Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Exercise Enhancement References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Jonker JT, De Laet C, et al. Physical activity and life expectancy with and without diabetes: Life table analysis of the Framingham Heart Study. Diabetes Care. 2006 Jan;29(1):38–43.
  2. Franco OH, De Laet C, et al. Effects of physical activity on life expectancy with cardiovascular disease. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Nov 14;165(20):2355–60.
  3. Chakravarthy MV, Joyner MJ, et al. An obligation for primary care physicians to prescribe physical activity to sedentary patients to reduce the risk of chronic health conditions. Mayo Proc. 2002 Feb;77(2):109–13.
  4. Elavsky S, McAuley E, et al. Physical activity enhances long-term quality of life in older adults: Efficacy, esteem, and affective influences. Ann Behav Med. 2005 Oct;30(2):138–45.
  5. Schechtman KB, Ory MG. The effects of exercise on quality of life of older adults: A preplanned meta-analysis of the FICSIT trials. Ann Behav Med. 2001 summer; 23(3):186–97.
  6. Stout JR, Eckerson JM, et al. Effects of resistance exercise and creatine supplementation on myasthenia gravis: A case study. Med Sci Sports Exer. 2001 Jun;33(6):869–72.
  7. Rochester CL. Exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2003 Sep-Oct;40(5 Suppl 2):59–80.
  8. Goldney RD, Phillips PJ, et al. Diabetes, depression, and quality of life. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1066–70.
  9. Vitartaite A, Vainoras V, et al. The influence of aerobic exercise to cardiovascular functional parameters to 30–40 year old women. Medicina. 2004;40:451–8.
  10. Babyak M, Blumenthal JA, et al. Exercise treatment for major depression: Maintenance of therapeutic benefit at 10 months. Psychosom Med. 2000;62:633–8.
  11. Suh MR, Jung HH, et al. Effect of regular exercise on anxiety, depression, and quality of life in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Renal Failure. 2002;24:337–45.
  12. Church TS, Cheng YJ, et al. Exercise capacity and body composition as predictors of mortality among men with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:83–8.
  13. Short KR, Vittone JL, et al. Impact of aerobic exercise training on age-related changes in insulin sensitivity and muscle oxidative capacity. Diabetes. 2003;52:1888–96.
  14. American Diabetes Association. Physical activity/exercise and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:S73–S77.
  15. McFarlin BK, Flynn MG, et al. TLR4 is lower in resistance-trained older women and related to inflammatory cytokines. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Nov;36(11):1876–83.
  16. Martini FH. Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.; 1995.
  17. Cussler EC, Going SB, et al. Exercise frequency and calcium intake predict 4-year bone changes in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2005 Dec;16(12):2129–41.
  18. Kerr D, Ackland T, et al. Resistance training over 2 years increases bone mass in calcium-replete postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2001 Jan;16(1):175–81.
  19. Messier SP, Royer TD, et al. Long-term exercise and its effect on balance in older, osteoarthritic adults: Results from the Fitness, Arthritis, and Seniors Trial (FAST). J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000 Feb;48(2):131–8.
  20. Clapp JF III. The effects of maternal exercise on fetal oxygenation and feto-placental growth. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003 Sep 22;110 Suppl 1:S80–S85.
  21. Aniansson A, Gustafsson E. Physical training in elderly men. Clin Physio. 1981;1:87–98.
  22. Bross R, Javanbakht M, et al. Anabolic interventions for aging-associated sarcopenia. Jour Clin Endo Metab. 1999;84(1):3420–30.
  23. Baumgartner RN, Koehler KM, et al. Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in New Mexico. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;147(8):755–63.
  24. Frontera WR,et al. Strength conditioning in older men: Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improved function. J Appl Physio. 1992;64:1038–44.
  25. Anawalt BD, Merriam GR. Neuroendocrine aging in men: Andropause and somatopause. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2001 Sep;30(3):647–69.
  26. Karakelides H, Sreekumaran Nair K. Sarcopenia of aging and its metabolic impact. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2005;68:123–48. Review.
