk CG. Plasma advanced glycation end products are associated with incident cardiovascular events in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a case-cohort study with a median follow-up of 10 years (EPIC-NL). Diabetes. Jan 2015;64(1):257-265.

Hardie DG. AMPK: a target for drugs and natural products with effects on both diabetes and cancer. Diabetes. 2013;62(7):2164-2172.

Hargrove JL, Greenspan P, Hartle DK, et al. Inhibition of aromatase and alpha-amylase by flavonoids and proanthocyanidins from Sorghum bicolor bran extracts. J Med Food. 2011;14(7-8):799-807.

Hata A, Doi Y, Ninomiya T, Mukai N, Hirakawa Y, Hata J, . . . Kiyohara Y. Magnesium intake decreases Type 2 diabetes risk through the improvement of insulin resistance and inflammation: the Hisayama Study. Diabetic medicine: a journal of the British Diabetic Association. Dec 2013;30(12):1487-1494.

Haupt E, Ledermann H, Kopcke W. Benfotiamine in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy--a three-week randomized, controlled pilot study (BEDIP study). International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. Feb 2005;43(2):71-77.

Hausenblas HA, Schoulda JA, Smoliga JM. Resveratrol treatment as an adjunct to pharmacological management in type 2 diabetes mellitus-systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015;59:147-159.

Heinemann L, Benesch C, DeVries JH. AP@home: The Artificial Pancreas Is Now at Home. J Diabetes Sci Technol. Feb 16 2016.

Heinemann L, Fleming GA, Petrie JR, Holl RW, Bergenstal RM, Peters AL. Insulin Pump Risks and Benefits: A Clinical Appraisal of Pump Safety Standards, Adverse Event Reporting, and Research Needs A Joint Statement of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the American Diabetes Association Diabetes Technology Working Group. Diabetes care. 2015;38(4):716-722.

Heinemann L. The failure of exubera: are we beating a dead horse? Journal of diabetes science and technology. May 2008;2(3):518-529.

Hemmerle H, Burger HJ, Below P, Schubert G, Rippel R, Schindler PW, . . . Herling AW. Chlorogenic acid and synthetic chlorogenic acid derivatives: novel inhibitors of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate translocase. Journal of medicinal chemistry. Jan 17 1997;40(2):137-145.

Henry RR, Mudaliar SR, Howland WC 3rd, et al. Inhaled insulin using the AERx Insulin Diabetes Management System in healthy and asthmatic subjects. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(3):754-9.

Henry-Vitrac C, Ibarra A, Roller M, Merillon JM, Vitrac X. Contribution of chlorogenic acids to the inhibition of human hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity in vitro by Svetol, a standardized decaffeinated green coffee extract. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. Apr 14 2010;58(7):4141-4144.

Hidalgo J, Flores C, Hidalgo MA, Perez M, Yanez A, Quinones L, . . . Burgos RA. Delphinol(R) standardized maqui berry extract reduces postprandial blood glucose increase in individuals with impaired glucose regulation by novel mechanism of sodium glucose cotransporter inhibition. Panminerva medica. Jun 2014;56(2 Suppl 3):1-7.

Higdon J, Drake V, Angelo G. Linus Pauling Insitute. Micronutrient Information Center. Essential Fatty Acids. Last updated 4/2014. Accessed 9/3/2015.

Higdon J, Drake V, Hagen TM. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Lipoic Acid. Last updated 1/2012. Accessed 9/1/2015.

Higdon J, Drake V, Liu S. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load. Last updated 2/2009. Accessed 7/22/2015.

Higuchi O, Nakagawa K, Tsuzuki T, et al. Aminophospholipid glycation and its inhibitor screening system: a new role of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate as the inhibitor. J Lipid Res. 2006;47(5):964-74.

Hipkiss AR. Glycation, ageing and carnosine: are carnivorous diets beneficial? Mech Ageing Dev. 2005;126:1034-1039.

Hiraga T, Myoui A, Hashimoto N, Sasaki A, Hata K, Morita Y, . . . Yoneda T. Bone-derived IGF mediates crosstalk between bone and breast cancer cells in bony metastases. Cancer research. Aug 15 2012;72(16):4238-4249.

Hocking S, Samocha-Bonet D, Milner KL, Greenfield JR, Chisholm DJ. Adiposity and insulin resistance in humans: the role of the different tissue and cellular lipid depots. Endocrine reviews. Aug 2013;34(4):463-500.

Hodgson JM, Watts GF, Playford DA, et al. Coenzyme Q10 improves blood pressure and glycaemic control: a controlled trial in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56(11):1137-42.

Hoehn AN, Stockert AL. The Effects of Cinnamomum Cassia on Blood Glucose Values are Greater than those of Dietary Changes Alone. Nutr Metab Insights. 2012;5:77-83.

Hoggard N, Cruickshank M, Moar, K, et al. A single supplement of a standardized bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract (36% wet weight anthocyanins) modifies glycaemic response in individuals with type 2 diabetes controlled by lifestyle. J Nutr Sci. 2013;2:e22.

Hokayem M, Blond E, Vidal H, Lambert K, Meugnier E, Feillet-Coudray C, . . . Avignon A. Grape polyphenols prevent fructose-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes care. Jun 2013;36(6):1454-1461.

Homayouni F, Haidari F, Hedayati M, Zakerkish M, Ahmadi K. Hesperidin Supplementation Alleviates Oxidative DNA Damage and Lipid Peroxidation in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Phytotherapy research : PTR. Aug 14 2017.

Hosoe K, Kitano M, Kishida H, Kubo H, Fujii K, Kitahara M. Study on safety and bioavailability of ubiquinol (Kaneka QH) after single and 4-week multiple oral administration to healthy volunteers. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology: RTP. Feb 2007;47(1):19-28.

Hou G, Zhang S, Zhang X, et al. Clinical pathological characteristics and prognostic analysis of 1,013 breast cancer patients with diabetes. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013;137:807-816.

Hruby A, Meigs JB, O’Donnel CJ, et al. Higher magnesium intake reduces risk of impaired glucose and insulin metabolism and progression from prediabetes to diabetes in middle-aged Americans.

Huang CC, Weng SF, Tsai KT, Chen PJ, Lin HJ, Wang JJ, . . . Hsu CC. Long-term Mortality Risk After Hyperglycemic Crisis Episodes in Geriatric Patients With Diabetes: A National Population-Based Cohort Study. Diabetes care. May 2015;38(5):746-751.

Huang, Y, Cai X, Qiu M, et al. Prediabetes and the risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. Diabetologia. 2014;57(11):2261-9.

Humpert PM, Djuric Z, Zeuge U, Oikonomou D, Seregin Y, Laine K, . . . Bierhaus A. Insulin stimulates the clonogenic potential of angiogenic endothelial progenitor cells by IGF-1 receptor-dependent signaling. Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.). May-Jun 2008;14(5-6):301-308.

Hung CT. Effects of high-fructose (90%) corn syrup on plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects. Taiwan yi xue hui za zhi. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. Sep 1989;88(9):883-885.

Huo Y, Li J, Qin X, et al. Efficacy of folic acid therapy in primary prevention of stroke among adults with hypertension in China: the CSPPT randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;313(13):1325-35.

Hur KY, Lee MS. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders. Diabetes Metab J. Jun 2015;39(3):198-203.

Huyen VTT, Phan DV, Thang P, et al. Antidiabetic effects of add-on Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract therapy with sulfonylureas in type 2 diabetic patients. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:452313.

Huyen VTT, Phan DV, Thang P, et al. Gynostemma pentaphyllum tea improves insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. J Nutr Metab. 2013;2013:765383.

Hyassat D, Al Sitri E, Batieha A, et al. Prevalence of hypomagnesaemia among obese type 2 diabetic patients attending the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG). Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2014;12(3):e17796.

Ibrahimpasic K. Alpha lipoic acid and glycaemic control in diabetic neuropathies at type 2 diabetes treatment. Med Arch. 2013;67(1):7-9.

IDF. International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes Misconceptions. Available at: Last updated: 2014. Accessed 4/15/2015.

IDF. International Diabetes Federation. Guideline for Management of Postmeal Glucose. Copyright 2007. Accessed 8/24/2015.

Imai S, Kiess W. Therapeutic potential of SIRT1 and NAMPT-mediated NAD biosynthesis in type 2 diabetes. Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition). 2009;14:2983-2995.

Indulekha K, Anjana RM, Surendar J, Mohan V. Association of visceral and subcutaneous fat with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, adipocytokines and inflammatory markers in Asian

Indians (CURES-113). Clin Biochem. Mar 2011;44(4):281-287.

Innes KE, Vincent HK, Taylor AG. Chronic stress and insulin resistance- related indices of cardiovascular disease risk, part I: neurophysiological responses and pathological sequelae. Altern Ther Health Med. 2007;13(4):46-52.

Inzucchi SE, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB, Diamant M, Ferrannini E, Nauck M, . . . Matthews DR. Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes: A Patient-Centered Approach. Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). 2012d;35(6):1364-1379.

Inzucchi SE, Sherman RS, Goldman L (ed.), SchaferAI  (ed.). Goldman's Cecil Medicine, Twenty-Fourth Edition. Chapter 236: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus; 1475-1488. Copyright 2012a Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Available at: Accessed: 3/19/2015.

Inzucchi SE, Sherman RS, Goldman L (ed.), SchaferAI  (ed.). Goldman's Cecil Medicine, Twenty-Fourth Edition. Chapter 237: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; 1489-1499. Copyright 2012b Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Available at: Accessed: 3/19/2015.

Inzucchi SE. Diagnosis of Diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 2012c;367(6):542-550.

Ishikawa A, Yamashita H, Hiemori M, Inagaki E, Kimoto M, Okamoto M, . . . Natori Y. Characterization of inhibitors of postprandial hyperglycemia from the leaves of Nerium indicum. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). Apr 2007;53(2):166-173.

Jain R, Kabadi U, Kabadi M. Is beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus reversible? International journal of diabetes in developing countries. Jan 2008;28(1):1-5.

Jakus V, Sandorova E, Kalninova J, et al. Monitoring of glycation, oxidative stress and inflammation in relation to the occurrence of vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Physiol Res. 2014;63:297-309.

Jang HJ, Ridgeway SD, Kim JA. Effects of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate on high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;305(12):E1444-51.

Jayaprakasha GK, Ohnishi-Kameyama M, Ono H, et al. Phenolic constituents in the fruits of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54(5):1672-9.

