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Acne References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Cordain L, Lindeberg S et al. Acne vulgaris: a disease of Western civilization. Arch Dermatol. 2002 Dec; 138(12):1584-90.
  2. Rossen MH, Roed-Petersen J. [Acne vulgaris]. Ugeskr Laeger. 1993 Mar 15;155(11):775-8.
  3. Bataille V, Snieder H et al. The influence of genetics and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of acne: a twin study of acne in women. J Invest Dermatol 2002 Dec; 119(6): 1317-22.
  4. Russell JJ. Topical therapy for acne. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Jan 15;61(2):357-66.
  5. YeungCK, Chan HH. Cutaneous adverse effects of lithium: epidemiology and management. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2004;5(1):3-8.
  6. Weiss JS, ShavinJS. Topical retinoid and antibiotic combination therapy for acne management. J Drugs Dermatol. 2004 Mar;3(2):146-54.
  7. Guenther LC. Optimizing treatment with topical tazarotene. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2003;4(3):197-202.
  8. Webster GF, Guenther L et al. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized comparison study of the efficacy and tolerability of once-daily tazarotene 0.1 percent gel and adapalene 0.1 percent gel for the treatment of facial acne vulgaris. Cutis 2002 Feb; 69(2 Suppl): 4-11.
  9. Layton AM. Optimal management of acne to prevent scarring and psychological sequelae. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2001;2(3):135-41.
  10. Lemay A, Poulin Y et al. Oral contraceptives as anti-androgenic treatment of acne. A comparison of the relative efficacy of antiandrogens for the treatment of acne in hyperandrogenic women. Clinical application of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2002 Jul;24(7):559-67.
  11. Carmina E, Lobo RA. A comparison of the relative efficacy of antiandrogens for the treatment of acne in hyperandrogenic women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2002 Aug;57(2):231-34.
  12. Karlsson T, Vahlquist A et al. 13-cis-retinoic acid competitively inhibits 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidation by retinol dehydrogenase RoDH-4: a mechanism for its anti-androgenic effects in sebaceous glands? Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Mar 28;303(1):273-8.
  13. Inui S, Nakajima T et al. Potential anti-androgenic activity of roxithromycin in skin. J Dermatol Sci. 2001 Oct;27(2):147-51.
  14. Nussbaumer P, Billich A. Steroid sulfatase inhibitors. Med Res Rev. 2004 Jul; 24(4):529-76.
  15. ZhanelGG, Homenuik K et al. The glycylcyclines: a comparative review with the tetracyclines. Drugs. 2004;64(1):63-88.
  16. SmolinskiKN, Yan AC et al. Acne update: 2004. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2004 Aug 8;16(4):385-91.
  17. Smith R, Mann N et al. The effect of short-term altered macronutrient status on acne vulgaris and biochemical markers of insulin sensitivity. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(Suppl):S67.
  18. Adebamowo CA, Spiegelman D et al. High school dietary dairy intake and teenage acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005 Feb;52(2):207-14.
  19. El-Akawi Z, Abdel-Latif N et al. Does the plasma level of vitamins A and E affect acne condition? ClinExpDermatol 2006 May; 31(3): 430-34.
  20. Reifen R. vitamin A as an anti-inflammatory agent. Proc Nutr Soc 2002 Aug; 6(3): 397-400.
  21. KovalevVM. Complex treatment of acne with lipoic acid. VrachDelo1981 Mar; (3): 108-13.
  22. Dreno B, Foulc P et al. Effect of zinc gluconate on propionibacterium acnes resistance to erythromycinin patients with inflammatory acne: in vitro and in vivo study. Eur J Dermatol 2005 May-Jun; 15(3): 152-55.
  23. Pierard-Franchimont C, Goffin V et al. A double-blind controlled evaluation of the sebosuppressive activity of topical erythromycin-zinc complex. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 49(1-2): 57-60.
  24. Van HoogdalemEJ, TarpstraIJ et al. Evaluation of the effect of zinc acetate on the stratum corneum penetration kinetics of erythromycin in healthy male volunteers. Skin Pharmacol. 1996;9(2):104-10.
  25. PapageorgiouPP, Chu AC. Chloroxylenol and zinc oxide containing cream (Nels cream) vs. 5 percent benzoyl peroxide cream in the treatment of acne vulgaris. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2000 Jan;25(1):16-20.
  26. CunliffeWJ, Fernandez C et al. An observer-blind parallel-group, randomized, multicentre clinical and microbiological study of a topical clindamycin/zinc gel and a topical clindamycin lotion in patients with mild/moderate acne. J Dermatolog Treat. 2005;16(4):213-8.
  27. Shalita AR, Smith JG et al.Topicalnicotinamide compared with clindamycin gel in the treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris. Int J Dermatol 1995 Jun; 34(6): 434-37.
  28. DraelosZD, Matsubara A et al. The effect of 2 percent niacinamide on facial sebum production. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2006 Jun;8(2):96-101.
  29. Puglia C, Tropea S et al. In vitro percutaneous absorption studies and in vivo evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of essential fatty acids (EFA) from fish oil extracts. Int J Pharm. 2005 Aug 11;299(1-2):41-8.
  30. Shahbakhti H, Watson RE et al. Influence of eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid, on ultraviolet-B generation of prostaglandin-E2 and proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in human skin in vivo. Photochem Photobiol. 2004 Sep-Oct;80(2):231-5.
  31. Paranjpe P, Kulkarni PH. Comparative efficacy of four Ayurvedic formulations in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical evaluation. J Ethnopharm. 1995; 49:127-32.
  32. Brown DJ, Dattner AM. Phytotherapeutic approaches to common dermatologic conditions. Arch Dermatol 1998; 134;1401-4.
  33. Tremblay JF, Sire DJ et al. Light-emitting diode 415 nm in the treatment of inflammatory acne: an open-label, multicenter, pilot investigation. J Cosmet Laser Ther 2006 Apr; 8(1): 31-33.
  34. Omi T, Bjerring P et al. 420 nm intense continuous light therapy for acne. J Cosmet Laser Ther 2004 Nov; 6(3): 156-62.
  35. Elman M, Lask G. The role of pulsed light and heat energy (LHE) in acne clearance. J Cosmet Laser Ther 2004 Jun; 6(2): 91-95.
  36. Santos MA, Belo VG et al. Effectiveness of photodynamic therapy with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid and intense pulsed light versus intense pulsed light alone in the treatment of acne vulgaris: comparative study. Dermatol Surg 2005 Aug; 31(8 Pt 1): 910-15.
  37. Bassett IB, Pannowitz DL et al. A comparative study of tea-tree oil versus benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of acne. Med J Austral 1990;153:455–58.
  38. Raman A, Weir U et al. Antimicrobial effects of tea-tree oil and its major components on Staphylococcus aureus, Staph. epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes. Lett Appl Microbiol 1995 Oct; 21(4): 242-45.
  39. Fujimura T, Tsukahara K, Moriwaki S, Kitahara T, Sano T, Takema Y. Treatment of human skin with an extract of Fucusvesiculosus changes its thickness and mechanical properties. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2002;53:1–9.
  40. Gupta, Aditya K., Nicol, Karyn. The use of sulfur in dermatology. Journal of Drugs in Dermatol 2004.
  41. Kunishiro K, Tai A, Yamamoto I. Effects of rooibos tea extract on antigen-specific antibody production and cytokine generation in vitro and in vivo. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Oct;65(10):2137-45.