  27. Barker GA, Green S, et al. Effect of propionyl-L-carnitine on exercise performance in peripheral arterial disease. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Sep;33(9):1415–22.
  28. Brass EP, Hiatt WR. The role of carnitine and carnitine supplementation during exercise in man and in individuals with special needs. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998 Jun;17(3):207–15. Review.
  29. Suzuki Y, Ito O, et al. High level of skeletal muscle carnosine contributes to the latter half of exercise performance during 30-s maximal cycle ergometer spring. Jap J Physiol. 2002;52(2):199–205.
  30. Boldyrev AA, Stvolinsky SL, et al. Biochemical and physiological evidence that carnosine is an endogenous neuroprotector against free radicals. Cell Mol Neuro. 1997;17(2):259–71.
  31. Wang AM, Ma C, et al. Use of carnosine as a natural anti-senescence drug for human beings. Biochem. 2000;65(7):869–71.
  32. Yuneva MO et al. Effect of carnosine on age-induced changes in senescence-accelerated mice. J Anti-aging Med. 1999;2(4):337–42.
  33. Nagasawa T, Yonekura T, et al. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of muscle lipid and protein oxidation by carnosine. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001;225(1):29–34.
  34. Hipkiss AR, Michaelis J, et al. Non-enzymatic glycosylation of the dipeptide L-carnosine, a potential anti-protein-cross-linking agent. FEBS Lett. 1995;371(1):81–5.
  35. Munch G, Mayer S, et al. Influence of advanced glycation end-products and AGE-inhibitors on nucleation-dependent polymerization of beta-amyloid peptide. Biochim Bikophys Acta. 1997;1360(1):17–29.
  36. Burcham PC, Kerr PG, et al. The antihypertensive hydralazine is an efficient scavenger of acrolein. Redox Rep. 2000;5(1):47–9.
  37. Lönnrot K, Metsä-Ketelä T, Alho H. The role of coenzyme Q-10 in aging: a follow-up study on life-long oral supplementation Q-10 in rats. Gerontology. 1995;41 Suppl 2:109-20.
  38. Di Meo S, Venditti P. Mitochondria in exercise-induced oxidative stress. Biol Signals Recept. 2001 Jan-Apr;10(1-2):125-40.
  39. Genova ML, Pich MM, Bernacchia A, et al. The mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species in relation to aging and pathology. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Apr;1011:86-100.
  40. Wallace DC, Fan W. The pathophysiology of mitochondrial disease as modeled in the mouse. Genes Dev. 2009 Aug 1;23(15):1714-36.
  41. Choksi KB, Nuss JE, Boylston WH, et al. Age-related increases in oxidatively damaged proteins of mouse kidney mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007 Nov 15;43(10):1423-38. Epub 2007 Aug 15.
  42. Di Lisa F, Kaludercic N, Carpi A, et al. Mitochondria and vascular pathology. Pharmacol Rep. 2009 Jan-Feb;61(1):123-30.
  43. Schepetkin IA, Xie G, Jutila MA, Quinn MT. Complement-fixing activity of fulvic acid from Shilajit and other natural sources. Phytother Res. 2009 Mar;23(3):373-84.
  44. Goel RK, Banerjee RS, Acharya SB. Antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory studies with shilajit. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990 Apr;29(1):95-103.
  45. Agarwal SP, Khanna R, Karmarkar R, et al. Shilajit: a review. Phytother Res. 2007 May;21(5):401-5.
  46. Bhattacharyya S, Pal D, Gupta AK, Ganguly P, Majumder UK, Ghosal S. Beneficial effect of processed shilajit on swimming exercise induced impaired energy status of mice. Pharmacologyonline. 2009a;1:817-25.
  47. Piotrowska D, Dlugosz A, Witkiewicz K, Pajak J. The research on antioxidative properties of TOLPA Peat Preparation and its fractions. Acta Pol Pharm. 2000 Nov;57 Suppl:127-9.
