Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Endometriosis References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Herbst A, Droegemueller W, et al. Comprehensive Gynecology. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Year Book; 1997.
  2. Sinaii N, Cleary SD, et al. High rates of autoimmune and endocrine disorders, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome and atopic diseases among women with endometriosis: A survey analysis. Hum Reprod. 2002 Oct;17(10):2715–24.
  3. Ulukus M, Arici A. Immunology of endometriosis. Minerva Ginecol. 2005 Jun;57(3):237–48.
  4. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.Endometriosis. Tech. Bull. 194. 1993. Washington, DC: Author.
  5. Dmowski WP, Lesniewicz R, et al. Changing trends in the diagnosis of endometriosis: A comparative study of women with pelvic endometriosis presenting with chronic pelvic pain or infertility. FertilSteril. 1997;67:238–43.
  6. Rier SE, Martin DC, et al. Immunoresponsiveness in endometriosis: Implications of estrogenic toxicants. Environ Health Perspect. 1995 Oct;103(Suppl 7):151–6.
  7. Mayani A, Barel S, et al. Dioxin concentrations in women with endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 1997 Feb;12(2):373–5.
  8. Clark GC, Taylor J, et al. Tumor necrosis factor involvement in, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated endotoxin hypersensitivity in C57BL/6J mice congenic at the Ah locus. ToxicolApplPharmacol. 1991;111:422–31.
  9. Neubert R, Jacob-Muller U, et al. Polyhalogenateddibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and the immune system. 2. In vitro effects of, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on lymphocytes of venous blood from man and a non-human primate (Callithrixjacchus). Arch Toxicol. 1991;65:213–9.
  10. Koninckx, PR. The physiopathology of endometriosis: Pollution and dioxin. GynecolObstet Invest. 1999;47(Suppl 1):47–50.
  11. Safe S, Astroff B, et al. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds as antiestrogens: Characterization and mechanism of action. PharmacolToxicol. 1991;69:400–9.
  12. Rier SE, Martin DC, et al. Endometriosis in rhesus monkeys (Macacamulatta) following chronic exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. FundamApplToxicol. 1993 Nov;21(4):433–41.
  13. Rier SE, Turner WE, et al. Serum levels of TCDD and dioxin-like chemicals in Rhesus monkeys chronically exposed to dioxin: Correlation of increased serum PCB levels with endometriosis. Toxicol Sci. 2001 Jan;59(1):147–59.
  14. Roman BL, Peterson RE. In utero and lactational exposure of the male rat to 2,3,6,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin impairs prostate development. I. Effects on gene expression. ToxicolApplPharmacol. 1998;150:240–53.
  15. Michalek JE, Akhtar FZ, et al. Serum dioxin, insulin, fasting glucose, and sex hormone-binding globulin in veterans of Operation Ranch Hand. J ClinEndocrinol Metab.1999;84:1540–3.
  16. Barrett DH, Morris RD, et al. Serum dioxin and cognitive functioning among veterans of Operation Ranch Hand. Neurotoxicology. 2001;22:491–502.
  17. Crump KS, Canady R, et al. Meta-analysis of dioxin cancer dose response for three occupational cohorts. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;11:681–7.
  18. Lind PM, Orberg J, et al. The dioxin-like pollutant PCB 126 (3,3’4,4,’5-pentachlorobiphenyl) affects risk factors for cardiovascular disease in female rats. ToxicolLett. 2004;150:293–9.
  19. Ness RB, Grisso JA, et al. Factors related to inflammation of the ovarian epithelium and risk of ovarian cancer. Epidemiology. 2000 Mar;11(2):111-7.
  20. Olson JE, Cerhan JR, et al. Postmenopausal cancer risk after self-reported endometriosis diagnosis in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer. 2002 Mar 1;94(5):1612–8.
  21. Lauersen N, deSwaan C. The Endometriosis Answer Book: New Hope, New Help. New York: Ballentine Books; 1998:27.
  22. Berek J, ed. Novak’s Gynecology. 12th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1996:899–900.
  23. Brosens I, Puttemans P, et al. Diagnosis of endometriosis: Pelvic endoscopy and imaging techniques. Best Pract Res ClinObstetGynaecol. 2004 Apr;18(2):285–303.
