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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. National Institute of Mental Health 2006.Facts about Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Available at: Accessed June 28, 2006.
  2. Cosoff S, Hafner RJ. The prevalence of comorbid anxiety in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder.Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1998;32:67–72.
  3. Kruger S, Cooke RG et al. Comorbidity of obsessive compulsive disorder in bipolar disorder.J Affective Disord. 1995;34:117–20.
  4. American Psychiatric Association.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 2004.
  5. Koran LM. Quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder.PsychiatrClin North Am. 2000;23:509–617.
  6. Hollander E, Stein D et al. Psychosocial function and economic costs of obsessive-compulsive disorder.CNS Spectrums. 1997;2:16.
  7. Koran LM, Thienemann ML et al. Quality of life for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153:783–8.
  8. Calvocoressi L, Lewis B et al. Family accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152:441.
  9. Whiteside SP, Port JD et al. A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2004 Nov 15;132(1):69–79.
  10. Arnold PD, Richter MA. Is obsessive-compulsive disorder an autoimmune disease? CMAJ. 2001 Nov 13;165(10):1353–58.
  11. Nestadt G, Samuels J et al. A family study of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000 Apr;57(4):358–63.
  12. vanGrootheest DS, Cath DC, et al. Twin studies on obsessive-compulsive disorder: A review. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2005 Oct;8(5):450–8.
  13. Hu XZ, Lipsky RH et al. Serotonin transporter promoter gain-of-function genotypes are linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Human Genetics. 2006 May;78(5):815–26.
  14. Altemus M, Greenberg BD et al. Open trial of flutamide for treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999 Jul;60(7):442–5.
  15. Rapkin AJ, Mikacich JA et al. The clinical nature and formal diagnosis of premenstrual, postpartum, and perimenopausal affective disorders.Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2002 Dec;4(6):419–28.
  16. Eriksson, T. Antiandrogenic treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder.Letters to the editor.Am J Psychiatry. Mar 2000;157:483.
  17. Herzog AG. Psychoneuroendocrine aspects of temporolimbic epilepsy: Part I: Brain, reproductive steroids, and emotions. Psychosomatics. 1999 Mar-Apr;40(2):95–101.
  18. Monteleone P, Catapano F et al. Plasma melatonin and cortisol circadian patterns in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after fluoxetine treatment.Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1995;20(7):763–70.
  19. Himle JA, Rassi S et al. Group behavioral therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Seven vs. twelve-week outcomes. Depress Anxiety. 2001;13(4):161–5.
  20. Simpson HB, Huppert JD et al. Response versus remission in obsessive-compulsive disorder.J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Feb;67(2):269–76.
  21. Whittal ML, Thordarson DS et al. Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Cognitive behavior therapy vs. exposure and response prevention. Behav Res Ther. 2005 Dec;43(12):1559–76.
  22. Petruzzello SJ, Landers DM et al. A meta-analysis on the anxiety-reducing effects of acute and chronic exercise. Sports Med. 1991;11(3):143–82.
  23. Tkachuk GA, Martin GL. Exercise therapy for patients with psychiatric disorders: Research and clinical implications. Prof Psychol Res Pract. 1999;30(3):275–82.
  24. Benson H, Frankel FH et al. Treatment of anxiety: A comparison of the usefulness of self-hypnosis and a meditational relaxation technique: An overview. PsychotherPsychosom. 1978;30(3-4):229–42.
  25. Brown RP, Gerbarg PL. SudarshanKriya Yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression. Part II—clinical applications and guidelines. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Aug;11(4):711–7.
  26. Shannahoff-Khalsa DS. An introduction to Kundalini yoga meditation techniques that are specific for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Feb;10(1):91–101.
  27. Huwig-Poppe C, Voderholzer U et al. The tryptophan depletion test: Impact on sleep in healthy subjects and patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. AdvExp Med Biol. 1999;467:35–42.
  28. Smeraldi E, Diaferia G et al. Tryptophan depletion in obsessive-compulsive patients. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;40(5):398–402.
  29. Barr LC, Goodman WK et al. Tryptophan depletion in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder who respond to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994 Apr;51(4):309–17.
  30. Bell C, Abrams J et al. Tryptophan depletion and its implications for psychiatry.Br J Psychiatry. 2001 May;178:399–405.
  31. Berney A, Sookman D et al. Lack of effects on core obsessive-compulsive symptoms of tryptophan depletion during symptom provocation in remitted obsessive-compulsive disorder patients.Biol Psychiatry. 2006 May 1;59(9):853–7.
  32. Levine J. Controlled trials of inositol in psychiatry.EurNeuropsychopharmacol. 1997 May;7(2):147–55.
  33. Taylor LH, Kobak KA.An open-label trial of St. John’s wort (Hypericumperforatum) in obsessive-compulsive disorder.J Clin Psychiatry. 2000 Aug;61(8):575–8.
  34. Fiebich BL, HolligA et al. Inhibition of substance P-induced cytokine synthesis by St. John’s wort extracts. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001 Jul;34Supp 1:S26–S28.
  35. Grant J, et al., “N-Acetylcysteine, a Glutamate Modulator, in the Treatment of Trichotillomania,” Archives of General Psychiatry 66, no. 7(July 2009): 756–763.
  36. Kakuda T, NozawaA et al. Inhibiting effects of theanine on caffeine stimulation evaluated by EEG in the rat. BiosciBiotechnoBiochem. 2000;64:287–93.
  37. Juneja LR, Chu D-C et al. L-theanine a unique amino acid of green tea and its relaxation effect in humans. Trends Food Sci Tech. 1999;10:199–204.