  48. Ghosal S. Shilajit in Perspective. Oxford, U.K.: Narosa Publishing House; 2006.
  49. Visser SA. Effect of humic substances on mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Sci Total Environ. 1987 Apr;62:347-54.
  50. Royer RA, Burgos WD, Fisher AS, et al. Enhancement of biological reduction of hematite by electron shuttling and Fe(II) complexation. Environ Sci Technol. 2002 May 1;36(9):1939-46.
  51. Kang SH, Choi W. Oxidative degradation of organic compounds using zero-valent iron in the presence of natural organic matter serving as an electron shuttle. Environ Sci Technol. 2009 Feb 1;43(3):878-83.
  52. Bhattacharyya S, Pal D, Banerjee D, et al. Shilajit dibenzo—pyrones: Mitochondria targeted antioxidants. Pharmacologyonline. 2009b; 2:690-8.
  53. Pal D, Bhattacharya S. Pilot Study on the Improvement of Human Performance with ReVitalETTM as Energy Booster: Part-IV. 2006. Data on file. Natreon, Inc.
  54. Nissen SL, Sharp RL. Effect of dietary supplements on lean mass and strength gains with resistance exercise: A meta-analysis. J Appl Physiol. 2003 Feb;94(2): 651–9.
  55. Kreider RB. Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Feb;244(1–2):89–94.
  56. Gotshalk LA, Volek JS, et al. Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older men. Med Sci Sports Exer. 2002;34(3):537–43.
  57. Chrusch MJ, Chilibeck PD, et al. Creatine supplementation combined with resistance training in older men. Med Sci Sports Exer. 2001;33(12):2111–7.
  58. Wyss M, Schulze A. Health implications of creatine: Can oral creatine supplementation protect against neurological and atherosclerotic disease? Neuroscience. 2002;112(2):243–60.
  59. Beal MF. Mitochondria, oxidative damage, and inflammation in Parkinson’s disease. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2003 Jun;991:120–31.
  60. Tarnopolsky MA, Beal MF. Potential for creatine and other therapies targeting cellular energy dysfunction in neurological disorders. Ann Neurol. 2001 May;49(5):561–74.
  61. Matthews RT, Yang L, et al. Neuroprotective effects of creatine and cyclocreatine in animal models of Huntington’s disease. J Neurosci. 1998 Jan 1;18(1):156–63.
  62. Tabrizi SJ, Blamire AM, et al. Creatine therapy for Huntington’s disease: Clinical and MRS findings in a 1-year pilot study. Neurology. 2003 Jul 8;61(1):141–2.
  63. Laakso MP, Hiltunen Y, et al. Decreased brain creatine levels in elderly apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 carriers. J Neural Transm. 2003 Mar;110(3):267–75.
  64. Yeo RA, Hill D, et al. Developmental instability and working memory ability in children: A magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation. Dev Neuropsychol. 2000;17(2):143–59.
  65. Valenzuela MJ, Jones M, et al. Memory training alters hippocampal neurochemistry in healthy elderly. Neuroreport. 2003 Jul 18;14(10):1333–7.
  66. Watanabe A, Kato N, et al. Effects of creatine on mental fatigue and cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation. Neurosci Res. 2002 Apr;42(4):279–85.
  67. Rae C, Digney AL, et al. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2003 Oct 22;270(1529):2147–50.
  68. Workman J. Stop Your Cravings: A Balanced Approach to Burning Fat, Increasing Energy, and Reducing Stress. New York: Free Press; 2002.
  69. Shimomura Y, Yamamoto Y, et al. Nutraceutical effects of branched-chain amino acids on skeletal muscle. J Nutr. 2006 Feb;136(2):529S-532S.
  70. Ohtani M, Sugita M, et al. Amino acid mixture improves training efficiency in athletes. J Nutr. 2006 Feb;136(2):538S-543S.
  71. Scognamiglio R, Avogaro A, et al. The effects of oral amino acid intake on ambulatory capacity in elderly subjects. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2004 Dec; 16(6):443–7.