  24. Bazot M, Thomassin I, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of transvaginalsonography for deep pelvic endometriosis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Aug;24(2):180–5.
  25. Winkel CA, Scialli AR. Medical and surgical therapies for pain associated with endometriosis. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2001 Mar;10(2):137–62.
  26. Barbieri RL, Evans S, et al. Danazol in the treatment of endometriosis: Analysis of 100 cases with a 4-year follow-up. FertilSteril. 1982 Jun;37(6):737–46.
  27. Uchibayashi M. Forgotten episodes of the birth of cortisone.YakushigakuZasshi. 2001;36(1):70–5.
  28. Fitzpatrick LA & Good A: Micronized progesterone: clinical indications and comparison with current treatment. FertilSteril 1999; 72(3):389-397.
  29. Goletiani, N., D. Keith, and S. Gorsky. “Progesterone: Review of Safety for Clinical Studies.” Experimental Clinical Psychopharmacology 15 (2007): 427–444. Print.
  30. Rachon˜ D, Teede H. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and the risk of venous thromboembolism. Climacteric 2008 11:273–279
  31. McEwen BS. Estrogen effects on the brain: Much more than sex. Karger Gazette No. 66 Hormones, 2003.
  32. Simoncini T, Mannella P, Fornari L, Caruso A, Willis MY, Garibaldi S, Baldacci C, Genazzani AR 2004 Differential signal transduction of progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate in human endothelial cells. Endocrinology 145:5745–5756
  33. Levine H, Watson N. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of Crinone 8% administered vaginally versus Prometrium administered orally in postmenopausal women. FertilSteril 2000;73:516–21
  34. Cicinelli E, de Ziegler D. Transvaginal progesterone: Evidence for a new functional ‘portal system’ flowing from the vagina to the uterus. Hum Reprod Update. 1999;5:365–372
  35. Cicinelli E. Intravaginaloestrogen and progestin administration: advantages and disadvantages. Best Pract Res ClinObstetGynaecol. 2008;22:391–405
  36. Stanczyk FZ, Paulson RJ, Roy S. Percutaneous administration of progesterone: blood levels and endometrial protection. Menopause. 2005;12:232-7.
  37. Calder PC. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity: Pouring oil on troubled waters or another fishy tale? Nutr Res. 2001;21:309–41.
  38. Connor WE.n-3 Fatty acids from fish and fish oil: Panacea or nostrum? Am J ClinNutr. 2001;74;415–6.
  39. Leaf A. On the reanalysis of the GISSI-Prevenzione.Circulation. 2002;105:1874–5.
  40. French L. Dysmenorrhea. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Jan 15;71(2):285–91.
  41. Gazvani MR, Smith L, et al. High omega-3:omega-6 fatty acid ratios in culture medium reduce endometrial-cell survival in combined endometrial gland and stromal cell cultures from women with and without endometriosis. FertilSteril. 2001 Oct;76(4):717–22.
  42. Yano Y. [Effect of dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid on surgically induced endometriosis in the rabbit]. Nippon SankaFujinkaGakkaiZasshi. 1992 Mar;44(3):282–8.
  43. Leventhal LJ, Boyce EG, et al. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with gamma linolenic acid. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:867–73.
  44. FNB/IM.Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2000. Available at: Accessed May 10, 2005.
  45. Alsharif NZ, Hassoun EA. Protective effects of vitamin A and vitamin E succinate against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced body wasting, hepatomegaly, thymic atrophy, production of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in C57BL/6J mice. Basic ClinPharmacolToxicol. 2004 Sep;95(3):131–8.
  46. Jackson LW, Schisterman EF, et al. Oxidative stress and endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2005 Jul;20(7):2014–20.
  47. Foyouzi N, Berkkanoglu M, et al. Effects of oxidants and antioxidants on proliferation of endometrial stromal cells.FertilSteril. 2004 Oct;82Suppl 3:1019–22.