Jayaram S, Hariharan RS, Madhavan R, Periyandavar I, Samra SS. A prospective, parallel group, open-labeled, comparative, multi-centric, active controlled study to evaluate the safety, tolerability and benefits of fixed dose combination of acarbose and metformin versus metformin alone in type 2 diabetes. The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. Nov 2010;58:679-682, 687.

JDC. Joslin Diabetes Center. Healthy Eating: Why Does Fat Increase Blood Glucose? 9/27/2011. Accessed 6/7/2016

Jellinger PS. Focus on incretin-based therapies: targeting the core defects of type 2 diabetes. Postgrad Med. 2011;123(1):53-65.

Jia S, Hu Y, Zhang W, Zhao X, Chen Y, Sun C, . . . Chen K. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of neohesperidin derived from Citrus aurantium L. in diabetic KK-A(y) mice. Food Funct. Mar 2015;6(3):878-886.

Johnson AB, Webster JM, Sum CF, Heseltine L, Argyraki M, Cooper BG, Taylor R. The impact of metformin therapy on hepatic glucose production and skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activity in overweight type II diabetic patients. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. Sep 1993;42(9):1217-1222.

Johnston KL, Clifford MN, Morgan LM. Coffee acutely modifies gastrointestinal hormone secretion and glucose tolerance in humans: glycemic effects of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Oct 2003;78(4):728-733.

Jonsson T, Granfeldt Y, Ahren B, Branell UC, Palsson G, Hansson A, . . . Lindeberg S. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study. Cardiovascular diabetology. 2009;8:35.

Jordan J, Astrup A, Engeli S, Narkiewicz K, Day WW, Finer N. Cardiovascular effects of phentermine and topiramate: a new drug combination for the treatment of obesity. Journal of hypertension. Jun 2014;32(6):1178-1188.

Jorgensen L, Jenssen T, Joakimsen O, et al. Glycated hemoglobin level is strongly related to the prevalence of carotid artery plaques with high echogenicity in nondiabetic individuals: the Tromso study. Circulation. 2004;110:466-470.

Joshi SR, Ramachandran A, Chadha M, et al. Acarbose plus metformin fixed-dose combination in the management of type 2 diabetes. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2014;15(11):1611-1620.

Josse RG, McGuire AJ, Saal GB. A review of the economic evidence for acarbose in the prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular events in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. Int J Clin Pract 2006;60(7):847-855.

Juanola-Falgarona M, Salas-Salvado J, Ibarrola-Jurado N, Rabassa-Soler A, Diaz-Lopez A, Guasch-Ferre M, . . . Bullo M. Effect of the glycemic index of the diet on weight loss, modulation of satiety, inflammation, and other metabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Jul 2014;100(1):27-35.

Jung CH, Ahn J, Jeon TI, Kim TW, Ha TY. Syzygium aromaticum ethanol extract reduces high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice through downregulation of adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression. Experimental and therapeutic medicine. Sep 2012;4(3):409-414.

Kaaks R. Nutrition, insulin, IGF-1 metabolism and cancer risk: a summary of epidemiological evidence. Novartis Foundation symposium. 2004;262:247-260; discussion 260-268.

Kaats GR, Keith SC, Keith PL, et al. A combination of l-arabinose and chromium lowers circulating glucose and insulin levels after an acute oral sucrose challenge. Nutr J. 2011;10:42.

Kabagambe EK, Judd SE, Howard VJ, Zakai NA, Jenny NS, Hsieh M, . . . Cushman M. Inflammation biomarkers and risk of all-cause mortality in the Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke cohort. American journal of epidemiology. Aug 1 2011;174(3):284-292.

Kaess BM, Pedley A, Massaro JM, Murabito J, Hoffmann U, Fox CS. The ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat, a metric of body fat distribution, is a unique correlate of cardiometabolic risk. Diabetologia. Oct 2012;55(10):2622-2630.

Kajbaf F, De Broe ME, Lalau JD. Therapeutic Concentrations of Metformin: A Systematic Review. Clinical pharmacokinetics. Apr 2016;55(4):439-459.

Kalyani RR, Egan JM. Diabetes and altered glucose metabolism with aging. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2013;42(2):333-347.

Kammoun HL, Kraakman MJ, Febbraio MA. Adipose tissue inflammation in glucose metabolism. Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders. Mar 2014;15(1):31-44.

Kar P, Laight D, Rooprai HK, Shaw KM, Cummings M. Effects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity. Diabetic medicine: a journal of the British Diabetic Association. May 2009;26(5):526-531.

Karhapaa P, Malkki M, Laakso M. Isolated low HDL cholesterol. An insulin-resistant state. Diabetes. Mar 1994;43(3):411-417.

Karley AJ, Ashford DA, Minto LM, Pritchard J, Douglas AE. The significance of gut sucrase activity for osmoregulation in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Journal of insect physiology. Dec 2005;51(12):1313-1319.

Karoff P. Harvard Paulson School Communications. In: Harvard gazette [online]. Artificial pancreas system aimed at type 1 diabetes mellitus. 1/4/2016. Accessed 3/30/2016.

Kasznicki J, Sliwinska A, Drzewoski J. Metformin in cancer prevention and therapy. Annals of translational medicine. Jun 2014;2(6):57.

Kato M, Noda M, Suga H, et al. Fasting plasma glucose and incidence of diabetes – implication for the threshold for impaired fasting glucose: results from the population-based Omiya MA Cohort study. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2009;16:857-861.

Kaur J. A comprehensive review on metabolic syndrome. Cardiology research and practice. 2014;2014:943162.

Kaur M, Agarwal C, Agarwal R. Anticancer and cancer chemopreventive potential of grape seed extract and other grape-based products. The Journal of nutrition. Sep 2009;139(9):1806S-1812S.

Kelly CT, Mansoor J, Dohm GL, Chapman WH, 3rd, Pender JRt, Pories WJ. Hyperinsulinemic syndrome: the metabolic syndrome is broader than you think. Surgery. Aug 2014;156(2):405-411.

Khan NA, Auranen M, Paetau I, Pirinen E, Euro L, Forsstrom S, . . . Suomalainen A. Effective treatment of mitochondrial myopathy by nicotinamide riboside, a vitamin B3. EMBO molecular medicine. Jun 2014;6(6):721-731.

Khanal RC, Howard LR, Wilkes SE, Rogers TJ, Prior RL. Effect of dietary blueberry pomace on selected metabolic factors associated with high fructose feeding in growing Sprague-Dawley rats. Journal of medicinal food. Sep 2012;15(9):802-810.

Kim B, Backus C, Oh S, et al. Hyperglycemia-induced tau cleavage in vitro and in vivo: a possible link between diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;34(3):727-39.

Kim HJ, Oh GS, Shen A, Lee SB, Khadka D, Pandit A, . . . So HS. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: An essential factor in preserving hearing in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Hear Res. Aug 2015;326:30-39.

Kim J, Kim CS, Lee YM, Sohn E, Jo K, Kim JS. Vaccinium myrtillus extract prevents or delays the onset of diabetes--induced blood-retinal barrier breakdown. International journal of food sciences and nutrition. Mar 2015;66(2):236-242.

Kim J, Park Y. Antidiabetic effect of sorghum extract on hepatic gluconeogenesis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nutr Metab. 2012;9:106.

Kim JY, Ok HM, Kim J, Park SW, Kwon SW, Kwon O. Mulberry leaf extract improves postprandial glucose response in prediabetic subjects: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Journal of medicinal food. Mar 2015;18(3):306-313.

Kim W, Egan JM. The role of incretins in glucose homeostasis and diabetes treatment. Pharmacol Rev. 2008;60(4):470-512.

Kimura T, Nakagawa K, Kubota H, Kojima Y, Goto Y, Yamagishi K, . . . Miyazawa T. Food-Grade Mulberry Powder Enriched with 1-Deoxynojirimycin Suppresses the Elevation of Postprandial Blood Glucose in Humans. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2007;55(14):5869-5874.

King MK, Pardo M, Cheng Y, Downey K, Jope RS, Beurel E. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors: Rescuers of cognitive impairments. Pharmacology & therapeutics. Jan 2014;141(1):1-12.

Kinne RK, Castaneda F. SGLT inhibitors as new therapeutic tools in the treatment of diabetes. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. 2011(203):105-126.

Kiraly O, Gong G, Olipitz W, et al. Inflammation-induced cell proliferation potentiates DNA damage-induced mutations in vivo. PLoS Genet. 2015;11(2):e1004901.

Kishore P. Merck Manual. Professional Version. Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Available at: Last update: 6/2014. Accessed 4/2/2015.

Kjaer M, Secher NH, Galbo H. Physical stress and catecholamine release. Bailliere's clinical endocrinology and metabolism. May 1987;1(2):279-298.

Klonoff DC. The Beneficial Effects of a Paleolithic Diet on Type 2 Diabetes and Other Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. 2009;3(6):1229-1232.

Knapen LM, van Dalem J, Keulemans YC, van Erp NP, Bazelier MT, De Bruin ML, . . . Driessen JH. Use of incretin agents and risk of pancreatic cancer: a population-based cohort study. Diabetes, obesity & metabolism. Mar 2016;18(3):258-265.

Koehler KM, Baumgartner RN, Garry PJ, Allen RH, Stabler SP, Rimm EB. Association of folate intake and serum homocysteine in elderly persons according to vitamin supplementation and alcohol use. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2001;73(3):628-637.

Kolahdouz Mohammadi R, Hosseinzadeh-Attar MJ, Eshraghian MR, et al. The effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on metabolic status of type 2 diabetic patients. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol. 2013;59(2):231-6.

Kolehmainen M, Mykkanen O, Kirjavainen PV, et al. Bilberries reduce low-grade inflammation in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012;56(10):1501-10.

Koloverou E, Esposito K, Giugliano D, et al. The effect of Mediterranean diet on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of 10 prospective studies and 136,846 participants. Metabolism Clinical and Experimental. 2014;63:903-911.

Kolte D, Vijayaraghavan K, Khera S, et al. Role of magnesium in cardiovascular diseases. Cardiol Rev. 2014;22(4):182-92.

Kovatchev BP, Renard E, Cobelli C, Zisser HC, Keith-Hynes P, Anderson SM, . . . Doyle FJ, 3rd. Safety of outpatient closed-loop control: first randomized crossover trials of a wearable artificial pancreas. Diabetes care. Jul 2014;37(7):1789-1796.

