Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Cirrhosis and Liver Disease References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Beers MH, Berkow R, eds. Merck Manual Second Home Edition 2004–2005. “Clinical Manifestations of Liver Disease.” Available at:
  2. Kawase T, Kato S, et al. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense systems in rat liver after chronic ethanol feeding. Hepatology. 1989 Nov;10(5):815–21.
  3. Leo MA, Rosman AS, et al. Differential depletion of carotenoids and tocopherol in liver disease. Hepatology. 1993 Jun;17(6):977–86.
  4. Lieber CS. Role of oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy in alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver diseases. Adv Pharmacol. 1997;38:601–28.
  5. Speisky H, MacDonald A, et al. Increased loss and decreased synthesis of hepatic glutathione after acute ethanol administration: Turnover studies. Biochem J. 1985 Feb 1;225(3):565–72.
  6. Hirano T, Kaplowitz N, et al. Hepatic mitochondrial glutathione depletion and progression of experimental alcoholic liver disease in rats. Hepatology. 1992 Dec;16(6):1423–7.
  7. Mendenhall CL, Anderson S, et al. Protein-calorie malnutrition associated with alcoholic hepatitis. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group on Alcoholic Hepatitis. Am J Med. 1984 Feb;76(2):211–22.
  8. Mendenhall C, Roselle GA, et al. Relationship of protein calorie malnutrition to alcoholic liver disease: A reexamination of data from two Veterans Administration Cooperative Studies. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1995 Jun;19(3):635–41.
  9. Hirsch S, Bunout D, et al. Controlled trial on nutrition supplementation in outpatients with symptomatic alcoholic cirrhosis. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1993 Mar-Apr;17(2):119–24.
  10. Hirsch S, de la Maza MP, et al. Nutritional support in alcoholic cirrhotic patients improves host defenses. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999 Oct;18(5):434–41.
  11. Gopalan S, Saran S, et al. Practicalities of nutrition support in chronic liver disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2000 May;3(3):227-9. Review.
  12. Gruchow HW, Sobocinski KA, et al. Alcohol consumption, nutrient intake and relative body weight among US adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985 Aug;42(2):289–95.
  13. Rosenthal WS, Adham NF, et al. Riboflavin deficiency in complicated chronic alcoholism. Am J Clin Nutr. 1973 Aug;26(8):858–60.
  14. Ijuin H. Evaluation of pancreatic exocrine function and zinc absorption in alcoholism. Kurume Med J. 1998;45(1):1–5.
  15. Fonda ML, Brown SG, et al. Concentration of vitamin B6 and activities of enzymes of B6 metabolism in the blood of alcoholic and nonalcoholic men. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1989 Dec;13(6):804–9.
  16. Lumeng L. The role of acetaldehyde in mediating the deleterious effect of ethanol on pyridoxal 5’-phosphate metabolism. J Clin Invest. 1978 Aug;62(2):286–93.
  17. Lieber CS. Alcohol: Its metabolism and interaction with nutrients. Ann Rev Nutr. 2000;20:395–430.
  18. Kasper DL, Braunwald E, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division; 2005.
  19. Wolf DC. Cirrhosis. eMedicine. 2001 Sep 6. Available at: http:// Accessed January 16, 2006.
  20. Glanze WD. Mosby Medical Encyclopedia. Revised ed. St. Louis, Mo: CV Mosby; 1996.
  21. Mathurin P, Mendenhall CL, et al. Corticosteroids improve short-term survival in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH): Individual data analysis of the last three randomized placebo controlled double blind trials of corticosteroids in severe AH. J Hepatol. 2002 Apr;36(4):480–7.
  22. Barham JB, Edens MB, et al. Addition of eicosapentaenoic acid to gamma-linolenic acid-supplemented diets prevents serum arachidonic acid accumulation in humans. J Nutr. 2000 Aug;130(8):1925–31.
  23. Dias VC, Parsons HG. Modulation in delta 9, delta 6, and delta 5 fatty acid desaturase activity in the human intestinal CaCo-2 cell line. J Lipid Res. 1995 Mar;36(3):552–63.
  24. Gronn M, Christensen E, et al. Effects of dietary purified eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 (n-3)) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)) on fatty acid desaturation and oxidation in isolated rat liver cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992 Apr 8;1125(1):35–43.
  25. Shimizu S, Akimoto K, et al. Sesamin is a potent and specific inhibitor of delta 5 desaturase in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Lipids. 1991 Jul;26(7):512–6.