  48. Thorp VJ. Effect of oral contraceptive agents on vitamin and mineral requirements. J Am Diet Assoc. 1980;76:581–4.
  49. Lykkesfeldt J, Christen S, et al. Ascorbate is depleted by smoking and replaced by moderate supplementation: A study in male smokers and nonsmokers with matched dietary antioxidant intakes. Am J ClinNutr. 2000;71:530–6.
  50. Omenn GS. Chemoprevention of lung cancer: The rise and demise of beta-carotene. Annu Rev Public Health. 1998;19:73–99.
  51. Manda K, Bhatia AL. Pre-administration of beta-carotene protects tissue glutathione and lipid peroxidation status following exposure to gamma radiation. J Environ Biol. 2003 Oct;24(4):369–72.
  52. Hickenbottom SJ, Follett JR, et al. Variability in conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A in men as measured by using a double-tracer study design. Am J ClinNutr. 2002;75:900–7.
  53. Tee MK, Vigne JL, et al. All-trans retinoic acid inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor expression in a cell model of neutrophil activation. Endocrinology. 2006 Mar;147(3):1264–70.
  54. Manna SK, Mukhopadhyay A, et al. Silymarin suppresses TNF-induced activation of NF-kappa B, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and apoptosis. J Immunol. 1999;163:6800–9.
  55. Flora K, Hahn M, et al. Milk thistle (Silybummarianum) for the therapy of liver disease.Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93:139–43.
  56. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Milk thistle: Effects on liver disease and cirrhosis and clinical adverse effects: Summary. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 21. 2000 Sep. Rockville, MD: Author. Available at: Accessed May 10, 2005.
  57. Bulun SE, Cheng YH, et al. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis: Link to failure to metabolize estradiol. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006 Mar 27;248(1-2):94–103.
  58. Reed GA, Peterson KS, et al. A phase I study of indole-3-carbinol in women: Tolerability and effects. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Aug;14(8):1953–60.
  59. Yoshida M, Katashima S, et al. Dietary indole-3-carbinol promotes endometrial adenocarcinoma development in rats initiated with N-ethyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, with induction of cytochrome P450s in the liver and consequent modulation of estrogen metabolism. Carcinogenesis. 2004 Nov;25(11):2257–64.
  60. Carter TH, Liu K, Ralph W, Jr, et al. Diindolylmethane alters gene expression in human keratinocytes in vitro. J Nutr. 2002 Nov;132(11):3314-24.
  61. Auborn KJ, Fan S, Rosen EM, et al. Indole-3-carbinol is a negative regulator of estrogen. J Nutr. 2003 Jul;133(7 Suppl):2470S-5S.
  62. Xue L, Firestone GL, Bjeldanes LF. DIM stimulates IFNgamma gene expression in human breast cancer cells via the specific activation of JNK and p38 pathways. Oncogene. 2005 Mar 31;24(14):2343-53.
  63. Sun S, Han J, Ralph WM, Jr, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress as a correlate of cytotoxicity in human tumor cells exposed to diindolylmethane in vitro. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2004 Mar;9(1):76-87.
  64. Li Y, Chinni SR, Sarkar FH. Selective growth regulatory and pro-apoptotic effects of DIM is mediated by AKT and NF-kappaB pathways in prostate cancer cells. Front Biosci. 2005 Jan 1;10:236-43.
  65. Nachshon-Kedmi M, Yannai S, Haj A, Fares FA. Indole-3-carbinol and 3,3’-diindolylmethane induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Food ChemToxicol. 2003 Jun;41(6):745-52.
  66. Chang X, Tou JC, Hong C, et al. 3,3’-Diindolylmethane inhibits angiogenesis and the growth of transplantable human breast carcinoma in athymic mice. Carcinogenesis. 2005 Apr;26(4):771-8.
  67. Edmunds KM, Holloway AC, et al. The effects of dietary phytoestrogens on aromatase activity in human endometrial stromal cells.ReprodNutr Dev. 2005 Nov-Dec;45(6):709–20.