Kraegen EW, Cooney GJ. Free fatty acids and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Current Opinion in Lipidology. 2008;19:235-241.

Krogh-Madsen R, Plomgaard P, Moller K, Mittendorfer B, Pedersen BK. Influence of TNF-alpha and IL-6 infusions on insulin sensitivity and expression of IL-18 in humans. American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism. Jul 2006;291(1):E108-114.

Krog-Mikkelsen I, Hels O, Tetens I, et al. The effects of L-arabinose on intestinal sucrose activity: dose-response studies in vitro and in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(2):472-478.

Kromhout D, Geleijnse JM, de Goede J, Oude Griep LM, Mulder BJ, de Boer MJ, . . . Giltay EJ. n-3 fatty acids, ventricular arrhythmia-related events, and fatal myocardial infarction in postmyocardial infarction patients with diabetes. Diabetes care. Dec 2011;34(12):2515-2520.

Kumar B, Gupta SK, Nag TC, et al. Green tea prevents hyperglycemia-induced retinal oxidative stress and inflammation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Ophthalmic Res. 2012;47(2):103-8.

Kuroda M, Mimaki Y, Ohtomo T, Yamada J, Nishiyama T, Mae T, . . . Kawada T. Hypoglycemic effects of clove (Syzygium aromaticum flower buds) on genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice and identification of the active ingredients. Journal of natural medicines. Apr 2012;66(2):394-399.

Lagger G, Chambouleyron M, Correia JC, Sittarame F, Miganne G, Lasserre Moutet A, Golay A. [The cure of type 2 diabetes and patient education]. Revue medicale suisse. Mar 25 2015;11(467):715-716, 718-719.

Lai YJ, Hu HY, Chen HH, Chou P. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors and the Risk of Acute Pancreatitis in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Taiwan: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Medicine. Oct 2015;94(43):e1906.

Langsjoen PH, Langsjoen AM. Supplemental ubiquinol in patients with advanced congestive heart failure. BioFactors (Oxford, England). 2008;32(1-4):119-128.

Lee HJ, Hong YS, Jun W, Yang SJ. Nicotinamide Riboside Ameliorates Hepatic Metaflammation by Modulating NLRP3 Inflammasome in a Rodent Model of Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of medicinal food. May 14 2015.

Lee SH, Min KJ. Caloric restriction and its mimetics. BMB reports. Apr 2013;46(4):181-187.

Lee SM. The effect of chronic alpha-glycosidase inhibition on diabetic nephropathy in the db/db mouse. Diabetes. Mar 1982;31(3):249-254.

Lee TC, Ivester P, Hester AG, Sergeant S, Case LD, Morgan T, . . . Chilton FH. The impact of polyunsaturated fatty acid-based dietary supplements on disease biomarkers in a metabolic syndrome/diabetes population. Lipids in health and disease. 2014;13:196.

Lee WJ, Almulaifi A. Recent advances in bariatric/metabolic surgery: appraisal of clinical evidence. Journal of biomedical research. Apr 2015;29(2):98-104.

Lee WJ, Kim M, Park HS, Kim HS, Jeon MJ, Oh KS, . . . Park JY. AMPK activation increases fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle by activating PPARalpha and PGC-1. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. Feb 3 2006;340(1):291-295.

Lee Y, Berglund ED, XinXin Y, et al. Hyperglycemia in rodent models of type 2 diabetes requires insulin-resistant alpha cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014;111(36):13217-13222.

Lefevre M, Redman LM, Heilbronn LK, Smith JV, Martin CK, Rood JC, . . . Ravussin E. Caloric restriction alone and with exercise improves CVD risk in healthy non-obese individuals. Atherosclerosis. Mar 2009;203(1):206-213.

Lehrke M, Broedl UC, Biller-Friedmann IM, et al. Serum concentrations of cortisol, interleukin 6, leptin and adiponectin predict stress induced insulin resistance in acute inflammatory reactions. Critical Care 2008;12:R157.

Levitan EB, Song Y, Ford ES, et al. Is nondiabetic hyperglycemia a risk factor for cardiovascular disease? A meta-analysis of prospective studies. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(19):2147-55.

Li C, Schluesener H. Health-promoting effects of the citrus flavanone hesperidin. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. Feb 11 2017;57(3):613-631.

Li L, Shen J, Bala MM, Busse JW, Ebrahim S, Vandvik PO, . . . Sun X. Incretin treatment and risk of pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised and non-randomised studies. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2014;348:g2366.

Li S, Flint A, Pai JK, Forman JP, Hu FB, Willett WC, . . . Rimm EB. Low carbohydrate diet from plant or animal sources and mortality among myocardial infarction survivors. J Am Heart Assoc. Oct 2014;3(5):e001169.

Li X, Song D, Leng SX. Link between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease: from epidemiology to mechanism and treatment. Clin Interv Aging. 2015;10:549-560.

Lim EL, Hollingsworth KG, Aribisala BS, Chen MJ, Mathers JC, Taylor R. Reversal of type 2 diabetes: normalisation of beta cell function in association with decreased pancreas and liver triacylglycerol. Diabetologia. Oct 2011;54(10):2506-2514.

Lin H-J, Lee B-C, Ho Y-L, et al. Postprandial glucose improves the risk prediction of cardiovascular death beyond the metabolic syndrome in the nondiabetic population. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1721-1726.

Lindberg S, Skov Jensen J, Bjerre M, et al. Adiponectin, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2015;22(3):276-283.

Littarru GP, Tiano L. Bioenergetic and antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10: recent developments. Mol Biotechnol. 2007;37(1):31-7.

Liu CY, Huang CJ, Huang LH, Chen IJ, Chiu JP, Hsu CH. Effects of green tea extract on insulin resistance and glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes and lipid abnormalities: a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial. PloS one. 2014;9(3):e91163.

Liu HW, Chan YC, Wang MF, Wei CC, Chang SJ. Dietary (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate supplementation counteracts aging-associated skeletal muscle insulin resistance and fatty liver in senescence-accelerated mouse. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. Jul 8 2015.

Liu J, Gao F, Ji B, et al. Anthocyanins-rich extract of wild Chinese blueberry protects glucolipotoxicity-induced INS832/13 beta-cell against dysfunction and death. J Food Sci Technol. 2015;52(5):3022-9.

Liu J, Zhang L, Ren Y, Gao Y, Kang L, Qiao Q. Anticancer and immunoregulatory activity of Gynostemma pentaphyllum polysaccharides in H22 tumor-bearing mice. International journal of biological macromolecules. Aug 2014;69:1-4.

Lobo V, Patil A, Phatik A, et al. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev. 2010;4(8):118-126.

Lontchi-Yimagou E, Sobngwi E, Matsha TE, et al. Diabetes mellitus and inflammation. Curr Diab Rep. 2013;13:435-444.

Lopez-Alarcon M, Perichart-Perera O, Flores-Huerta S, et al. Excessive refines carbohydrates and scarce micronutrients intakes increase inflammatory mediators nd insulin resistance in prepubertal and pubertal obese children independently of obesity. Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:849031.

Lordan S, Smyth TJ, Soler-Vila A, Stanton C, Ross RP. The alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects of Irish seaweed extracts. Food chemistry. Dec 1 2013;141(3):2170-2176.

Lu HF, Chen YS, Yang JS, et al. Gypenosides induced G0/G1 arrest via inhibition of cyclin E and induction of apoptosis via activation of caspases-3 and -9 in human lung cancer A-549 cells. In Vivo. 2008;22(2):215-21.

Lu T, Sheng H, Wu J, et al. Cinnamon extract improves fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Nutr Res. 2012;32(6):408-12.

Luevano-Contreras C, Garay-Sevilla ME, Wrobel K, et al. Dietary advanced glycation end products restriction diminishes inflammation markers and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2013;52(1):22-26.

Madonna R, De Caterina R. Atherogenesis and diabetes: focus on insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2012;65(4):309-313.

Magistrelli A, Chezem JC. Effect of ground cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose concentration in normal-weight and obese adults. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112:1806-1809.

Magnusson I, Rothman DL, Katz LD, Shulman RG, Shulman GI. Increased rate of gluconeogenesis in type II diabetes mellitus. A 13C nuclear magnetic resonance study. The Journal of clinical investigation. Oct 1992;90(4):1323-1327.

Mah E, Noh SK, Ballard KD, et al. Supplementation of a gamma-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols in healthy men protects against vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by postprandial hyperglycemia. J Nutr Biochem. 2013;24:196-203.

Mah E, Pei R, Guo Y, et al. Gamma-tocopherol-rich supplementation additively improves vascular endothelial function during smoking cessation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;65:1291-9.

Mahajan R, Gupta K. Revisiting Metformin: Annual Vitamin B12 Supplementation may become Mandatory with Long-Term Metformin Use. Journal of young pharmacists: JYP. Oct 2010;2(4):428-429.

Malekshahi Moghadam A, Saedisomeolia A, Djalali M, Djazayery A, Pooya S, Sojoudi F. Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and interleukin-2 in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Singapore medical journal. Sep 2012;53(9):615-619.

Malik FS, Taplin CE. Insulin therapy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Paediatric drugs. Apr 2014;16(2):141-150.

Maqbool M, Mobashir M, Hoda N. Pivotal role of glycogen synthase kinase-3: A therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease. European journal of medicinal chemistry. Jan 1 2016;107:63-81.

Martineau LC, Couture A, Spoor D, et al. Antidiabetic properties of the Canadian lowbush blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Phyomedicine. 2006;13(9-10):612-23.

Martin-Montalvo A, Mercken EM, Mitchell SJ, et al. Metformin improves healthspan and lifespan in mice. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2192.

Masharani U, Sherchan P, Schloetter M, Stratford S, Xiao A, Sebastian A, . . . Frassetto L. Metabolic and physiologic effects from consuming a hunter-gatherer (Paleolithic)-type diet in type 2 diabetes. European journal of clinical nutrition. Aug 2015;69(8):944-948.

Masterjohn C, Mah E, Guo Y, et al. Gamma-tocopherol abolishes postprandial increases in plasma methylglyoxal following an oral dose of glucose in healthy, college-aged men. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23:292-298.

Masters CJ, Crane DI. On the role of the peroxisome in ontogeny, ageing and degenerative disease. Mechanisms of ageing and development. May 12 1995;80(2):69-83.

Masumoto S, Akimoto Y, Oike H, et al. Dietary phloridzin reduces blood glucose levels and reverses Sglt1 expression in the small intestine in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:4651-4656.