  72. Talbott SM. A Guide to Understanding Dietary Supplements. New York: Hayworth Press; 2003.
  73. Hendler SS, Rorvik D. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company; 2001.
  74. Bassit RA, Sawada LA, et al. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation and the immune response of long-distance athletes. Nutrition. 2002 May;18(5):376–9.
  75. Castell LM. Can glutamine modify the apparent immunodepression observed after prolonged, exhaustive exercise? Nutrition. 2002 May;18(5):371–5.
  76. Parry-Billings M, Blomstrand E, et al. A communicational link between skeletal muscle, brain and cells of the immune system. Intern J Sports Med. 1990 May;11(suppl 2):S122–S128.
  77. Castell LM, et al. Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1996;73(5):488–90.
  78. Rennie MJ, Low SY, et al. Amino acid transport during muscle contraction and its relevance to exercise. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998;441:299–305.
  79. Antonio J, Stout J, eds. Sports Supplement Encyclopedia. 1st ed., Colo: Nutricia Institute of Sports Science; 2002.
  80. Hankard RG, Haymond RW, et al. Effect of glutamine on leucine metabolism in humans. Am J Physiol. 1996 Oct;271 (4 Pt 1):E748–E754.
  81. Andersen LL, Tufekovic G, et al. The effect of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of protein on muscle fiber size and muscle strength. Metabolism. 2005 Feb;54(2):151–6.
  82. Zhou MS, Kosaka H, Tian RX, et al. L-Arginine improves endothelial function in renal artery of hypertensive Dahl rats. J Hypertens. 2001;19:421-429.
  83. Buchman AL, Awal M, et al. The effect of lecithin supplementation on plasma choline concentrations during a marathon. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Nov;19(6):768–70.
  84. Montero-Odasso M, Duque G. Vitamin D in the aging musculoskeletal system: an authentic strength preserving hormone. Mol Aspects Med. 2005 Jun;26(3):203-19.
  85. Dodd SL, Johnson CA, Fernholz K, et al. The role of ribose in human skeletal muscle metabolism. Med Hypotheses. 2004;62(5):819-24.
  86. Annesi J. Relations of self-motivation, perceived physical condition, and exercise-induced changes in revitalization and exhaustion with attendance in women initiating a moderate cardiovascular exercise regimen. Women Health. 2005;42(3):77-93.
  87. Hellsten-Westing Y, Norman B, Balsom PD, Sjodin B. Decreased resting levels of adenine nucleotides in human skeletal muscle after high-intensity training. J Appl Physiol. 1993 May;74(5):2523-8.
  88. Stathis CG, Febbraio MA, Carey MF, Snow RJ. Influence of sprint training on human skeletal muscle purine nucleotide metabolism. J Appl Physiol. 1994 Apr;76(4):1802-9.
  89. Hellsten Y, Richter EA, Kiens B, Bangsbo J. AMP deamination and purine exchange in human skeletal muscle during and after intense exercise. J Physiol. 1999 Nov 1;520 Pt 3:909-20.
  90. Tullson PC, John-Alder HB, Hood DA, Terjung RL. De novo synthesis of adenine nucleotides in different skeletal muscle fiber types. Am J Physiol. 1988 Sep;255(3 Pt 1):C271-7.
  91. Zarzeczny R, Brault JJ, Abraham KA, Hancock CR, Terjung RL. Influence of ribose on adenine salvage after intense muscle contractions. J Appl Physiol. 2001 Oct;91(4):1775-81.
  92. Tullson PC, Terjung RL. Adenine nucleotide synthesis in exercising and endurance-trained skeletal muscle. Am.J Physiol. 1991 Aug;261(2 Pt 1):C342-7.
  93. Brault JJ, Terjung RL. Purine salvage to adenine nucleotides in different skeletal muscle fiber types. J Appl Physiol. 2001 Jul;91(1):231-8.
  94. Hellsten Y, Skadhauge L, Bangsbo J. Effect of ribose supplementation on resynthesis of adenine nucleotides after intense intermittent training in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004 Jan;286(1):R182-8.