Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Fibrocystic Breast Disease References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. National Cancer Institute. Benign Breast Lumps and Other Benign Breast Changes 2001a. Bethesda, MD (
  2. National Cancer Institute. Understanding Breast Changes. About Breast Lumps and Other Changes 2001b. Bethesda, MD (
  3. AMA.The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine 1989. New York: Random House.
  4. Imaginis.Breast health (non-cancerous breast issues). Imaginis Newsletter 2000 Nov 13. Durham, NC: Imaginis Corporation.
  5. Lark, S.M.The Woman's Health Companion 1996. Berkeley, CA: Celestial Arts.
  6. American Cancer Society.Benign Breast Conditions 1991, 1997. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society.
  7. Anon. Benign breast conditions.Reinsurance Notes 1998; 1: 12.
  8. Ayres, J., Gidwani, G. The "luteal breast:" hormonal and sonographic investigations of benign breast disease in patients with cyclic mastalgia. Fertil.Steril.1983; 40: 779.
  9. Nimrod, A.C., Benson, W.H. Environmental estrogenic effects of alkylphenolthoxylates. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 1996; 26: 335-64.
  10. Lundstrom, E., Wilczek, B., von Palffy, A., Soderqvist, G., vonSchoultz, B. Mammographic breast density during hormone replacement therapy: effects of continuous combination, unapposed transdermal, and low-potency estrogen regimens. Climacteric 2001 Mar; 4(1): 42-8.
  11. Mayo Clinic. Menopause: women's sex hormones: a refresher course. Mayo Clinic Women's HealthSource 2001. Rochester, MN: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.
  12. Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002 Jul 17; 288(3): 321-33.
  13. Anon. Professional Guide to Signs & Symptoms, Third Edition 2000. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse.
  14. Bassett, L.W., Kimme-Smith, C. Breast sonography. Am. J. Roentgenol. 1991; 156: 449-55.
  15. Mazy, S., Hustin, J. Van Reepinghen, P. Phyllodes tumor of the breast. J. BelgeRadiol. (JBR-BTR) 1999 Jun; 82(3): 118.
  16. Hurley, S.F., Hart, S., Susil, B. Prevalence, Screening and Management of Atypical Hyperplasia and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ 1997. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council/National Breast Cancer Centre.
  17. Bundred, N.J., West, R.R., O'Dowd, J., Mansel, R.E. Is there an increased risk of breast cancer in women who have had a breast cyst aspirated? Br. J. Cancer 1991; 64: 953-5.
  18. Ernster V.L.The epidemiology of benign breast disease.Epidemiol.Rev. 1981; 3: 184-202.
  19. Bodian, C.A. Benign breast diseases, carcinoma in situ, and breast cancer risk. Epidemiol. Rev. 1993a; 15: 177-87.
  20. NBCC. Benign Breast Disease: Summary of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer 1999 Jul 15. Campersdown, NSW, Australia: National Breast Cancer Centre.
  21. Bodian, C.A., Perzin, K.H., Lattes, R., Hoffmann, P., Abernathy, T.G. Prognostic significance of benign proliferative breast disease. Cancer 1993b Jun 15; 71(12): 3896-3907.
  22. Oza, A.M., Boyd, N.F. Mammographic parenchymal patterns: a marker of breast cancer risk. Epidemiol.Rev. 1993; 15: 196-208.
  23. Henderson, M., Pike, M.C., Bernstein, L., Ross, R.K. Breast cancer. In Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Second Edition 1996. Schottenfeld, D., Fraumeni, J.F., Eds. New York: Oxford University Press.
  24. Bodian, C.A., Perzin, K.H., Lattes, R., Hoffmann, P. Reproducibility and validity of pathologic classifications of benign breast disease and implications for clinical applications. Cancer 1993c Jun 15; 71(12): 3908-13.
  25. Kumar, S., Mansel, R.E., Hughes, L.E. et al. Prolactin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation and dopaminergic inhibition in benign breast disease. Cancer 1984 Mar 15; 53(6): 1311-5.
  26. National Cancer Institute. Understanding Breast Changes. About Breast Lumps and Other Changes 2001b. Bethesda, MD (
  27. Fine, R.E., Israel, P.Z., Walker, L.C., Corgan, K.R., Greenwald, L.V., Berenson, J.E., Boyd, B.A., Oliver, M.K., McClure, T., Elberfeld, J. A prospective study of the removal rate of imaged breast lesions by an 11-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy probe system. Am. J. Surg. 2001 Oct; 182(4): 335-40.