  26. Chavali SR, Forse RA. Decreased production of interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2 associated with inhibition of delta-5 desaturation of omega6 fatty acids in mice fed safflower oil diets supplemented with sesamol. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1999 Dec;61(6):347–52.
  27. Utsunomiya T, Chavali SR, et al. Effects of sesamin-supplemented dietary fat emulsions on the ex vivo production of lipopolysaccharide-induced prostanoids and tumor necrosis factor alpha in rats. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Sep;72(3):804–8.
  28. Van Aerde JE, Duerksen DR, et al. Intravenous fish oil emulsion attenuates total parenteral nutrition-induced cholestasis in newborn piglets. Pediatr Res. 1999 Feb;45(2):202–8.
  29. Yeh SL, Chang KY, et al. Effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on plasma eicosanoids and liver antioxidant enzymes in rats receiving total parenteral nutrition. Nutrition. 1997 Jan;13(1):32–6.
  30. Chen WJ, Yeh SL. Effects of fish oil in parenteral nutrition. Nutrition. 2003 Mar;19(3):275–9.
  31. Alwayn IP, Gura K, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation prevents hepatic steatosis in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Pediatr Res. 2005 Mar;57(3):445–52.
  32. Nanji AA, Mendenhall CL, et al. Beef fat prevents alcoholic liver disease in the rat. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1989a Feb;13(1):15–9.
  33. Nanji AA, French SW. Dietary linoleic acid is required for development of experimentally induced alcoholic liver injury. Life Sci. 1989b;44(3):223–7.
  34. Nanji AA, Khwaja S, et al. Plasma levels of a novel noncyclooxygenase-derived prostanoid (8-isoprostane) correlate with severity of liver injury in experimental alcoholic liver disease. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Jun;269(3):1280–5.
  35. Nanji AA, Jokelainen K, et al. Dietary saturated fatty acids reverse inflammatory and fibrotic changes in rat liver despite continued ethanol administration. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):638–44.
  36. Lieber CS. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine and alcoholic liver disease in animal models: implications for early intervention in human beings. Alcohol. 2002 Jul;27(3):173-7. Review.
  37. Vendemiale G, Altomare E, et al. Effects of oral S-adenosyl-L-methionine on hepatic glutathione in patients with liver disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1989 May;24(4):407–15.
  38. Mato JM, Camara J, et al. S-adenosylmethionine in alcoholic liver cirrhosis: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial. J Hepatol. 1999 Jun;30(6):1081–9.
  39. Aleynik SI, Lieber CS. Polyenylphosphatidylcholine corrects the alcohol-induced hepatic oxidative stress by restoring s-adenosylmethionine. Alcohol. 2003 May-Jun;38(3):208–12.
  40. Ma X, Zhao J, et al. Polyenylphosphatidylcholine attenuates non-alcoholic hepatic fibrosis and accelerates its regression. J Hepatol. 1996 May;24(5):604–13.
  41. Lieber CS, Robins SJ, et al. Phosphatidylcholine protects against fibrosis and cirrhosis in the baboon. Gastroenterology. 1994 Jan;106(1):152–9.
  42. Lieber CS, Weiss DG, et al. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study of polyenylphosphatidylcholine in alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003a Nov;27(11):1765–72.
  43. Boigk G, Stroedter L, et al. Silymarin retards collagen accumulation in early and advanced biliary fibrosis secondary to complete bile duct obliteration in rats. Hepatology. 1997 Sep;26(3):643–9.
  44. Dehmlow C, Erhard J, et al. Inhibition of Kupffer cell functions as an explanation for the hepatoprotective properties of silibinin. Hepatology. 1996 Apr;23(4):749–54.
  45. Kravchenko LV, Avren’eva LI, et al. Effects of bioflavonoids on the toxicity of T-toxin in rats: A biochemical study. Vopr Pitan. 2000;69(5):20–3.
  46. Batakov EA. Effect of Silybum marianum oil and legalon on lipid peroxidation and liver antioxidant systems in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2001 Jul-Aug;64(4):53–5.
  47. Lieber CS, Leo MA, et al. Silymarin retards the progression of alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis in baboons. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2003b Oct;37(4):336–9.
  48. Ferenci P, Dragosics B, et al. Randomized controlled trial of silymarin treatment in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. J Hepatol. 1989 Jul;9(1):105–13.
  49. Feher J, Deak G, et al. Liver-protective action of silymarin therapy in chronic alcoholic liver diseases. Orv Hetil. 1989 Dec 17;130(51):2723–7.
  50. Salmi HA, Sarna S. Effect of silymarin on chemical, functional, and morphological alterations of the liver: A double-blind controlled study. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1982 Jun;17(4):517–21.