Matsui T, Ishikawa T, Ito H, Okamoto M, Inoue K, Lee MC, . . . Soya H. Brain glycogen supercompensation following exhaustive exercise. The Journal of physiology. Feb 1 2012;590(Pt 3):607-616.

Matsuo T, Odaka H, Ikeda H. Effect of an intestinal disaccharidase inhibitor (AO-128) on obesity and diabetes. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Jan 1992;55(1 Suppl):314s-317s.

Mayo Clinic. Diseases and Conditions page. Type 1 diabetes. 8/2/2014. Accessed 8/12/2015.

Mayo JJ, Kravitz L. Glycemic Index: Weight Loss Sham or Sensation? Accessed 3/31/2016

Mazza A, Fruci B, Garinis GA, et al. The role of metformin in the management of NAFLD. Exp Diabetes Res. 2012;2012:716404.

Mazzola N. Review of current and emerging therapies in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Manag Care. 2012;18(1Suppl):S17-26.

McCreight LJ, Bailey CJ, Pearson ER. Metformin and the gastrointestinal tract. Diabetologia. Mar 2016;59(3):426-435.

McEwen B, Morel-Kopp M, Tofler G, et al. Effect of omega-3 fish oil on cardiovascular risk in diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 2010;36(4):565-584.

McIntosh B, Cameron C, Singh SR, Yu C, Ahuja T, Welton NJ, Dahl M. Second-line therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy: a systematic review and mixed-treatment comparison meta-analysis. Open medicine: a peer-reviewed, independent, open-access journal. 2011;5(1):e35-48.

McLaughlin T, Lamendola C, Liu A, Abbasi F. Preferential fat deposition in subcutaneous versus visceral depots is associated with insulin sensitivity. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. Nov 2011;96(11):E1756-1760.

McPherson TC. Salsalate for arthritis: a clinical evaluation. Clinical therapeutics. 1984;6(4):388-403.

Megalli S, Davies NM, Roufogalis BD. Anti-hyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum in the Zucker fatty rat. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2006;9(3):281-91.

Meigs JB, Nathan DM, Wilson PW, Cupples LA, Singer DE. Metabolic risk factors worsen continuously across the spectrum of nondiabetic glucose tolerance. The Framingham Offspring Study. Ann Intern Med. Apr 1 1998;128(7):524-533.

Meister B. Control of food intake via leptin receptors in the hypothalamus. Vitamins and hormones. 2000;59:265-304.

Meloni AR, DeYoung MB, Lowe C, Parkes DG. GLP-1 receptor activated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells: mechanism and glucose dependence. Diabetes, obesity & metabolism. 2013;15(1):15-27.

Melzig MF, Funke I. [Inhibitors of alpha-amylase from plants--a possibility to treat diabetes mellitus type II by phytotherapy?]. Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift (1946). 2007;157(13-14):320-324.

Meneilly GS, Ryan EA, Radziuk J, Lau DC, Yale JF, Morais J, . . . Elahi D. Effect of acarbose on insulin sensitivity in elderly patients with diabetes. Diabetes care. 2000;23(8):1162-1167.

Meng B, Li J, Cao H. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin on diabetes mellitus and its complications. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19(11):2101-13.

Meng S, Cao J, Feng Q, et al. Roles of chlorogenic acid on regulating glucose and lipids metabolism: a review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:801457.

Michaud M, Balardy L, Moulis G, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines, aging, and age-related diseases. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2013;14(12):877-82.

Miklossy J, Qing H, Radenovic A, Kis A, Vileno B, Laszlo F, . . . McGeer PL. Beta amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau deposits in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes. Neurobiology of aging. Sep 2010;31(9):1503-1515.

Miles JM, Rule AD, Borlaug BA. Use of metformin in diseases of aging. Curr Diab Rep. 2014;14:490.

Miller AL. The methionine-homocysteine cycle and its effects on cognitive diseases. Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic. Feb 2003;8(1):7-19.

Misbin RI. The phantom of lactic acidosis due to metformin in patients with diabetes. Diabetes care. Jul 2004;27(7):1791-1793.

Mittal K, Katare DP. Shared links between type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease: A review. Diabetes Metab Syndr. Feb 11 2016.

Miyazawa T, Nakagawa K, Shimasaki S, et al. Lipid glycation and protein glycation in diabetes and atherosclerosis. Amino Acids. 2012;42(4):1163-70.

MMSCC. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Integrative Medicine/About Herbs, Botanicals & Other Products. Copyright 2015. Accessed 9/9/15.

Moat SJ, Lang D, McDowell IF, Clarke ZL, Madhavan AK, Lewis MJ, Goodfellow J. Folate, homocysteine, endothelial function and cardiovascular disease. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. Feb 2004;15(2):64-79.

Moghaddam E, Vogt JA, Wolever TM. The effects of fat and protein on glycemic responses in nondiabetic humans vary with waist circumference, fasting plasma insulin, and dietary fiber intake. The Journal of nutrition. Oct 2006;136(10):2506-2511.

Monteleone G, Buchwald P, Inverardi L, Pileggi A, Ricordi C, Tomei A, Inventors; Nogra Pharma Limited, University of Miami, assignee. Methods of treating diabetes and/or promoting survival of pancreatic islets after transplantation. US patent 14/394,9992013. International Filing Date 4/18/2013.

Monteleone G, Neurath MF, Ardizzone S, Di Sabatino A, Fantini MC, Castiglione F, . . . Pallone F. Mongersen, an Oral SMAD7 Antisense Oligonucleotide, and Crohn’s Disease. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015;372(12):1104-1113.

Moon JK, Yoo HS, Shibamoto T. Role of roasting conditions in the level of chlorogenic acid content in coffee beans: correlation with coffee acidity. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. Jun 24 2009;57(12):5365-5369.

Mooradian AD, Thurman JE. Drug therapy of postprandial hyperglycaemia. Drugs. Jan 1999;57(1):19-29.

Morales DR, Morris AD. Metformin in cancer treatment and prevention. Annu Rev Med. 2015;66:17-29.

Morris G, Berk M. The Putative Use of Lithium in Alzheimer's Disease. Current Alzheimer research. Feb 18 2016.

Moshetova LK, Vorob'eva IV, Alekseev IB, Mikhaleva LG. [Results of the use of antioxidant and angioprotective agents in type 2 diabetes patients with diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration]. Vestnik oftalmologii. May-Jun 2015;131(3):34-40, 42-34.

Movahed A, Nabipour I, Lieben Louis X, et al. Antihyperlgycemic effects of short term resveratrol supplementation in type 2 diabetic patients. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013.

Mozafari M, Nekooeian AA, Panjeshahin MR, et al. The effects of resveratrol in rats with simultaneous type 2 diabetes and renal hypertension: a study of antihypertensive mechanisms. Iran J Med. 2015;40(2):152-60.

Mudaliar S, Henry RR. Inhaled insulin in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Diabetes technology & therapeutics. Jun 2007;9 Suppl 1:S83-92.

Mudra M, Ercan-Fang N, Zhong L, Furne J, Levitt M. Influence of Mulberry Leaf Extract on the Blood Glucose and Breath Hydrogen Response to Ingestion of 75 g Sucrose by Type 2 Diabetic and Control Subjects. Diabetes care. 2007;30(5):1272-1274.

Muntoni S, Muntoni S, Draznin B. Effects of chronic hyperinsulinemia in insulin-resistant patients. Curr Diabetes Reports. 2008;8:233-238.

Mussig K, Staiger H, Kantartzis K, Fritsche A, Kanz L, Haring HU. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of malignancy: is there a strategy to identify a subphenotype of patients with increased susceptibility to endogenous and exogenous hyperinsulinism? Diabetic medicine: a journal of the British Diabetic Association. Mar 2011;28(3):276-286.

Muthenna P, Raghu G, Akileshwari C, et al. Inhibition of protein glycation by procyanidin-B2 enriched fraction of cinnamon: delay of diabetic cataract in rats. IUBMB Life. 2013;65(11):941-50.

Muti P, Quattrin T, Grant BJ, et al. Fasting glucose is a risk factor for breast cancer: a prospective study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11(11):1361-8.

Nabavi SF, Thiagarajan R, Rastrelli L, et al. Curcumin: a natural product for diabetes and its complications. Curr Top Med Chem. 2015;Jun 19.

Nagai R, Shirakawa J, Ohno R, et al. Inhibition of AGEs formation by natural products, Amino Acids. 2014;46(2):261-6.

Nagel AK, Ahmed-Sarwar N, Werner PM, Cipriano GC, Van Manen RP, Brown JE. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor-Associated Pancreatic Carcinoma: A Review of the FAERS Database. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. Jan 2016;50(1):27-31.

Najafian M, Jahromi MZ, Nowroznejhad J, et al. Phloridzin reduces blood glucose levels and improves lipids metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:5299-5306.

Nakamura A, Terauchi Y. Present status of clinical deployment of glycokinase activators. J Diabetes Invest. 2015;6:124-132.

Nakamura S, Li H, Adijiang A, et al. Pyridoxal phosphate prevents progression of diabetic neuropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22(8):2165-74.

Nakanishi H, Onose S, Kithara E, et al. Effect of environmental conditions on the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of mulberry leaves. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75(12):2293-6.

Naowaboot J, Pannangpetch P, Kukongviriyapan V, et al. Mulberry leaf extract stimulates glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in rat adipocytes. Am J Chin Med. 2012;40(1):163-75.

Napolitano A, Miller S, Nicholls AW, Baker D, Van Horn S, Thomas E, . . . Nunez DJ. Novel gut-based pharmacology of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PloS one. 2014;9(7):e100778.

Nasri H, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Metformin: current knowledge. J Res Med Sci. 2014;19(7):658-664.

Nathan DM, Davidson MB, DeFronzo RA, et al. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance: implications for care. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(3):753-759.

Nauck MA, Friedrich N. Do GLP-1–Based Therapies Increase Cancer Risk? Diabetes care. 2013;36(Supplement 2):S245-S252.

Nawale RB, Mourya VK, Bhise SB. Non-enzymatic glycation of proteins: a cause for complications in diabetes. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2006;43:337-344.

NDIC. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. Causes of Diabetes. Available at: Last updated: 8/27/2014. Accessed 4/20/2015.

Neumiller JJ, Campbell RK. Technosphere insulin: an inhaled prandial insulin product. BioDrugs: clinical immunotherapeutics, biopharmaceuticals and gene therapy. Jun 2010;24(3):165-172.

