Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Eye Health References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Hirooka K, Tokuda M, et al. The Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) provides a neuroprotective effect on retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of chronic glaucoma. Curr Eye Res. 2004 Mar;28(3):153–7.
  2. Izzotti A, Bagnis A, et al. The role of oxidative stress in glaucoma.Mutat Res. 2006 Mar;612(2):105–14.
  3. Zoric L, Aleksic P, et al. [The aqueous humourantioxidative capacity in different types and color of the age-related cataract]. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2005 Dec;62(12):909–13.
  4. Seddon JM, Chen CA.The epidemiology of age-related macular degeneration.IntOphthalmolClin. 2004 fall;44(4):17–39.
  5. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001 Oct;119(10):1417–36.
  6. Nowak M, Marek B, et al. [The role of the oxidative mechanisms in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration]. KlinOczna. 2005;107(7–9):537–40.
  7. Van Leeuwen R, Boekhoorn S, et al. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of age-related macular degeneration. JAMA. 2005 Dec 28;294(24):3101–7.
  8. Thornton J, Edwards R, et al. Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: A review of association. Eye. 2005 Sep;19(9):935–44.
  9. Lindblad BE, Hakansson N, et al. Intensity of smoking and smoking cessation in relation to risk of cataract extraction: A prospective study of women. Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Jul 1;162(1):73–9.
  10. Xhauflaire G, Uhoda E, et al. Eye and ultraviolet light [French]. Rev Med Liege. 2005;60 (Suppl 1):99–102.
  11. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Preferred Practice Pattern—Comprehensive Adult Medical Eye Evaluation. 2000. Available at:
  12. Miljanovic B, Trivedi KA, et al. Relation between dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome in women.Am J ClinNutr. 2005 Oct;82(4):887–93.
  13. Demir U, Demir T, et al. The protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid against oxidative damage in rabbit conjunctiva and cornea exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Ophthalmologica. 2005 Jan-Feb;219(1):49–53.
  14. Lou MF. Thiol regulation in the lens. J OculPharmacolTher 2000 Apr; 16(2):137-48
  15. Wang AM, Ma C et al. Use of carnosine as a natural anti-senescence drug for human beings. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000 Jul;65(7):869-71.
  16. Head KA. Natural therapies for ocular disorders, part two: Cataracts and glaucoma. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Apr;6(2):141–66.
  17. Bartlett H, Eperjesi F. An ideal ocular nutritional supplement? Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2004 Jul;24(4):339–49. Review.
  18. Hammes HP, Du X, Edelstein D, et al. Benfotiamine blocks three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage and prevents experimental diabetic retinopathy. Nat Med. 2003 Mar;9(3):294-9.
  19. Christen WG, Glynn RJ, et al. Folic acid, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin combination treatment and age-related macular degeneration in women: the Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Feb 23;169(4):335-41.
  20. Fursova AZ, Gesarevich OG, et al. [Dietary supplementation with bilberry extract prevents macular degeneration and cataracts in senesce-accelerated OXYS rats]. AdvGerontol. 2005;16:76–9.
  21. Zafra-Stone S, Yasmin T, Bagchi M, Chatterjee A, Vinson JA, Bagchi D. Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention. MolNutr Food Res. 2007 Jun;51(6):675-83.
  22. Milbury PE, Graf B, Curran-Celentano JM, Blumberg JB. Bilberry (Vacciniummyrtillus) anthocyanins modulate heme oxygenase-1 and glutathione S-transferase-pi expression in ARPE-19 cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 May;48(5):2343-9.
  23. Mauray A, Felgines C, Morand C, Mazur A, Scalbert A, Milenkovic D. Bilberry anthocyanin-rich extract alters expression of genes related to atherosclerosis development in aorta of apo E-deficient mice. NutrMetabCardiovasc Dis. 2010 Jul 31.
  24. Yao N, Lan F, He RR, Kurihara H. Protective effects of bilberry (Vacciniummyrtillus L.) extract against endotoxin-induced uveitis in mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Apr 28;58(8):4731-6.
  25. Rohdewald P. A review of the French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol), a herbal medication with a diverse clinical pharmacology. Int J ClinPharmacolTher. 2002 Apr;40(4):158-68.
  26. Peng Q, Wei Z, Lau BH. Pycnogenol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation and adhesion molecule expression in human vascular endothelial cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2000 May;57(5):834-41.
  27. Nishioka K, Hidaka T, Nakamura S, et al. Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract, augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans. Hypertens Res. 2007 Sep;30(9):775-80.
  28. Resch H, Garhofer G, Fuchsjäger-Mayrl G, Hommer A, Schmetterer L. Endothelial dysfunction in glaucoma. ActaOphthalmol. 2009 Feb;87(1):4-12.
  29. Izzotti A, Sacca SC, Longobardi M, Cartiglia C. Mitochondrial damage in the trabecular meshwork of patients with glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010 Jun;128(6):724-30.