  51. Buzzelli G, Moscarella S, et al. A pilot study on the liver protective effect of silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex (IdB1016) in chronic active hepatitis. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1993 Sep;31(9):456–60.
  52. Di Sario A, Bendia E, et al. Hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effect of a new silybin-phosphatidylcholine-Vitamin E complex in rats. Dig Liver Dis. 2005 Nov;37(11):869–76.
  53. Prakash S, Joshi YK. Assessment of micronutrient antioxidants, total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation levels in liver cirrhosis. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(Suppl):S110.
  54. Melhem A, Stern M, et al. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection via antioxidants: Results of a phase I clinical trial. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2005 Sep;39(8):737–42.
  55. Corrao G, Zambon A, et al. Nutrient intakes, nutritional patterns and the risk of liver cirrhosis: An explorative case-control study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19(9):861–9.
  56. Yu SY, Zhu YJ, et al. Protective role of selenium against hepatitis B virus and primary liver cancer in Qidong. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1997 Jan;56(1):117–24.
  57. Borges-Santos MD, Moreto F, Pereira PC, et al. Plasma glutathione of HIV(+) patients responded positively and differently to dietary supplementation with cysteine or glutamine. Nutrition. Jan 18 2012.
  58. Vouldoukis I, Lacan D, Kamate C, et al. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a Cucumis melo LC. extract rich in superoxide dismutase activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Sep;94(1):67-75.
  59. Lester GE, Jifon JL, Crosby KM. Superoxide dismutase activity in mesocarp tissue from divergent Cucumis melo L. genotypes. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2009 Sep;64(3):205-11.
  60. Li XY. Bioactivity of neolignans from fructus Schizandrae. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1991;86 Suppl 2:31-7.
  61. Lam PY, Chiu PY, Leung HY, Chen N, Leong PK, Ko KM. Schisandrin B co-treatment ameliorates the impairment on mitochondrial antioxidant status in various tissues of long-term ethanol treated rats. Fitoterapia. 2010 Dec;81(8):1239-45.
  62. Kim SH, Kim YS, Kang SS, Bae K, Hung TM, Lee SM. Anti-apoptotic and hepatoprotective effects of gomisin A on fulminant hepatic failure induced by D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide in mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Feb;106(2):225-33.
  63. Ip SP, Yiu HY, Ko KM. Schisandrin B protects against menadione-induced hepatotoxicity by enhancing DT-diaphorase activity. Mol Cell Biochem. 2000 May;208(1-2):151-5.
  64. Ko KM, Ip SP, Poon MK, et al. Effect of a lignan-enriched fructus schisandrae extract on hepatic glutathione status in rats: protection against carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Planta Med. 1995 Apr;61(2):134-7.
  65. Ip SP, Mak DH, Li PC, Poon MK, Ko KM. Effect of a lignan-enriched extract of Schisandra chinensis on aflatoxin B1 and cadmium chloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1996 Jun;78(6):413-6.
  66. Zhu M, Lin KF, Yeung RY, Li RC. Evaluation of the protective effects of Schisandra chinensis on Phase I drug metabolism using a CCl4 intoxication model. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Oct;67(1):61-8.
  67. Stacchiotti A, Li Volti G, Lavazza A, Rezzani R, Rodella LF. Schisandrin B stimulates a cytoprotective response in rat liver exposed to mercuric chloride. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Nov;47(11):2834-40.
  68. Akbar N, Tahir RA, Santoso WD, et al. Effectiveness of the analogue of natural Schisandrin C (HpPro) in treatment of liver diseases: an experience in Indonesian patients. Chin Med J (Engl). 1998 Mar;111(3):248-51.
  69. Kato M, Miwa Y, et al. Preferential use of branched-chain amino acids as an energy substrate in patients with liver cirrhosis. Intern Med. 1998 May;37(5):429–34.
  70. Marchesini G, Bianchi G, et al. Nutritional supplementation with branched-chain amino acids in advanced cirrhosis: A double-blind, randomized trial. Gastroenterology. 2003 Jun;124(7):1792–801.
  71. Meng WC, Leung KL, et al. Prospective randomized control study on the effect of branched-chain amino acids in patients with liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. Aust N Z J Surg. 1999 Nov;69(11):811–5.
  72. Marchesini G, Dioguardi FS, et al. Long-term oral branched-chain amino acid treatment in chronic hepatic encephalopathy: A randomized double-blind casein-controlled trial. The Italian Multicenter Study Group. J Hepatol. 1990 Jul;11(1):92–101.