Ngondi JL, Etoundi BC, Nyangono CB, et al. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation. Lipids Health Dis. 2009;8:7.

Ngondi JL, Oben JE, Minka SR. The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon. Lipids Health Dis. 2005;4:12.

Nguyen DV, Shaw LC, Grant MB. Inflammation in the pathogenesis of microvascular complications in diabetes. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2012;3:170.

Niafar M, Hai F, Porhomayon J, et al. The role of metformin on vitamin B12 deficiency: a meta-analysis review. Intern Emerg Med. 2015;10(1):93-102.

Nichols GA, Hillier TA, Brown JB. Normal fasting plasma glucose and risk of type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Am J Med. 2008;121:519-524.

NIDDK. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Diagnosis of Diabetes and Prediabetes. 6/2014c. Accessed 8/12/2015.

NIDDK. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes. 6/2014a. Accessed 8/12/2015.

NIDDK. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Health Information page. What I need to know about Gestational Diabetes. 9/2014b. Accessed 4/25/2016

NIDDK. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases. Am I at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes? Taking Steps to Lower Your Risk of Getting Diabetes. 6/2012. Accessed 9/1/2015.

Nikolic A, Kacar A, Lavrnic D, Basta I, Apostolski S. [The effect of benfothiamine in the therapy of diabetic polyneuropathy]. Srp Arh Celok Lek. Nov-Dec 2009;137(11-12):594-600.

Nilsen TI, Vatten LJ. Prospective study of colorectal cancer risk and physical activity, diabetes, blood glucose and BMI: exploring the hyperinsulinaemia hypothesis. British journal of cancer. Feb 2 2001;84(3):417-422.

NLM. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Meglitinide analogues for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright 2009 by Cochrance Collaboration. Accessed 8/17/2015.

Noale M, Veronese N, Cavallo Perin P, Pilotto A, Tiengo A, Crepaldi G, Maggi S. Polypharmacy in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes receiving oral antidiabetic treatment. Acta diabetologica. Apr 2016;53(2):323-330.

Norman J. Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatments of Type 1 Diabetes. 6/7/2016.

Noto H, Goto A, Tsujimoto T, Noda M. Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. PloS one. 2013;8(1):e55030.

Nowlin SY, Hammer MJ, D’Eramo Melkus G. Diet, inflammation, and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: an integrative review of the literature. J Nutr Metab. 2012;2012:542698.

NPG. Nature Publishing Group. Role of insulin-like growth factor 1 in bone metastasis. BoneKEy reports. 2012;1:170.

Nussey S, Whitehead S. Chapter 4: The adrenal gland. In: Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach. Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers; 2001.

Nutrients. 2016;8(3):173.

Nwaneri C, Copper H, Bowen-Jones D. Mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Br J Diabetes and Vascular Disease. 2013;13(4):192-207.

O’Neil PM, Smith SR, Weissman NJ, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of lorcaserin for weight loss in type 2 diabetes mellitus: The BLOOM-DM Study. Obesity. 2012;20:1426-1436.

Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Blum K. Inhibition of Irvingia gabonensis seed extract (OB131) on adipogenesis as mediated via down regulation of the PPARgamma and leptin genes and up-regulation of the adiponectin gene. Lipids in health and disease. 2008;7:44.

Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Momo CN, et al. The use of Cissu quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Lipids Health Dis. 2008;7:12.

Ochiai R, Sugiura Y, Shioya Y, Otsuka K, Katsuragi Y, Hashiguchi T. Coffee polyphenols improve peripheral endothelial function after glucose loading in healthy male adults. Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.). Feb 2014;34(2):155-159.

O'Connor PJ, Sperl-Hillen JM. ePocrates online. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. Available at: Last updated 1/12/2015. Accessed 3/19/2015.

Odegaard AO, Koh WP, Yuan JM, Gross MD, Pereira MA. Western-style fast food intake and cardiometabolic risk in an Eastern country. Circulation. Jul 10 2012;126(2):182-188.

Ogawa K, Kuse Y, Tsuruma K, Kobayashi S, Shimazawa M, Hara H. Protective effects of bilberry and lingonberry extracts against blue light-emitting diode light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage in vitro. BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2014;14:120.

Oh J, Jo SH, Kim JS, Ha KS, Lee JY, Choi HY, . . . Kim YC. Selected tea and tea pomace extracts inhibit intestinal alpha-glucosidase activity in vitro and postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo. International journal of molecular sciences. 2015;16(4):8811-8825.

Ong KW, Hsu A, Tan BKH. Chlorogenic acid stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle via AMPK activation: a contributor to the beneficial effects of coffee on diabetes. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32718.

Orgel E, Mittelman SD. The links between insulin resistance, diabetes, and cancer. Curr Diab Rep. 2013;13(2):213-22.

Oron T, Farfel A, Muller I, Miller S, Atlas E, Nimri R, Phillip M. A remote monitoring system for artificial pancreas support is safe, reliable, and user friendly. Diabetes technology & therapeutics. Nov 2014;16(11):699-705.

Ortuno-Sahagun D, Pallas M, Rojas-Mayorquin AE. Oxidative stress in aging: advances in proteomic approaches. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2014;2014:573208.

Ota T. Obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Frontiers in endocrinology. 2014;5:204.

Ouban A, Muraca P, Yeatman T, Coppola D. Expression and distribution of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in human carcinomas. Human pathology. Aug 2003;34(8):803-808.

Page GL, Laight D, Cummings MH. Thiamine deficiency in diabetes mellitus and the impact of thiamine replacement on glucose metabolism and vascular disease. International journal of clinical practice. Jun 2011;65(6):684-690.

Pagliuca FW, Millman JR, Gurtler M, et al. Generation of functional human pancreatic beta cells in vitro. Cell. 2014;159(2):428-439.

Pai JK, Cahill LE, Hu FB, et al. Hemoglobin A1C is associated with increased risk of incident coronary heart disease among apparently healthy, nondiabetic men and women. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2:e000077.

Palau-Rodriguez M, Tulipani S, Isabel Queipo-Ortuno M, Urpi-Sarda M, Tinahones FJ, Andres-Lacueva C. Metabolomic insights into the intricate gut microbial-host interaction in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Front Microbiol. 2015;6:1151.

Paolisso G, Scheen A, D'Onofrio F, Lefebvre P. Magnesium and glucose homeostasis. Diabetologia. Sep 1990;33(9):511-514.

Paradis ME, Couture P, Lamarche B. A randomized crossover placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus) on postchallenge plasma glucose and insulin levels in men and women. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011;36(6):913-9.

Park JH, Lee SH, Chung IM, et al. Sorghum extract exerts an antidiabetic effect by improving insulin sensitivity via PPAR-gamma in mice fed a high-fat diet. Nutr Res Pract. 2012;6(4):322-327.

Park MH, Kim DH, Lee EK, Kim ND, Im DS, Lee J, . . . Chung HY. Age-related inflammation and insulin resistance: a review of their intricate interdependency. Archives of pharmacal research. Dec 2014;37(12):1507-1514.

Park S, Karuna U, Jeoung NH, et al. Physiological and therapeutic application of alpha lipoic acid. Curr Med Chem. 2014;21(32):3636-45.

Park SA. A common pathogenic mechanism linking type-2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease: evidence from animal models. Journal of clinical neurology (Seoul, Korea). Mar 2011;7(1):10-18.

Park SH, Huh TL, Kim SY, et al. Antiobesity effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract (actiponin): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Obesity. 2014;22:63-71.

Pasinetti GM, Wang J, Ho L, Zhao W, Dubner L. Roles of Resveratrol and Other Grape-Derived Polyphenols in Alzheimer's Disease Prevention and Treatment. Biochimica et biophysica acta. Oct 11 2014.

Patil HR, Al Badarin FJ, Al Shami HA, Bhatti SK, Lavie CJ, Bell DSH, O'Keefe JH. Meta-Analysis of Effect of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors on Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. 2012. American Journal of Cardiology.110(6):826-833.

Peng H, Want LL, Aroda VR. Safety and Tolerability of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists Utilizing Data from the Exenatide Clinical Trial Development Program. Current diabetes reports. May 2016;16(5):44.

Pernicova I, Korbonits M. Metformin--mode of action and clinical implications for diabetes and cancer. Nature reviews. Endocrinology. Mar 2014;10(3):143-156.

Peyser T, Dassau E, Breton M, Skyler JS. The artificial pancreas: current status and future prospects in the management of diabetes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Apr 2014;1311:102-123.

Pittas AG, Lau J, Hu FB, et al. The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(6):2017-29

Poquette NM, Gu X, Lee SO. Grain sorghum muffin reduces glucose and insulin responses in men. Food Funct. 2014;5(5):894-9.

Pories WJ, Dohm GL. Diabetes: have we got it all wrong? Hyperinsulinism as the culprit: surgery provides the evidence. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(12):2438-2442.

Pories WJ, Swanson MS, MacDonald KG, Long SB, Morris PG, Brown BM, . . . et al. Who would have thought it? An operation proves to be the most effective therapy for adult-onset diabetes mellitus. Ann Surg. Sep 1995;222(3):339-350; discussion 350-332.

Poulose N, Raju R. Sirtuin regulation in aging and injury. Biochimica et biophysica acta. Nov 2015;1852(11):2442-2455.

Prasad RC, Herzog B, Boone B, Sims L, Waltner-Law M. An extract of Syzygium aromaticum represses genes encoding hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes. Journal of ethnopharmacology. Jan 04 2005;96(1-2):295-301.

Prentki M, Nolan CJ. Islet β cell failure in type 2 diabetes. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2006;116(7):1802-1812.

Pryor R, Cabreiro F. Repurposing metformin: an old drug with new tricks in its binding pockets. The Biochemical journal. Nov 1 2015;471(3):307-322.

Rabe K, Lehrke M, Parhofer KG, Broedl UC. Adipokines and Insulin Resistance. Molecular Medicine. 2008;14(11-12):741-751.

Rabinovitz H, Friedensohn A, Leibovitz A, et al. Effect of chromium supplementation on blood glucose and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus elderly patients. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004;74(3):178-82.

Rafiei R, Habyby Z, Fouladi L, et al. Chromium level in prediction of diabetes in pre-diabetic patients. Adv Biomed Res. 2014;3:235.

Rahman K. Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors. Clinical interventions in aging. 2007;2(2):219-236.

Rana S, Blowers EC, Natarajan A. Small molecule adenosine 5’-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulators and human diseases. J Med Chem. 2015;58:2-29.

