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Sjögren’s Syndrome References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Talal N. Overview of Sjögren's syndrome. J Dent Res. 1987 Feb;66(Spec No):672–674.
  2. Lazarus MN, Isenberg DA. Development of additional autoimmune diseases in a population of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005 Jul;64(7):1062-4.
  3. Carsons S. The New Sjögren's Syndrome Handbook 1998. New York: Oxford University Press.
  4. Lynge Pedersen AM, Bardow A, et al. Salivary changes and dental caries as potential oral markers of autoimmune salivary gland dysfunction in primary Sjögren's syndrome. BMC Clin Pathol. 2005 Mar 1;5(1):4
  5. Baudouin C. The pathology of dry eye. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001 Mar;45 Suppl 2:S211–S20. Review.
  6. Sjögren's Syndrome Foundation. Available at: www.Sjögren' Accessed October 10, 2005.
  7. Rousso E, Noel E, et al. [Recurrent facial palsy, primary Gougerot-Sjögren's syndrome and vitamin B12 deficiency] Presse Med. 2005 Jan 29;34(2 Pt 1):107–108. French.
  8. Derk CT, Vivino FB. A primary care approach to Sjögren's syndrome: helping patients cope with sicca symptoms, extraglandular manifestations. Postgrad Med. 2004 Sep;116(3):49–54,59,65. Review.
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  11. Zhang NZ, Shi QS, et al. [Epidemiological studies on primary Sjögren's syndrome] Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 1993 Aug;32(8):522–524. Chinese.
  12. Bombardieri M, Barone F, et al. Increased circulating levels and salivary gland expression of interleukin-18 in patients with Sjögren's syndrome: relationship with autoantibody production and lymphoid organization of the periductal inflammatory infiltrate. Arthritis Res Ther. 2004;6(5):R447–R456.
  13. Tishler M, Paran D, et al. Allergic disorders in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Scand J Rheumatol. 1998;27(3):166–169.
  14. Brito-Zeron P, Ramos Casals M, et al. Circulating monoclonal immunoglobulins in Sjogren syndrome: prevalence and clinical significance in 237 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2005 Mar;84(2):90–97.
  15. Gerli R, Bertotto A, et al. Anti-CD3 and anti-CD2-induced Tcell activation in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1989 Sep-Oct;7(Suppl. 3):S129-S134.
  16. Ishimaru N, Saegusa K, et al. Estrogen deficiency accelerates autoimmune exocrinopathy in murine Sjögren's syndrome through fas-mediated apoptosis. Am J Pathol. 1999 Jul;155(1):173–181.
  17. Stevenson HA, Jones ME, et al. UK patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome are at increased risk from clinical depression. Gerodontology. 2004 Sep;21(3):141–145.
  18. Venables PJ. Sjögren's syndrome. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2004 Jun;18(3):313–329. Review.
  19. Nusair S, Rubinow A. The use of oral pilocarpine in xerostomia and Sjögren's syndrome. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Jun;28(6):360–367.
  20. Fife RS, Chase WF, et al. Cevimeline for the treatment of xerostomia in patients with Sjogren syndrome: a randomized trial. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Jun 10;162(11):1293–1300.
  21. Yamada S, Mori K, et al. Interferon alfa treatment for Sjögren's syndrome associated neuropathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005 Apr;76(4):576–578.
  22. Valtysdottir ST , Wide L, et al. Low serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in women with primary Sjögren's syndrome as an isolated sign of impaired HPA axis function. J Rheumatol. 2001 Jun;28(6):1259–1265.
  23. Hayashi Y, Arakaki R, et al. Apoptosis and estrogen deficiency in primary Sjogren syndrome. Curr Opin Rheumatol . 2004 Sep;16(5):522–526. Review. Erratum in: Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2004 Nov;16(6):753.
  24. Petersen AM, Pedersen BK. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2005 Apr;98(4):1154–1162.
  25. Glaser R, Rabin B, et al. Stress-induced immunomodulation: implications for infectious diseases. JAMA. 1999 Jun 23–30;281(24):2268–2270.
  26. Baudouin C, Pisella PJ, et al. [Current treatments of xerophthalmia in Sjögren's syndrome] Rev Med Interne. 2004 May;25(5):376–382. Review. French.
  27. Kujawa A, Rozycki R. [Immunological phenomenons in the pathology of the tear film. Is cyclosporine the turn point in the Sjögren's syndrome treatment? Preliminary report] Klin Oczna. 2004;106(3 Suppl):489–491. Polish.
  28. Tsubota K, Monden Y, et al. New treatment of dry eye: the effect of calcium ointment through eyelid skin delivery. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999 Jul;83(7):767–770.
  29. Wu AJ. The oral component of Sjögren's syndrome: pass the scalpel and check the water. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2003 Aug;5(4):304–310.
  30. Ship JA, Fox PC, et al. Treatment of primary Sjögren's syndrome with low-dose natural human interferon-alpha administered by the oral mucosal route: a phase II clinical trial. IFN Protocol Study Group. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 1999 Aug;19(8):943–951.
  31. Oxholm P, Asmussen K, et al. Essential fatty acid status in cell membranes and plasma of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Correlations to clinical and immunologic variables using a new model for classification and assessment of disease manifestations. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1998 Oct;59(4):239–245.
  32. Horrobin DF. Essential fatty acid metabolism in diseases of connective tissue with special reference to scleroderma and to Sjögren's syndrome. Med Hypotheses. 1984 July;14(3):233–247.
  33. Harbige LS. Dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in immunity and autoimmune disease. Proc Nutr Soc. 1998 Nov;57(4):555–562.
  34. Horrobin DF. Essential fatty acid and prostaglandin metabolism in Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol. Suppl. 1986;61:242–245.
  35. Oxholm P, Manthorpe R, et al. Patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome treated for two months with evening primrose oil. Scand J Rheumatol. 1986;15(2):103–108.
  36. Horrobin DF. Loss of delta-6-desaturase activity as a key factor in aging. Med Hypotheses. 1981 Sep;7(9):1211–1220.
  37. Hsu S, Dickinson DP, Qin H, et al. Inhibition of autoantigen expression by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (the major constituent of green tea) in normal human cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Nov;315(2):805-11.
  38. Kouttab NM , Prada M, et al. Thymomodulin: biological properties and clinical applications. Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother. 1989;6(1):5.
  39. Wilson JL. Thymus extracts: an international literature review of clinical studies 1999. Available at Accessed October 10, 2005.
  40. Hadden JW, Hadden EM. Therapy of secondary T-cell immunodeficiencies with biological substances and drugs. Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother. 1989;6(1):11.
  41. Klimberg VS, Salloum RM, et al. Oral glutamine accelerates healing of the small intestine and improves outcome after whole abdominal radiation. Arch Surg. 1990 Aug;125(8):1040–1045.