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Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. National Institutes of Health 2006. Available at: Accessed June 15, 2006.
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  4. Warner-Rogers J, Taylor A, et al. Inattentive behavior in childhood: epidemiology and implications for development. J Learn Disabil. 2000 Nov;33(6):520-36.
  5. Hartman CA, Willcutt EG, et al. The relation between sluggish cognitive tempo and DSM-IV ADHD. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2004 Oct;32(5):491-503.
  6. Weiler MD, Bernstein JH, et al. Processing speed in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, inattentive type. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn C Child Neuropsychol. 2000 Sep;6(3):218-34.
  7. Ponce AG, Rodriguez-Jimenez CR, et al. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and vulnerability to the development of alcoholism: use of the Wender-Utah Rating Scale for retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in the childhood of alcoholic patients [in Spanish]. Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2000 Nov;28(6):357-66.
  8. Levin ED, Conners CK, et al. Effects of chronic nicotine and methylphenidate in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2001 Feb;9(1):83-90.
  9. Bandstra ES, Morrow CE, et al. Longitudinal investigation of task persistence and sustained attention in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2001 Nov;23(6):545-59.
  10. Comings DE, Blum K. Reward deficiency syndrome: genetic aspects of behavioral disorders. Prog Brain Res. 2000;126:325-41.
  11. Mitsis EM, Halperin JM, et al. Serotonin and aggression in children. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2000 Apr;2(2):95-101.
  12. Sunohara GA, Roberts W, et al. Linkage of the dopamine D4 receptor gene and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000 Dec;39(12):1537-42.
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  17. Overmeyer S, Bullmore ET, et al. Distributed grey and white matter deficits in hyperkinetic disorder: MRI evidence for anatomical abnormality in an attentional network. Psychol Med. 2001 Nov;31(8):1425-35.
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  21. Holtkamp K, Peters-Wallraf B, et al. Methylphenidate-related growth impairment. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2002 Spring;12(1):55-61.
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  24. Kelsey DK, Sumner CR, et al. Once-daily atomoxetine treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, including an assessment of evening and morning behavior: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2004 Jul;114(1):e1-e8.
  25. Hamrin V, Bailey K. Gabapentin and methylphenidate treatment of a preadolescent with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2001;11(3):301-9.
  26. Daviss WB, Bentivoglio P, et al. Bupropion sustained release in adolescents with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001 Mar;40(3):307-14.
  27. Taylor FB, Russo J. Efficacy of modafinil compared to dextroamphetamine for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2000;10(4):311-20.
  28. Wilens TE, Waxmonasky J, et al. An open trial of adjunctive donepezil in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005 Dec;15(6):947-55.
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  30. Rice DC. Parallels between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and behavioral deficits produced by neurotoxic exposure in monkeys. Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Jun;108(suppl 3):405-8.
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  32. Krummel DA, Seligson FH, et al. Hyperactivity: is candy causal? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1996 Jan;36(1-2):31-47.
  33. Boris M, Mandel FS. Foods and additives are common causes of the attention deficit hyperactive disorder in children. Ann Allergy. 1994 May;72(5):462-8.
  34. Rowe KS, Rowe KJ. Synthetic food coloring and behavior: a dose response effect in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study. J Pediatr. 1994 Nov;125(pt 1):691-8.
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  36. Girardi NL, Shaywitz SE, et al. Blunted catecholamine responses after glucose ingestion in children with attention deficit disorder. Pediatr Res. 1995 Oct;38(4):539-42.
  37. Schnoll R, Burshteyn D, et al. Nutrition in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a neglected but important aspect. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2003 Mar;28(1):63-75.
  38. Harding KL, Judah RD, et al. Outcome-based comparison of Ritalin versus food-supplement treated children with AD/HD. Altern Med Rev. 2003 Aug;8(3):319-30.
  39. Haag M. Essential fatty acids and the brain. Can J Psychiatry. 2003 Apr;48(3):195-203.
  40. Joshi K, Lad S, et al. Supplementation with flax oil and vitamin C improves the outcome of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006 Jan;74(1):17-21.
  41. Young GS, Conquer JA, et al. Effect of randomized supplementation with high dose olive, flax or fish oil on serum phospholipid fatty acid levels in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2005 Sep-Oct;45(5):549-58.
  42. Stevens L, Zhang W, et al. EFA supplementation in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and other disruptive behaviors. Lipids. 2003 Oct;38(10):1007-21.
  43. Nogovitsina OR, Levitina EV. Effect of MAGNE-B6 on the clinical and biochemical manifestations of the syndrome of attention deficit and hyperactivity in children [in Russian]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2006a Jan-Feb;69(1):74-7.
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  45. Nogovitsina OR, Levitina EV. Diagnostic value of examination of the magnesium homeostasis in children with attention deficit syndrome with hyperactivity [in Russian]. Klin Lab Diagn. 2005 May;(5):17-9.
  46. Mousain-Bosc M, Roche M, et al. Magnesium VitB6 intake reduces central nervous system hyperexcitability in children. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Oct;23(5):545S-548S.
  47. Konofal E, Lecendreux M, et al. Iron deficiency in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004 Dec;158(12):1113-5.
  48. Millichap JG, Yee MM, et al. Serum ferritin in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Mar;34(3):200-3.
  49. Arnold LE, Bozzolo H, et al. Serum zinc correlates with parent- and teacher- rated inattention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005a Aug;15(4):628-36.
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  51. Akhondzadeh S, Mohammadi MR, et al. Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: a double blind and randomized trial [ISRCTN64132371]. BMC Psychiatry. 2004 Apr 8;4:9.
  52. Bilici M, Yildirim F, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zinc sulfate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Jan;28(1):181-90.
  53. Adriani W, Rea M, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine reduces impulsive behaviour in adolescent rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004 Nov;176(3-4):296-304.
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  63. Weiss MD, Wasdell MB, et al. Sleep hygiene and melatonin treatment for children and adolescents with ADHD and initial insomnia. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006 May;45(5):512-9.
  64. Strous RD, Spivak B, et al. Analysis of neurosteroid levels in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001 Sep;4(3):259-64.
  65. Maayan R, Yoran-Hegesh R, et al. Three-month treatment course of methylphenidate increases plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychobiology. 2003;48(3):111-5.
  66. Lyon MR, Cline JC, et al. Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolium and Ginkgo biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2001 May;26(3):221-8.
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  70. Rohdewald P. A review of the French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol), a herbal medication with a diverse clinical pharmacology. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Apr;40(4):158-68.
  71. Trebaticka J, Kopasova S, Hradecna Z, et al. Treatment of ADHD with French maritime pine bark extract, Pycnogenol((R)). Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006 May 13.