Ranasinghe P, Jayawardana R, Galappaththy P, et al. Efficacy and safety of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) as a pharmaceutical agent in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2012;29(12):1480-92.

Reaven GM. Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes. Dec 1988;37(12):1595-1607.

Reaven GM. Insulin resistance: the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. The Medical clinics of North America. Sep 2011;95(5):875-892.

Rena G, Pearson ER, Sakamoto K. Molecular mechanism of action of metformin: old or new insights? Diabetologia. 2013;56(9):1898-1906.

Reyes-Farias M, Vasquez K, Ovalle-Marin A, Fuentes F, Parra C, Quitral V, . . . Garcia-Diaz DF. Chilean native fruit extracts inhibit inflammation linked to the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages. Journal of medicinal food. May 2015;18(5):601-608.

Rizza S, Muniyappa R, Iantorno M, Kim JA, Chen H, Pullikotil P, . . . Quon MJ. Citrus polyphenol hesperidin stimulates production of nitric oxide in endothelial cells while improving endothelial function and reducing inflammatory markers in patients with metabolic syndrome. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. May 2011;96(5):E782-792.

Rizza W, Veronese N, Fontana L. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity? Ageing Res Rev. Jan 2014;13:38-45.

Rochester CD, Akiyode O. Novel and emerging diabetes mellitus drug therapies for the type 2 diabetes patient. World J Diabetes. 2014;5(3):305-315.

Roden M. Hepatic glucose production and insulin resistance. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2008;158/19-20:558-561.

Rodriguez de Sotillo DV, Hadley M, Sotillo JE. Insulin receptor exon 11+/- is expressed in Zucker (fa/fa) rats, and chlorogenic acid modifies their plasma insulin and liver protein and DNA. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. Jan 2006;17(1):63-71.

Rojo LE, Ribnicky D, Logendra S, Poulev A, Rojas-Silva P, Kuhn P, . . . Raskin I. In Vitro and in Vivo Anti-Diabetic Effects of Anthocyanins from Maqui Berry (Aristotelia chilensis). Food chemistry. Mar 15 2012;131(2):387-396.

Roohbakhsh A, Parhiz H, Soltani F, Rezaee R, Iranshahi M. Neuropharmacological properties and pharmacokinetics of the citrus flavonoids hesperidin and hesperetin--a mini-review. Life sciences. Sep 15 2014;113(1-2):1-6.

Roopchand DE, Kuhn P, Rojo LE, et al. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice. Pharmacol Res. 2013;68(1):59-67.

Roshanov PS, Dennis BB. Incretin-based therapies are associated with acute pancreatitis: Meta-analysis of large randomized controlled trials. Diabetes research and clinical practice. Dec 2015;110(3):e13-17.

Ross SM. African mango (IGOB131): a proprietary seed extract of Irvingia gabonensis is found to be effective in reducing body weight and improving parameters in overweight humans. Holist Nurs Pract. 2011;25(4):215-217.

Roy MC, Anguenot R, Fillion C, et al. Effect of a commercially-available algal phlorotannins extract on digestive enzymes and carbohydrate absorption in vivo. Food Res Int. 2011;44:3026-3029.

Rubino F, Nathan DM, Eckel RH, Schauer PR, Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ, . . . Cummings DE. Metabolic Surgery in the Treatment Algorithm for Type 2 Diabetes: A Joint Statement by International Diabetes Organizations. Diabetes care. Jun 2016;39(6):861-877.

Ruderman NB, Carling D, Prentki M, Cacicedo JM. AMPK, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. The Journal of clinical investigation. Jul 2013;123(7):2764-2772.

Russell SJ. Review: progress of artificial pancreas devices towards clinical use: the first outpatient studies. Curr Opin Endocrinol Obes. 2015;22:106-111.

Rybakowski JK. Effect of Lithium on Neurocognitive Functioning. Current Alzheimer research. Apr 15 2016.

Ryder RE. The potential risks of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer with GLP-1-based therapies are far outweighed by the proven and potential (cardiovascular) benefits. Diabetic medicine: a journal of the British Diabetic Association. Oct 2013;30(10):1148-1155.

Ryu TY, Park J, Scherer PE. Hyperglycemia as a risk factor for cancer progression. Diabetes Metab. 2014;38(5):330-6.

Sainz N, Barrenetxe J, Moreno-Aliaga MJ, Martinez JA. Leptin resistance and diet-induced obesity: central and peripheral actions of leptin. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. Jan 2015;64(1):35-46.

Salden BN, Troost FJ, de Groot E, Stevens YR, Garces-Rimon M, Possemiers S, . . . Masclee AA. Randomized clinical trial on the efficacy of hesperidin 2S on validated cardiovascular biomarkers in healthy overweight individuals. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Dec 2016;104(6):1523-1533.

Salminen A, Hyttinen JM, Kaarniranta K. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits NF-kappaB signaling and inflammation: impact on healthspan and lifespan. J Mol Med (Berl). 2011;89(7):667-76.

Sanae F, Kamiyama O, Ikeda-Obatake K, Higashi Y, Asano N, Adachi I, Kato A. Effects of eugenol-reduced clove extract on glycogen phosphorylase b and the development of diabetes in db/db mice. Food & function. Feb 2014;5(2):214-219.

Sandhir R, Gupta S. Molecular and biochemical trajectories from diabetes to Alzheimer's disease: A critical appraisal. World journal of diabetes. Sep 25 2015;6(12):1223-1242.

Sarbolouki S, Javanbakht MH, Derakhshanian H, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid improves insulin sensitivity in overweight type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Singapore Med J. 2013;54(7):387-90.

Sarnoski-Brocavich S, Hilas O. Canagliflozin (Invokana), a Novel Oral Agent For Type-2 Diabetes. P & T : a peer-reviewed journal for formulary management. Nov 2013;38(11):656-666.

Sartorius T, Peter A, Schulz N, Drescher A, Bergheim I, Machann J, . . . Hennige AM. Cinnamon extract improves insulin sensitivity in the brain and lowers liver fat in mouse models of obesity. PloS one. 2014;9(3):e92358.

Sasaki S, Inoguchi T. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Diabets Metab. 2012;36(4):255-261.

Satoh T, Igarashi M, Yamada S, et al. Inhibitory effect of black tea and its combination with acarbose on small intestinal alpha-glucosidase activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;161:147-55.

Schaafsma D, Gosens R, Ris JM, et al. Insulin induces airway smooth muscle contraction. Br J Phrmacol. 2007;150(2):136-42.

Schauer PR, Burguera B, Ikramuddin S, Cottam D, Gourash W, Hamad G, . . . Kelley D. Effect of Laparoscopic Roux-En Y Gastric Bypass on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Annals of Surgery. 2003;238(4):467-485.

Scheen AJ, Paquot N. Metformin revisited: a critical review of the benefit-risk balance in at-risk patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab. 2013;39:179-190.

Scheen AJ. Cardiovascular effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: from risk factors to clinical outcomes. Postgraduate medicine. May 2013;125(3):7-20.

Schmitz O, Brock B, Rungby J. Amylin Agonists: A Novel Approach in the Treatment of Diabetes. Diabetes. December 1, 2004 2004;53(suppl 3):S233-S238.

Schurman L, McCarthy AD, Sedlinsky C, et al. Metformin reverts deleterious effects of advanced glycation end-products on osteoblastic cells. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2008;116(6):333-40.

Seidler NW, Yeargans GS, Morgan TG. Carnosine disaggregates glycated alpha-crystallin: an in vitro study. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics. Jul 1 2004;427(1):110-115.

Selam JL. Inhaled insulin: promises and concerns. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2008;2(2):311-5.

Selhub J, Jacques PF, Bostom AG, Wilson PW, Rosenberg IH. Relationship between plasma homocysteine and vitamin status in the Framingham study population. Impact of folic acid fortification. Public health reviews. 2000;28(1-4):117-145.

Semba RD, Nicklett EJ, Ferrucci L. Does accumulation of advanced glycation end products contribute to the aging phenotype? The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. Sep 2010;65(9):963-975.

Seshasai SR, Kaptoge S, Thompson A, et al. Diabetes mellitus, fasting glucose, and risk of cause-specific death. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(9):829-41.

Shahbazian H. World diabetes day; 2013. Journal of renal injury prevention. 2013;2(4):123-124.

Sheard NF, Clark NG, Brand-Miller JC, Franz MJ, Pi-Sunyer FX, Mayer-Davis E, . . . Geil P. Dietary Carbohydrate (Amount and Type) in the Prevention and Management of Diabetes: A statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes care. September 1, 2004 2004;27(9):2266-2271.

Sheng X, Zhang Y, Gong Z, et al. Improved insulin resistance and lipid metabolism by cinnamon extract through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. PPAR Res. 2008;2008:581348.

Shi TJ, Zhang MD, Zeberg H, et al. Coenzyme Q10 prevents peripheral neuropathy and attenuates neuron loss in the db-/db- mouse, a type 2 diabetes model. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013;11092):690-5.

Shimabukuro M, Higa N, Chinen I, et al. Effects of a single administration of acarbose on postprandial glucose excursion and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients” a randomized crossover study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(3):837-42.

Shimoda M, Kaku K. Controversy about the relationship between sulfonylurea use and cardiovascular events and mortality. J Diabetes Investig. Feb 9 2016.

Shoeb M, Ramana KV. Anti-inflammatory effects of benfotiamine are mediated through the regulation of the arachidonic acid pathway in macrophages. Free radical biology & medicine. Jan 1 2012;52(1):182-190.

Siekmeier R, Scheuch G. Inhaled insulin--does it become reality? Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society. Dec 2008;59 Suppl 6:81-113.

Silva KC, Rosales MA, Hamassaki DE, et al. Green tea is neuroprotective in diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54(2):1325-36.

Simental-Mendia LE, Rodriguez-Moran M, Guerrero-Romero F. Oral magnesium supplementation decreases C-reactive protein levels in subjects with prediabetes and hypomagnesemia: a clinical randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Arch Med Res. 2014;45(4):325-30.

Simeonov S, Pavlova M, Mitkov M, Mincheva L, Troev D. Therapeutic efficacy of "Milgamma" in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Folia medica. 1997;39(4):5-10.

Simm A. Protein glycation during aging and in cardiovascular disease. J Proteomics. 2013;92:248-259.