  28. Maganini, R.O., Klem, D.A., Huston, B.J., Bruner, E.S., Jacobs, H.K. Upgrade rate of core biopsy-determined atypical ductal hyperplasia by open excisional biopsy. Am. J. Surg. 2001 Oct; 182(4): 355-8.
  29. Ohsumi, S., Takashima, S., Aogi, K., Ishizaki, M., Mandai, K. Breast biopsy for mammographically detected non-palpable lesions using a vacuum-assisted biopsy device (Mammotome) and an upright-type stereotactic mammography unit.Jpn. J. Clin.Oncol. 2001 Nov; 31(11): 527-31.
  30. Jackman, R.J., Lamm, R.L. Stereotactic histologic biopsy in breasts with implants. Radiology 2002 Jan; 222(1): 157-64.
  31. Perlet, C., Schneider, P., Amaya, B., Grosse, A., Sittek, H., Reiser, M.F., Heywang-Kobrunner, S.H. MR-guided vacuum biopsy of 206 contrast-enhancing breast lesions.RofoFortschr. Geb.Rontgenstr.NeuenBildgeb. Verfahr. 2002 Jan; 174(1): 88-95.
  32. Sitruk-Ware, R., Sterkers, N., Mauvais-Jarvis, P. Benign breast disease. I. Hormonal investigation. Obstet. Gynecol. 1979; 53: 457.
  33. Mishell, D.R. Noncontraceptive benefits of oral contraceptives. J. Reprod. Med. 1993; 38: 1021-9.
  34. Rohan, T.E., Miller, A.B. A cohort study of oral contraceptive use and risk of benign breast disease. Int. J. Cancer 1999; 82(2): 191-6.
  35. Scott, P.M. Oral contraceptives in the 90s. Physician Assist. 1993; 17(12): 19-28.
  36. Ozdemir, A., Konus, O., Nas, T., Erbas, G., Cosar, S., Isik, S. Mamographic and ultrasonic study of changes in the breast related to HRT. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 1999; 67(1): 23-32.
  37. Leonardi, M. Hormonal contraception and benign breast disease: evaluation of a treatment protocol for fibrocystic disease with mastalgia. Min. Ginecol. 1997; 49(6): 271-6.
  38. Pastides, H., Najjar, M.A., Kelsey, J.L. Estrogen replacement therapy and fibrocystic breast disease. Am. J. Prev. Med. 1987; 3(5): 282-6.
  39. Chatterji, U. Identifying the Breast Cancer Target for Indole-3-Carbinol (unpublished). Postdoctorate Fellowship 2001-2002. Berkeley, CA: University of California.
  40. Fentiman, I.S., Caleffi, M., Brame, K. et al. Double-blind controlled trial of tamoxifen therapy for mastalgia. Lancet 1986; 1: 287.
  41. Bradlow, H.L., Michnovicz, J.J., Halper, M., Miller, D.G., Wong, G.Y., Osborne, M.P. Long-term responses of women to indole-3-carbinol or a high fiber diet.Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 1994 Oct-Nov; 3(7): 591-5.
  42. Arnao, M.B., Sanchez-Bravo, J., Acosta, M. Indole-3-carbinol as a scavenger of free radicals.Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 1996 Aug; 39(6): 1125-34.
  43. Bradlow, H.L., Sepkovic, D.W., Telang, N.T., Osborne, M.P. Multifunctional aspects of the action of indole-3-carbinol as an antitumor agent. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1999a; 889: 204-13.
  44. Greenblatt, R.B., Vasquez, J., Samaras, C. Fibrocytic breast disease: current status of diagnosis and treatment. Postgrad. Med. 1982 Mar; 71(3): 159-63, 166-8.
  45. Mansel, R.E., Wisbey, J.R., Hughes, L.E. Controlled trial of the antigonadotropindanazol in painful nodular benign breast disease. Lancet 1982 Apr 24; 1(8278): 928-30.
  46. Lopez, S.P., Martinez, E.J., Reillo, M. Treatment of breast fibrocystic disease with tanazol.ActaGinecol. 1996; 53(10): 304-9.
  47. Meeks, M.L., Mahaffey, K.W., Katz, M.D. Danazol increases with anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Ann. Pharmacother. 1992; 26(5): 641-2.