  30. Beckman K, Ames B .The free radical theory of aging matures. Physiol Rev. 1998 Apr;78(2):547-81.
  31. Matsumoto H, Nakamura Y, Tachibanaki S, Kawamura S, Hirayama M. Stimulatory effect of cyanidin 3-glycosides on the regeneration of rhodopsin. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jun 4;51(12):3560-3.
  32. Tirupula KC, Balem F, Yanamala N, Klein-Seetharaman J. pH-dependent interaction of rhodopsin with cyanidin-3-glucoside. 2. Functional aspects. PhotochemPhotobiol. 2009 Mar-Apr;85(2):463-70.
  33. Yanamala N, Tirupula KC, Balem F, Klein-Seetharaman J. pH-dependent interaction of rhodopsin with cyanidin-3-glucoside. 1. Structural aspects. PhotochemPhotobiol. 2009 Mar-Apr;85(2):454-62.
  34. Jang YP, Zhou J, Nakanishi K, Sparrow JR. Anthocyanins protect against A2E photooxidation and membrane permeabilization in retinal pigment epithelial cells. PhotochemPhotobiol. 2005 May-Jun;81(3):529-36.
  35. Matsunaga N, Imai S, Inokuchi Y, et al. Bilberry and its main constituents have neuroprotective effects against retinal neuronal damage in vitro and in vivo. MolNutr Food Res. 2009 Jul;53(7):869-77.
  36. Mayne ST. Beta-carotene, carotenoids, and disease prevention in humans. FASEB J. 1996 May;10(7):690–701.
  37. Bone RA, Landrum JT, et al. Macular pigment in donor eyes with and without AMD: A case-control study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001 Jan;42(1):235–40.
  38. [No authors listed]. Lutein and zeaxanthin.Monograph.Altern Med Rev. 2005 Jun;10(2):128-35.
  39. Bone RA, Landrum JT, Alvarez-Correa C, Etienne V, Ruiz CA. Macular Pigment and Serum Response to Dietary Supplementation with Meso-zeaxanthin.Annual meeting of ARVO. May 4, 2003; Fort Lauderdale, FL: Abstract 405/B380.
  40. Bone RA, Landrum JT, Hime GW, CainsA, Zamor J. Stereochemistry of the human macular carotenoids. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1993 May;34(6):2033-40.
  41. Nagaki Y et al. Effects of astaxanthin on accommodation, critical flicker fusion, and pattern visual evoked potential in visual display terminal workers. Journal of Traditional Medicines. 2002; 19(5):170-73.
  42. Fletcher AE, Bentham GC, Agnew M, et al. Sunlight exposure, antioxidants, and age-related macular degeneration.Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Oct;126(10):1396-403.
  43. Martinez A, Rodriguez-Girones MA, Barbosa A, Costas M. Donator acceptor map for carotenoids, melatonin and vitamins. J PhysChem A. 2008 Sep 25;112(38):9037-42.
  44. Brown NA, Bron AJ, et al. Nutrition supplements and the eye. Eye. 1998;12(Pt 1):127–33.
  45. Mitton KP, et al. Modelling cortical cataractogenesis 21: in diabetic rat lenses taurine supplementation partially reduces damage resulting from osmotic compensation leading to osmolyte loss and antioxidant depletion. Exp Eye Res 1999 Sep; 69(3): 279-89.
  46. Killic F, et al. Modelling cortical cataractogenesis 22: is in vitro reduction of damage in model diabetic rat cataract by taurine due to its antioxidant activity? Exp Eye Res 1999 Sep; 69(3):291-300.
  47. Devamanoharan PS, et al. Oxidative stress to rat lens in vitro: protection by taurine. Free Radic Res 1998 Sep;29(3):189-95.
  48. Feher J, Kovacs B, et al. Improvement of visual functions and fundus alterations in early age-related macular degeneration treated with a combination of acetyl-L-carnitine, n-3 fatty acids, and coenzyme Q10. Ophthalmologica. 2005 May-Jun;219(3):154–66.
  49. Brancato R, Fiore T, et al. Concomitant effect of topical ubiquinone Q10 and vitamin E to prevent keratocyte apoptosis after excimer laser photoablation in rabbits. J Refract Surg. 2002 Mar-Apr;18(2):135–9.
  50. Singhal S, Gupta R, et al. Comparison of antioxidant efficacy of vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin A and fruits in coronary heart disease: A controlled trial. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001 Mar;49:327–31.
  51. Grahn BH, Paterson PG, et al. Zinc and the eye. J Am CollNutr. 2001 Apr;20(2 Suppl):106–18.
  52. Wood JP, Osborne NN. Zinc and energy requirements in induction of oxidative stress to retinal pigmented epithelial cells. Neurochem Res. 2003 Oct;28(10):1525–33.