Simons LA, Friedlander Y, McCallum J, Simons J. Fasting plasma glucose in non-diabetic elderly women predicts increased all-causes mortality and coronary heart disease risk. Australian and New Zealand journal of medicine. Feb 2000;30(1):41-47.

Simsek M, Quezada-Calvillo R, Ferruzzi MG, Nichols BL, Hamaker BR. Dietary phenolic compounds selectively inhibit the individual subunits of maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase with the potential of modulating glucose release. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. Apr 22 2015;63(15):3873-3879.

Singh AK, Singh R, Kota SK. Bariatric surgery and diabetes remission: Who would have thought it? Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. Sep-Oct 2015;19(5):563-576.

Singh SK. Post-prandial hyperglycemia. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012;16(Suppl 2):S245-S247.

Smart NG, Apelqvist AA, Gu X, Harmon EB, Topper JN, MacDonald RJ, Kim SK. Conditional expression of Smad7 in pancreatic beta cells disrupts TGF-beta signaling and induces reversible diabetes mellitus. PLoS biology. Feb 2006;4(2):e39.

Smith JR, Thiagaraj HV, Seaver B, Parker KK. Differential activity of lipoic acid enantiomers in cell culture. Journal of herbal pharmacotherapy. 2005;5(3):43-54.

Smith SM, Vale WW. The role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in neuroendocrine responses to stress. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience. 2006;8(4):383-395.

Soare A, Weiss EP, Pozzilli P. Benefits of caloric restriction for cardiometabolic health, including type 2 diabetes mellitus risk. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. Mar 2014;30 Suppl 1:41-47.

Solati M, Ouspid E, Hosseini S, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in type II diabetic patients. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2014;July 15;28:67.

Song SJ, Choi S, Park T. Decaffeinated green coffee bean extract attenuates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:Article ID 718379.

Soranna D, Scotti L, Zambon A, et al. Cancer risk associated with use of metformin and sulfonylurea in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Oncologist. 2012;17(6):813-22.

Sprague JE, Arbelaez AM. Glucose counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia. Pediatric endocrinology reviews: PER. Sep 2011;9(1):463-473; quiz 474-465.

Standl E, Theodorakis MJ, Erbach M, et al. On the potential of acarbose to reduce cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular Diabetology. 2014;13:81.

Stattin P, Bjor O, Ferrari P, et al. Prospective study of hyperglycemia and cancer risk. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(3):561-567.

Steven S, Lim EL, Taylor R. Population response to information on reversibility of Type 2 diabetes. Diabetic medicine: a journal of the British Diabetic Association. Apr 2013;30(4):e135-138.

Steyers CM, 3rd, Miller FJ, Jr. Endothelial dysfunction in chronic inflammatory diseases. International journal of molecular sciences. 2014;15(7):11324-11349.

Stirban A, Nandrean S, Gotting C, Tamler R, Pop A, Negrean M, . . . Tschoepe D. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on macro- and microvascular function in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Mar 2010;91(3):808-813.

Stirban A, Negrean M, Stratmann B, et al. Benfotiamine prevents macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress following a meal rich in advanced glycation end products in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care. 2006;29(9):2064-2071.

Strack T. Metformin: a review. Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain: 1998). Apr 2008;44(4):303-314.

Stracke H, Gaus W, Achenbach U, Federlin K, Bretzel RG. Benfotiamine in diabetic polyneuropathy (BENDIP): results of a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes: official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association. Nov 2008;116(10):600-605.

Stracke H, Lindemann A, Federlin K. A benfotiamine-vitamin B combination in treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy. Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes: official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association. 1996;104(4):311-316.

Streeper RS, Henriksen EJ, Jacob S, Hokama JY, Fogt DL, Tritschler HJ. Differential effects of lipoic acid stereoisomers on glucose metabolism in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. The American journal of physiology. Jul 1997;273(1 Pt 1):E185-191.

Stull AJ, Cash KC, Johnson WD, Champagne CM, Cefalu WT. Bioactives in blueberries improve insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant men and women. The Journal of nutrition. Oct 2010;140(10):1764-1768.

Su Y, Zhao Y, Zhang C. Bariatric surgery: beta cells in type 2 diabetes remission. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. Feb 2016;32(2):122-131.

Suarez EA, Koro CE, Christian JB, Spector AD, Araujo AB, Abraham S. Incretin-mimetic therapies and pancreatic disease: a review of observational data. Current medical research and opinion. Dec 2014;30(12):2471-2481.

Subash S, Essa MM, Al-Adawi S, Memon MA, Manivasagam T, Akbar M. Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases. Neural regeneration research. Aug 15 2014;9(16):1557-1566.

Sudchada P, Saokaew S, Sridetch S, et al. Effects of folic acid supplementation on plasma total homocysteine levels and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012;98(1):151-8.

Suksomboon N, Poolsup N, Yuwanakorn A. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of chromium supplementation in diabetes. J Clin Parm Ther. 2014;39:292-306.

Sun Q, Wedick NM, Tworoger SS, Pan A, Townsend MK, Cassidy A, . . . van Dam RM. Urinary Excretion of Select Dietary Polyphenol Metabolites Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Proximate but Not Remote Follow-Up in a Prospective Investigation in 2 Cohorts of US Women. The Journal of nutrition. Jun 2015;145(6):1280-1288.

Szablewski L. Diabetes mellitus: influences on cancer risk. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2014;30(7):543-53.

Takahashi K, Kamada C, Yoshimura H, Okumura R, Iimuro S, Ohashi Y, . . . Ito H. Effects of total and green vegetable intakes on glycated hemoglobin A1C and triglycerides in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Japanese Elderly Intervention Trial. Geriatrics & gerontology international. Apr 2012;12 Suppl 1:50-58.

Takahashi M, Miyashita M, Suzuki K, Bae SR, Kim HK, Wakisaka T, . . . Yasunaga K. Acute ingestion of catechin-rich green tea improves postprandial glucose status and increases serum thioredoxin concentrations in postmenopausal women. The British journal of nutrition. Nov 14 2014;112(9):1542-1550.

Takikawa M, Inoue S, Horio F, et al. Dietary anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in diabetic mice. J Nutr. 2010;140(3):527-533.

Tasyurek HM, Altunbas HA, Balci MK, et al. Incretins: their physiology and application in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2014;30:354-371.

Teas J, Baldeon ME, Chiriboga DE, Davis JR, Sarries AJ, Braverman LE. Could dietary seaweed reverse the metabolic syndrome? Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 2009;18(2):145-154.

Thakkar B, Aronis KN, Vamvini MT, Shields K, Mantzoros CS. Metformin and sulfonylureas in relation to cancer risk in type II diabetes patients: a meta-analysis using primary data of published studies. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. Jul 2013;62(7):922-934.

Tirosh A, Shai I, Tekes-Manova D, Israeli E, Pereg D, Shochat T, . . . Rudich A. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes in young men. The New England journal of medicine. Oct 6 2005;353(14):1454-1462.

Toft I, Jenssen T. Type 2 diabetic patients have increased gluconeogenic efficiency to substrate availability, but intact autoregulation of endogenous glucose production. Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation. 2005;65(4):307-320.

Tognon G, Lissner L, Saebye D, Walker KZ, Heitmann BL. The Mediterranean diet in relation to mortality and CVD: a Danish cohort study. The British journal of nutrition. Jan 14 2014;111(1):151-159.

Tome’-Carneiro J, Larrosa M, Yanez-Gascon MJ, et al. One-year supplementation with a grape extract containing resveratrol modulates inflammatory-related microRNAs and cytokines expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of type 2 diabetes and hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. Pharmacol Res. 2013;72:69-82.

Trujillo JM, Nuffer W, Ellis SL. GLP-1 receptor agonists: a review of head-to-head clinical studies. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2015;6(1):19-28.

Tu Z, Moss-Pierce T, Ford P, Jiang TA. Syzygium aromaticum L. (Clove) extract regulates energy metabolism in myocytes. Journal of medicinal food. Sep 2014;17(9):1003-1010.

Tundis R, Loizzo MR, Menichini F. Natural products as alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and their hypoglycaemic potential in the treatment of diabetes: an update. Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry. Apr 2010;10(4):315-331.

Tzimas P, Petrou A, Laou E, Milionis H, Mikhailidis DP, Papadopoulos G. Impact of metabolic syndrome in surgical patients: should we bother? British journal of anaesthesia. Jun 23 2015.

Uchiyama Y, Suzuki T, Mochizuki K, et al. Dietary supplementation with a low dose of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces pro-inflammatory responses in peripheral leukocytes of non-obese type 2 diabetic GK rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2013;59(6):541-7.

Udupa A, Nahar P, Shah S, et al. A comparative study of effects of omega-3 fatty acids, alpha lipoic acid and vitamin E in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Med Health. 2013;3:442-6.

UIE. University of Illinois Extension. Your Guide to Diet & Diabetes. What Impacts Blood Glucose Levels? Available at: Last updated: June 2014. Accessed 5/31/2015.

Umeno A, Horie M, Murotomi K, Nakajima Y, Yoshida Y. Antioxidative and Antidiabetic Effects of Natural Polyphenols and Isoflavones. Molecules. May 30 2016;21(6).

UMMC. University of Maryland Medical Center. Diabetes. 8/5/2014. Accessed 8/12/2015.

Unger J, Parkin C. Hypoglycemia in insulin-treated diabetes: a case for increased vigilance. Postgraduate medicine. Jul 2011;123(4):81-91.

UOS. University of Sydney. Not All Carbohydrate Foods Are Equal. Copyright 2015. Accessed 3/31/2016

Uribarri J, Woodruff S, Goodman S. Advanced glycation end products in foods and a practical guide to their reduction in the diet. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(6):911-16.

Utzschneider KM, Kahn SE. Review: the role of insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(12):4753-4761.

Van de Laar FA, Lucassen PL, Akkermans RP, et al. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;18(2):CD003639.

Van Guelpen B, Hultdin J, Johansson I, et al. Plasma folate and totlal homocysteine levels are associated with the risk of myocardial infarction, independently of each other and of renal function. J Intern Med. 2009;266(2):182-95.

van Heijst JW, Niessen HW, Hoekman K, Schalkwijk CG. Advanced glycation end products in human cancer tissues: detection of Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine and argpyrimidine. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Jun 2005;1043:725-733.

Van Poppel PC, van Asseldonk EJ, Holst JJ, et al. The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra improves first-phase insulin secretion and insulinogenic index in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2014;16(12):1269-73.