  48. Peress, M.R., Kreutner, A.K., Mathur, R.S., Williamson, H.O. Female pseudohermaphroditism with somatic chromosomal anomaly in association with in utero exposure to danazol. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 1982; 142(61): 708-9.
  49. Pye, J.K., Mansel, R.E., Hughes, L.E. Clinical experience of drug treatments for mastalgia. Lancet 1985 Aug 17; 2(8451): 373-7.
  50. Lopez-Rosales, C., Romero Espinosa, R.E., Vazquez, J. Treatment of fibrocystic breast disease with lisuride.Ginecol.Obstet. Mex. 1991; 59: 358-61.
  51. Leowattana, W. DHEA(S): the fountain of youth. J. Med. Assoc. Thai 2001 Oct; 84(Suppl. 2): S605-S612.
  52. Kimura, M., Tanaka, S., Yamada, Y., Kiuchi, Y., Yamakawa, T., Sekihara, H. Dehydroepiandrosterone decreases serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and restores insulin sensitivity: independent effect from secondary weight reduction in genetically obese Zucker fatty rats. Endocrinology 1998 Jul; 139(7): 3249-53.
  53. Kurzman, I.D., Panciera, D.L., Miller, J.B., MacEwen, E.G. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone combined with a low-fat diet in spontaneously obese dogs: a clinical trial. Obes. Res. 1998 Jan; 6(1): 20-8.
  54. Murialdo, G., Nobili, F., Rollero, A., Gianelli, M.V., Copello, F., Rodriguez, G., Polleri, A. Hippocampal perfusion and pituitary-adrenal axis in Alzheimer's disease.Neuropsychobiology 2000; 42(2): 51-7.
  55. Corsini, E., Lucchi, L., Meroni, M., Racchi, M., Solerte, B., Fioravanti, M., Viviani, B., Marinovich, M., Govoni, S., Galli, C.L. In vivo dehydroepiandrosterone restores age-associated defects in the protein kinase C signal transduction pathway and related functional responses. J. Immunol. 2002 Feb 15; 168(4): 1753-8.
  56. Polleri, A., Gianelli, M.V., Murialdo, G. Dementia: a neuroendocrine perspective. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 2002 Jan; 25(1): 73-83.
  57. Simpson, E.R. Aromatization of androgens in women: current concepts and findings. Fertil.Steril. 2002 Apr; 77(Suppl. 4): 6-10.
  58. Takayanagi, R., Goto, K., Suzuki, S., Tanaka, S., Shimoda, S., Nawata, H. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) as a possible source for estrogen formation in bone cells: correlation between bone mineral density and serum DHEA-sulfate concentration in postmenopausal women, and the presence of aromatase to be enhanced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human osteoblasts. Mech. Ageing Dev. 2002 Apr; 123(8): 1107-14.
  59. Yang, S., Fu, Z., Wang, F., Cao, Y., Han, R. Anti-mutagenicity activity of dehydroepiandrosterone.ZhonghuaZhong Liu ZaZhi 2002 Mar; 24(2): 137-140 (in Chinese).
  60. Nestler, J.E., Arlasini, C.O., Clore, J.N. et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone reduces serum low density lipoprotein levels and body fat but not insulin sensitivity in men. J. Clin. Endocrinol.Metabol. 1988; 66(1): 57-61.
  61. Barrett-Connor, E., Goodman-Gruen, D.The epidemiology of DHEAs and cardiovascular disease.Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1995; 774: 259-70.
  62. Yen, S.S., Morales, A.J., Khorram, O. Replacement of DHEA in aging men and women.Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1995 Dec 29; 774: 128-42.
  63. Leijd, B. Cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in obesity.Clin. Sci. 1980 Sep; 59(3): 203-6.
  64. Clarke, R.P., Schlenker, E.D., Merrow, S.B. Nutrient intake, adiposity, plasma total cholesterol, and blood pressure of rural participants in the (Vermont) Nutrition Program for Older Americans (Title III). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1981 Sep; 34(9): 1743-51.
  65. Bates, G.W., Whitworth, N.S. Effects of obesity on sex steroid metabolism. J. Chron. Dis. 1982; 35(12): 893-6.
  66. Siiteri, P.K. Adipose tissue as a source of hormones. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1987 Jan; 45(1, Suppl.): 277-82.
