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Prevention Protocols References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Oakley GP Jr. Eat right and take a multivitamin. N Engl J med. 1998 Apr;338(15):1060-1.
  2. Fairfield KM, Fletcher RH. Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: scientific review. JAMA. 2002 Jun;287(23):3116-26.
  3. Losonczy, K.G., Harris, T.B., Havlik, R.J. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in older persons: the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1996 Aug; 64(2): 190-6.
  4. Malinow, M.R., Duell, P.B., Hess, D.L., Anderson, P.H., Kruger, W.D., Phillipson, B.E., Gluckman, R.A., Block, P.C., Upson, B.M. Reduction of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary heart disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 1998 Apr 9; 338(15): 1009-15.
  5. Giovannucci, E., Stampfer, M.J., Colditz, G.A., Hunter, D.J., Fuchs, C., Rosner, B.A., Speizer, F.E., Willett, W.C. Multivitamin use, folate, and colon cancer in women in the Nurses' Health Study. Ann. Intern. Med. 1998 Oct 1; 129(7): 517-24.
  6. Curhan, G.C., Willett, W.C., Speizer, F.E., Stampfer, M.J. Intake of vitamins B6 and C and the risk of kidney stones in women. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 1999 Apr; 10(4): 840-5.
  7. Enstrom, J.E., Kanim, L.E., Klein, M.A. Vitamin C intake and mortality among a sample of the United States population. Epidemiology 1992 May; 3(3): 194-202.
  8. Nyyssonen, K., Parviainen, M.T., Salonen, R., Tuomilehto, J., Salonen, J.T. Vitamin C deficiency and risk of myocardial infarction: prospective population study of men from eastern Finland. Br. Med. J. 1997 Mar 1; 314(7081): 634-8.
  9. Khaw, K.T., Bingham, S., Welch, A., Luben, R., Wareham, N., Oakes, S., Day, N. Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in EPIC-Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population study. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Lancet 2001 Mar 3; 357(9257): 657-63.
  10. Chambers, J.C., McGregor, A., Jean-Marie, J., Obeid, O.A., Kooner, J.S. Demonstration of rapid onset vascular endothelial dysfunction after hyperhomocysteinemia: an effect reversible with vitamin C therapy. Circulation 1999 Mar 9; 99(9): 1156-60.
  11. Watanabe, H., Kakihana, M., Ohtsuka, S., Sugishita, Y. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the preventive effect of supplemental oral vitamin C on attenuation of development of nitrate tolerance. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1998 May; 31(6): 1323-9.
  12. Bassenge, E., Fink, N., Skatchkov, M., Fink, B. Dietary supplement with vitamin C prevents nitrate tolerance. J. Clin. Invest. 1998 Jul 1; 102(1): 67-71.
  13. Rodes, J., Cote, G., Lesperance, J., Bourassa, M.G., Doucet, S., Bilodeau, L., Bertrand, O.F., Harel, F., Gallo, R., Tardif, J.C. Prevention of re-stenosis after angioplasty in small coronary arteries with probucol. Circulation 1998 Feb 10; 97(5): 429-36.
  14. Vita, J.A., Keaney, J.F., Jr., Raby, K.E., Morrow, J.D., Freedman, J.E., Lynch, S., Koulouris, S.N., Hankin, B.R., Frei, B. Low plasma ascorbic acid independently predicts the presence of an unstable coronary syndrome. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1998 Apr; 31(5): 980-6.
  15. Bruemmer, B., White, E., Vaughan, T.L., Cheney, C.L. Nutrient intake in relation to bladder cancer among middle-aged men and women. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1996 Sep 1; 144(5): 485-95.
  16. Rouhiainen, P., Rouhiainen, H., Salonen, J.T. Association between low plasma vitamin E concentration and progression of early cortical lens opacities. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1996 Sep 1; 144(5): 496-500.
  17. Bonithon-Kopp, C., Coudray, C., Berr, C., Touboul, P.J., Feve, J.M., Favier, A., Ducimetiere, P. Combined effects of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status on carotid atherosclerosis in a population aged 59-71 y: The EVA Study. Etude sur le Vieillisement Arteriel. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997 Jan; 65(1): 121-7.
  18. Koscielny, J., Klussendorf, D., Latza, R., Schmitt, R., Radtke, H., Siegel, G., Kiesewetter, H. The antiatherosclerotic effect of Allium sativum. Atherosclerosis 1999 May; 144(1): 237-49.
  19. Clark, L.C., Combs, G.F., Jr., Turnbull, B.W., Slate, E.H., Chalker, D.K., Chow, J., Davis, L.S., Glover, R.A., Graham, G.F., Gross, E.G., Krongrad, A., Lesher, J.L., Jr., Park, H.K., Sanders, B.B., Jr., Smith, C.L., Taylor, J.R. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. JAMA 1996 Dec 25; 276(24): 1957-63.
  20. Zhang, S., Hunter, D.J., Forman, M.R., Rosner, B.A., Speizer, F.E., Colditz, G.A., Manson, J.E., Hankinson, S.E., Willett, W.C. Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1999 Mar 17; 91(6): 547-56.
  21. Gann, P.H., Ma, J., Giovannucci, E., Willett, W., Sacks, F.M., Hennekens, C.H., Stampfer, M.J. Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective analysis. Cancer Res. 1999 Mar 15; 59(6): 1225-30.
  22. Tseng, M., Murray, S.C., Kupper, L.L., Sandler, R.S. Micronutrients and the risk of colorectal adenomas. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1996 Dec 1; 144(11): 1005-14.
  23. Whelan, R.L., Horvath, K.D., Gleason, N.R., Forde, K.A., Treat, M.D., Teitelbaum, S.L., Bertram, A., Neugut, A.I. Vitamin and calcium supplement use is associated with decreased adenoma recurrence in patients with a previous history of neoplasia. Dis. Colon Rectum 1999 Feb; 42(2): 212-7.
  24. Evangelou, A., Kalpouzos, G., Karkabounas, S., Liasko, R., Nonni, A., Stefanou, D., Kallistratos, G. Dose-related preventive and therapeutic effects of antioxidants-anticarcinogens on experimentally induced malignant tumors in Wistar rats. Cancer Lett. 1997 May 1; 115(1): 105-11.
  25. Turley, J.M., Fu, T., Ruscetti, F.W., Mikovits, J.A., Bertolette, D.C., III, Birchenall-Roberts, M.C. Vitamin E succinate induces Fas-mediated apoptosis in estrogen receptor-negative human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 1997 Mar 1; 57(5): 881-90.
  26. Hagen TM, Liu J, Lykkesfeldt J, et al. Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb;99(4):1870-5.
  27. Watson, R.R., Huls, A., Araghinikuam, M., Chung, S. Dehydroepiandrosterone and diseases of aging. Drugs Aging 1996 Oct; 9(4): 274-91.
  28. Wolkowitz, O.M., Reus, V.I., Roberts, E., Manfredi, F., Chan, T., Raum, W.J., Ormiston, S., Johnson, R., Canick, J., Brizendine, L., Weingartner, H. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment of depression. Biol. Psychiatry 1997 Feb 1; 41(3): 311-8.