Venkataraman K, Khurana S, Tai TC. Oxidative stress in aging--matters of the heart and mind. International journal of molecular sciences. 2013;14(9):17897-17925.

Venn BJ, Green TJ. Glycemic index and glycemic load: measurement issues and their effect on diet-disease relationships. European journal of clinical nutrition. Dec 2007;61 Suppl 1:S122-131.

Via M. The Malnutrition of Obesity: Micronutrient Deficiencies That Promote Diabetes. ISRN Endocrinology. 2012;2012:103472.

Vilsbøll T, Christensen M, Junker AE, Knop FK, Gluud LL. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on weight loss: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2012-01-11 13:01:56 2012;344.

Vimalananda V, Garg R. ePocrates online. Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Available at: Last updated 8/12/2014. Accessed 3/19/2015.

Violett B, Horman S, Leclerc J, et al. AMPK inhibition in health and disease. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;45(4):276-295.

Viollet B, Guigas B, Sanz Garcia N, et al. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of metformin: an overview. Clin Sci (Lond). 2012;122(6):253-270.

Visser ME, Witztum JL, Stroes ESG, Kastelein JJP. Antisense oligonucleotides for the treatment of dyslipidaemia. European heart journal. 2012;33(12):1451-1458.

Vivus. Qsymia. Highlights of prescribing information. Last updated 10/2014. Accessed 4/15/16.

Vlassara H, Uribarri J. Advanced gkycation end products (AGE) and diabetes: cause, effect, or both? Curr Diab Rep. 2014;14(1):453.

Von Kriegstein E. Inhaled insulin for diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:2106-2108.

Wada J, Makino H. Inflammation and the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Clinical science (London, England: 1979). Feb 2013;124(3):139-152.

Walker MJ Jr, Morris LM, Cheng D. Improvement of cutaneous sensitivity in diabetic peripheral neuropathy with combination L-methylfolate, methylcobalamin, and pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Rev Neurol Dis. 2010;7(4):132-9.

Wang JS, Huang CN, Hung YJ, Kwok CF, Sun JH, Pei D, . . . Sheu WH. Acarbose plus metformin fixed-dose combination outperforms acarbose monotherapy for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes research and clinical practice. Oct 2013;102(1):16-24.

Wang X, Yu C, Zhang B, Wang Y. The injurious effects of hyperinsulinism on blood vessels. Cell biochemistry and biophysics. Jun 2014;69(2):213-218.

Watson RR, Schonlau F. Nutraceutical and antioxidant effects of a delphinidin-rich maqui berry extract Delphinol(R): a review. Minerva cardioangiologica. Apr 2015;63(2 Suppl 1):1-12.

Watts GF, Playford DA, Croft KD, Ward NC, Mori TA, Burke V. Coenzyme Q(10) improves endothelial dysfunction of the brachial artery in Type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. Mar 2002;45(3):420-426.

Wheeler ML, Pi-Sunyer FX. Carbohydrate issues: type and amount. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(4 Suppl 1):S34-9.

White JR, Davis SN, Cooppan R, Davidson MB, Mulcahy K, Manko GA, Nelinson D. Clarifying the Role of Insulin in Type 2 Diabetes Management. Clinical Diabetes. 2003;21(1):14-21.

Whitlatch HB, Gaddam S, Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor. Diabetes Mellitus. Available at: Copyright 2015. Accessed 3/19/2015.

Wilcox G. Insulin and insulin resistance. Clin Biochem Rev. 2005;26(2):19-39.

Williams JA. GLP-1 mimetic drugs and the risk of exocrine pancreatic disease: Cell and animal studies. Pancreatology: official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et al.]. Jan-Feb 2016;16(1):2-7.

Wing RR, Blair EH, Bononi P, Marcus MD, Watanabe R, Bergman RN. Caloric restriction per se is a significant factor in improvements in glycemic control and insulin sensitivity during weight loss in obese NIDDM patients. Diabetes care. Jan 1994;17(1):30-36.

Wing RR, Koeske R, Epstein LH, Nowalk MP, Gooding W, Becker D. Long-term effects of modest weight loss in type II diabetic patients. Archives of internal medicine. Oct 1987;147(10):1749-1753.

Wing RR, Lang W, Wadden TA, Safford M, Knowler WC, Bertoni AG, . . . Group tLAR. Benefits of Modest Weight Loss in Improving Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes care. 2011;34(7):1481-1486.

Winkler G, Pal B, Nagybeganyi E, Ory I, Porochnavec M, Kempler P. Effectiveness of different benfotiamine dosage regimens in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Arzneimittel-Forschung. Mar 1999;49(3):220-224.

Witters LA. The blooming of the French lilac. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2001;108(8):1105-1107.

Wolpin BM, Bao Y, Qian ZR, Wu C, Kraft P, Ogino S, . . . Fuchs CS. Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, impaired pancreatic beta-cell function, and risk of pancreatic cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Jul 17 2013;105(14):1027-1035.

Wong YV, Cook P, Somani BK. The association of metabolic syndrome and urolithiasis. International journal of endocrinology. 2015;2015:570674.

Wu AH, Spicer D, Stanczyk FZ, Tseng CC, Yang CS, Pike MC. Effect of 2-month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormone levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.). Mar 2012;5(3):393-402.

Xi B, Li S, Liu Z, Tian H, Yin X, Huai P, . . . Steffen LM. Intake of fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one. 2014;9(3):e93471.

Xiang GD, Sun HL, Zhao LS, et al. The antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid improves endothelial dysfunction induced by acute hyperglycemia during OGTT in impaired glucose tolerance. Clin Endocrinol. 2008;68:716-723.

Xie F, Cheng Z, Li S, Liu X, Guo X, Yu P, Gu Z. Pharmacokinetic study of benfotiamine and the bioavailability assessment compared to thiamine hydrochloride. Journal of clinical pharmacology. Jun 2014;54(6):688-695.

Xu H, Hu MB, Bai PD, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines in prostate cancer development and progression promoted by high-fat diet. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:249741.

Yadav A, Kataria MA, Saini V, et al. Role of leptin and adiponectin in insulin resistance. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2013;417:80-84.

Yamagishi S. Role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and receptor for AGEs (RAGE) in vascular damage in diabetes. Exp Gerontol. 2011;46:217-224.

Yamamoto S, Matsushita Y, Nakagawa T, et al. Circulating adiponectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Japanese. Nutrition & Diabetes. 2014;4:e130.

Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Ito Y, et al. Cloning of adiponectin receptors that mediate antidiabetic metabolic effects. Nature. 2003;423:762-769.

Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Minokoshi Y, et al. Adiponectin stimulates glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Nat Med. 2002;8(11):1288-95.

Yan LJ. Pathogenesis of chronic hyperglycemia: from reductive stress to oxidative stress. J Diabetes Res. 2014;2014:137919.

Yan X, Liao H, Cheng M, Shi X, Lin X, Feng XH, Chen YG. Smad7 Protein Interacts with Receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) to Inhibit Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta)/Smad Signaling. The Journal of biological chemistry. Jan 1 2016;291(1):382-392.

Yang J, Han Y, Chen C, et al. EGCG attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammation by suppression of PKC and NF-alphaB signaling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Life Sci. 2013;92(10):589-97.

Yang X, Kong F. Evaluation of the in vitro alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of green tea polyphenols and different tea types. J Sci Food Agric. 2015;Feb 24. Doi:10.1002/jsfa.7147.

Yapislar H, Aydogan S. Effect of carnosine on erythrocyte deformability in diabetic rats. Arch Physiol Biochem. Dec 2012;118(5):265-272.

Yatsunami K, Ichida M, Onodera S. The relationship between 1-deoxynojirimycin content and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity in leaves of 276 mulberry cultivars (Morus spp.) in Kyoto, Japan. Journal of natural medicines. Jan 2008;62(1):63-66.

Yeo J, Kang YJ, Jeon SM, et al. Potential hypoglycemic effect of an ethanol extract of Gynostemma penatphyllum in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. J Med Food. 2008;11(4):709-16.

Yoo JY, Kim SS. Probiotics and prebiotics: Present Status and Future Perspectives on Metabolic Disorders.

Yoshino J, Mills KF, Yoon MJ, Imai S-i. Nicotinamide mononucleotide, a key NAD(+) intermediate, treats the pathophysiology of diet- and age-induced diabetes in mice. Cell metabolism. 2011;14(4):528-536.

Yue W, Yang CS, DiPaola RS, Tan XL. Repurposing of metformin and aspirin by targeting AMPK-mTOR and inflammation for pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment. Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.). Apr 2014;7(4):388-397.

Zapp L, Slaga TJ, Zhao J, Lange M, Inventors. Method for Enhancing Post-Processing Content of Beneficial Compounds in Beverages Naturally Containing Same. US patent 8,357,419 B2. Jan. 22. 2013.

Zeki Al Hazzouri A, Stone KL, Haan MN, et al. Liptin. Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Dementia Among Elderly Women. J Gerontol a Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013;68(2):175-180.

Zeymer U. Cardiovascular benefits of acarbose in impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Int J Cardiol. 2006;107(1):11-20.

Zhang DW, Fu M, Gao SH, et al. Curcumin and diabetes: a sytematic review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:636053.

Zhang J, Sun C, Yan Y, Chen Q, Luo F, Zhu X, . . . Chen K. Purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) fruit and their effects on glucose consumption in human HepG2 cells. Food chemistry. Dec 01 2012;135(3):1471-1478.

Zhang J, Tiller C, Shen J, Wang C, Girouard GS, Dennis D, . . . Ewart HS. Antidiabetic properties of polysaccharide- and polyphenolic-enriched fractions from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum. Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology. Nov 2007;85(11):1116-1123.

Zhang YP, Eber A, Yuan Y, et al. Prophylactic and antinociceptive effects of coenzyme Q10 on diabetic neuropathic pain in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Anesthesiology. 2013;118(4):945-54.

Zhou Y, Rui L. Leptin signaling and leptin resistance. Frontiers of medicine. Jun 2013;7(2):207-222.

Ziegler D, Reljanovic M, Mehnert H, Gries FA. Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy in Germany: current evidence from clinical trials. Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes: official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association. 1999;107(7):421-430.

Zoico E, Di Francesco V, Mazzali G, et al. Adipocytokines, fat distribution, and insulin resistance in elderly men and women. J Gerontol: Medical Sciences. 2004;59A(9):935-939.

Zuo H, Shi Z, Yuan B, et al. Association between serum leptin concentrations and insulin resistance: a population-based study in China. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(1):e54615.