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Premenstrual Syndrome References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Frackiewicz EJ, Shiovitz TM. Evaluation and management of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder 6. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2001 May;41(3):437–47.
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  3. Freeman EW, Sammel MD, et al. Premenstrual syndrome as a predictor of menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 May;103(5 Pt 1):960–6.
  4. Redmond AM, James AW, et al. Premenstrual asthma: Emphasis on drug therapy options. J Asthma. 2004 Oct;41(7):687–93.
  5. Clayton AH, Keller AE, et al. Exploratory study of premenstrual symptoms and serotonin variability. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2006 Jan;9(1):51–7.
  6. Smith MJ, Adams LF, et al. Abnormal luteal phase excitability of the motor cortex in women with premenstrual syndrome. Biol Psychiatry. 2003 Oct 1;54(7):757–62.
  7. Sundstrom I, Andersson A, et al. Patients with premenstrual syndrome have a different sensitivity to a neuroactive steroid during the menstrual cycle compared to control subjects. Neuroendocrinology. 1998 Feb;67(2):126–38.
  8. Rabin DS, Schmidt PJ, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in patients with the premenstrual syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Nov;71(5):1158–62.
  9. Berga S. Premenstrual syndrome. In: Federman D, Dale D, eds. ACP Medicine. New York: WebMD Corporation; 2005.
  10. Golding JM, Taylor DL, et al. Prevalence of sexual abuse history in a sample of women seeking treatment for premenstrual syndrome. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2000 Jun;21(2):69–80.
  11. Piccoli A, Modena F, et al. Reduction in urinary prostaglandin excretion in the premenstrual syndrome. J Reprod Med. 1993;38(12):941–4.
  12. Koshikawa N, Tatsunuma T, et al. Prostaglandins and premenstrual syndrome. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1992;45(1):33–6.
  13. Lombardi I, Luisi S, et al. Adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation in patients with premenstrual syndrome. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2004 Feb;18(2):79–87.
  14. Mayo Clinic. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) 2005. Available at:
  15. Bryant M, Cassidy A, et al. Effect of consumption of soy isoflavones on behavioural, somatic and affective symptoms in women with premenstrual syndrome. Br J Nutr. 2005 May;93(5):731–9.
  16. Parry BL, Mendelson WB, et al. Longitudinal sleep EEG, temperature, and activity measurements across the menstrual cycle in patients with premenstrual depression and in age-matched controls. Psychiatry Res. 1989 Dec;30(3):285-303.
  17. Baldessarini R. Drugs and the treatment of psychiatric disorders: Depression and anxiety disorders. In: Hardman J, Limbird L, eds. Goodman & Gilman’s the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. New York: McGraw Hill Medical Publishing Division; 2001:10(19).
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  19. Meden-Vrtovec H, Vujic D. Bromocriptine (Bromergon, Lek) in the management of premenstrual syndrome. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 1992;19(4):242–8.
  20. Lustyk M, Widman L, et al. Stress, quality of life and physical activity in women with varying degrees of premenstrual symptomatology. Women Health. 2004;39(3):35–44.
  21. Young EA, Korszun A. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in mood disorders. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2002 Mar;31(1):63–78.
  22. Kritz-Silverstein D, Wingard D, et al. The association of behavior and lifestyle factors with menstrual symptoms. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 1999;8(9):1185–93.
  23. Fugh-Berman A, Kronenberg F. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in reproductive-age women: A review of randomized controlled trials. Reproductive Toxicology. 2003;17:137–52.
  24. Bell SJ, Goodrick GK. A functional food product for the management of weight. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2002 Mar;42(2):163–78.
  25. Abraham GE. Nutritional factors in the etiology of the premenstrual tension syndromes. J Reprod Med. 1983;28(7):446–64.
  26. Thys-Jacobs S, Starkey P, et al. Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: Effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Premenstrual Syndrome Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Aug;179(2):444–52.
  27. Thys-Jacobs S. Micronutrients and the premenstrual syndrome: The case for calcium. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Apr;19(2):220–7.
  28. Thys-Jacobs S, Silverton M, et al. Reduced bone mass in women with premenstrual syndrome. J Womens Health. 1995;4:161–8.
  29. Ganong W. The gonads: Development and function of the reproductive system. In: Review of Medical Physiology. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill; 2003:21(23).
  30. Abraham GE, Lubran MM. Serum and red cell magnesium levels in patients with premenstrual tension. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Nov;34(11):2364–6.
  31. Facchinetti F, Borella P, et al. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes. Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Aug;78(2):177–81.
  32. Chuong CJ, Dawson EB. Zinc and copper levels in premenstrual syndrome. Fertil Steril. 1994 Aug;62(2):313–20.
  33. Wyatt KM, Dimmock PW, et al. Efficacy of vitamin B-6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: Systematic review. BMJ. 1999 May 22;318(7195):1375–81.
  34. Kendall KE, Schnurr PP. The effects of vitamin B6 supplementation on premenstrual symptoms. Obstet Gynecol. 1987 Aug;70(2):145–9.
  35. Wuttke W, Jarry H, et al. Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus): Pharmacology and clinical indications. Phytomedicine. 2003 May;10(4):348–57.
  36. Schellenberg R. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: Prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. BMJ. 2001 Jan 20;322(7279):134–7.
  37. Atmaca M, Kumru S, et al. Fluoxetine versus Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2003 Apr;18(3):191–5.
  38. Halaska M, Raus K, et al. [Treatment of cyclical mastodynia using an extract of Vitex agnus castus: Results of a double-blind comparison with a placebo]. Ceska Gynekol. 1998 Oct;63(5):388–92.
  39. Tamborini A, Taurelle R. [Value of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in the management of congestive symptoms of premenstrual syndrome]. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet. 1993 Jul;88(7-9):447–57.
  40. London RS, Murphy L, et al. Efficacy of alpha-tocopherol in the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome. J Reprod Med. 1987 Jun;32(6):400–4.
  41. Yamada T, Terashima T. Effects of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on neurotransmitter release and its relationship with glutamic acid neurotransmission. Nutr Neurosci. 2005 Aug;8(4):219–26.
  42. Horrobin DF. The role of essential fatty acids and prostaglandins in the premenstrual syndrome. J Reprod Med. 1983 Jul;28(7):465–8.
  43. Sampalis F, Bunea R, et al. Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the management of premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea. Altern Med Rev. 2003 May;8(2):171–9.
  44. Harel Z, Biro FM, et al. Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of dysmenorrhea in adolescents. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Apr;174(4):1335–8.
  45. Brush MG, Watson SJ, et al. Abnormal essential fatty acid levels in plasma of women with premenstrual syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1984 Oct 15;150(4):363–6.
  46. Turner EH, Loftis JM, et al. Serotonin a la carte: Supplementation with the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan. Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Mar;109(3):325–38.
  47. Butterweck V. Mechanism of action of St John’s wort in depression: What is known? CNS Drugs. 2003;17(8):539–62.
  48. Huang KL, Tsai SJ. St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) as a treatment for premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Case report. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2003;33(3):295–7.
  49. Stevinson C, Ernst E. A pilot study of Hypericum perforatum for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. BJOG. 2000 Jul;107(7):870–6.