  67. Blum, I., Marilus, R., Barasch, E., Sztern, M., Bruhis, S., Kaufman, H. Severe sexual impairment produced by morbid obesity. Report of a case. Int. J. Obes. 1988; 12(3): 185-9.
  68. Zumoff, B. Hormonal abnormalities in obesity.Acta Med. Scand. Suppl. 1988; 723: 153-60.
  69. Kaplan, N.M. The deadly quartet.Upper-body obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. Arch. Intern. Med. 1989 Jul; 149(7): 1514-20.
  70. Hunt, S.C., Williams, R.R., Adams, T.D. Biochemical and anthropometric characterization of morbid obesity in a large Utah pedigree. Obes. Res. 1995 Sep; 3(Suppl. 2): 165S-172S.
  71. Singh, R.B., Niaz, M.A., Agarwal, P., Beegum, R., Rastogi, S.S., Singh, N.K. Epidemiologic study of central obesity, insulin resistance and associated disturbances in the urban population of North India. ActaCardiol. 1995; 50(3): 215-25.
  72. Vanhala, M.J., Pitkajarvi, T.K., Kumpusalo, E.A., Takala, J.K. Obesity type and clustering of insulin resistance-associated cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men and women. Int. J. Obes. Relat.Metab.Disord. 1998 Apr; 22(4): 369-74.
  73. Inukai, T., Matsutomo, R., Tayama, K., Aso, Y., Takemura, Y. Relation between the serum level of C-peptide and risk factors for coronary heart disease and diabetic microangiopathy in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes 1999; 107(1): 40-5.
  74. Despres, J.P., Pascot, A., Lemieux, I. Risk factors associated with obesity: a metabolic perspective. Ann. Endocrinol. 2000 Dec; 61(Suppl. 6): 31-8 (in French).
  75. Hudgins, L.C., Hellerstein, M.K., Seidman, C.E., Neese, R.A., Tremaroli, J.D., Hirsch, J. Relationship between carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia and fatty acid synthesis in lean and obese subjects. J. Lipid Res. 2000 Apr; 41(4): 595-604.
  76. Mishra, S.K., Sharma, A.K., Salila, M., Srivastava, A., Bal, S., Ramesh, V. Efficacy of low fat diet in the treatment of benign breast disease. Natl. Med. J. India 1994 Mar-Apr; 7(2): 60-2.
  77. Rose, D.P., Boyar, A.P., Cohen, C., Strong, L.E. Effect of a low-fat diet on hormone levels in women with cystic breast disease. I. Serum steroids and gonadotropins. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1987a; 78(4): 623-6.
  78. Rose, D.P., Cohen, L.A., Berke, B., Boyar, A.P. Effect of a low-fat diet on hormone levels in women with cystic breast disease. II. Serum radioimmunoassayable prolactin and growth hormone and bioactive lactogenic hormones. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1987b Apr; 78(4): 627-31.
  79. Boyd, N.F., McGuire, V., Shannon, P., Cousins, M., Kriukov, V., Mahoney, L., Fish, E., Lickley, L., Lockwood, G., Tritchler, D. Effect of a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet on symptoms of cyclical mastopathy. Lancet 1988; 16; 2(8603): 128-32.
  80. Boyd, N.F., Greenberg, C., Lockwood, G. et al. Effects at two years of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet on radiologic features of the breast: results from a randomized trial. Canadian Diet and Breast Cancer Prevention Study Group. J. Natl. Cancer. Inst. 1997 Apr 2; 89(7): 488-96.
  81. Huang, Z., Willett, W.C., Colditz, G.A., Hunter, D.J., Manson, J.E., Rosner, B., Speizer, F.E., Hankinson, S.E. Waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, and risk of breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1999 Dec 15; 150(12): 1316-24.
  82. Kaizer, L., Boyd, N.F., Kriukov, V., Tritchler, D. Fish consumption and breast cancer risk: an ecological study. Nutr. Cancer 1989; 12(1): 61-8.
  83. Franceschi, S., Favero, A., Decarli, A., Negri, E., La Vecchia, C., Ferraroni, M., Russo, A., Salvini, S., Amadori, D., Conti, E. et al. Intake of macronutrients and risk of breast cancer. Lancet 1996 May 18; 347(9012): 1351-6; comments, Lancet 1996 May 18; 347(9012): 1346 and Lancet 1996 Jul 13; 348(9020): 137-8; discussion, Lancet 1996 Jul 13; 348(9020): 138.
  84. Maillard, V., Bougnoux, P., Ferrari, P., Jourdan, M.L., Pinault, M., Lavillonniere, F., Body, G., Le Floch, O., Chajes, V. N-3 and N-6 fatty acids in breast adipose tissue and relative risk of breast cancer in a case-control study in Tours, France. Int. J. Cancer 2002 Mar 1; 98(1): 78-83.
  85. McBean, L.D. Emerging health benefits of CLA (conjugated linoleic acid). Dairy Council Digest 1999.Rosement, IL: National Dairy Council.
  86. Roloff, J. Why grass makes for better milk. Science News 1997 Oct 11.
  87. Banni, S., Angioni, E., Casu, V., Melis, M.P., Carta, G., Corongiu, F.P., Thompson, H., Ip, C. Decrease in linoleic acid metabolites as a potential mechanism in cancer risk reduction by conjugated linoleic acid. Carcinogenesis 1999 Jun; 20(6): 1019-24.
  88. Ip, MM, Masso-Welch PA, Shoemaker SF, Shea-Eaton WK, Ip C. Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of normal rat mammary epithelial cells in primary culture. Exp. Cell Res. 1999a Jul 10; 250(1): 22-34.
  89. Ip, C., Banni, S., Angioni, E., Carta, G., McGinley, J., Thompson, H.J., Barbano, D., Bauman, D. Conjugated linoleic acid-enriched butter fat alters mammary gland morphogenesis and reduces cancer risk in rats. J. Nutr. 1999b Dec; 129(12): 2135-42.
  90. Mansel, R.E., Pye, J.K., Hughes, L.E. Effects of essential fatty acids on cyclical mastalgia and noncyclical breast disorders. In Omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids 1990c, pp. 557-67.Horrobon, D., Ed. New York: Wiley-Liss.
  91. Kumar, S., Mansel, R.E., Hughes, L.E., Edwards, C.A., Scanlon, M.F. Prediction of response to endocrine therapy in pronounced cyclical mastalgia using dynamic tests of prolactin release. Clin.Endocrinol. 1985 Dec; 23(6): 699-704.
  92. BeLieu, R.M. Mastodynia. Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North Am. 1994 Sep; 21(3): 461-77.
  93. Mansel, R.E., Gateley, C.A., Harrison, B.J. et al. Effects and tolerability of n-6 essential fatty acid supplementation in patients with recurrent breast cysts. J. Nutr. Med. 1990a; 1: 195-200.
  94. Belch, J.J., Hill, A. Evening primrose oil and borage oil in rheumatologic conditions. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2000 Jan; 71(1, Suppl.): 352S-356S.
  95. Henz BM, Jablonska S, van de Kerkhof PC, et al. Double-blind, multicentre analysis of the efficacy of borage oil in patients with atopic eczema.Br J Dermatol. 1999 Apr;140(4):685-8.
  96. Cameron M, Gagnier JJ, Little CV, Parsons TJ, Blumle A, Chrubasik S. Evidence of effectiveness of herbal medicinal products in the treatment of arthritis. Part 2: Rheumatoid arthritis. Phytother Res. 2009 Dec;23(12):1647-62.
  97. Johnson MM, Swan DD, Surette ME, et al. Dietary supplementation with gamma-linolenic acid alters fatty acid content and eicosanoid production in healthy humans. J Nutr. 1997 Aug;127(8):1435-44.
  98. Ziboh VA, Naguwa S, Vang K, et al. Suppression of leukotriene B4 generation by ex-vivo neutrophils isolated from asthma patients on dietary supplementation with gammalinolenic acid-containing borage oil: possible implication in asthma. ClinDevImmunol. 2004 Mar;11(1):13-21.
  99. Chang CS, Sun HL, Lii CK, Chen HW, Chen PY, Liu KL. Gamma-linolenic acid inhibits inflammatory responses by regulating NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Inflammation. 2010 Feb;33(1):46-57.
  100. Gateley, C.A., Mansel, R.E. Management of cyclical breast pain. Br. J. Hosp. Med. 1990 May; 43(5): 330-2.
  101. Mansel, R.E., Harrison, B.J., Melhuish, J., Sheridan, W., Pye, J.K., Pritchard, G., Maddox, P.R., Webster, D.J., Hughes, L.E.A randomized trial of dietary intervention with essential fatty acids in patients with categorized cysts. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1990b; 586: 288-94.
  102. Gateley, C.A., Mansel, R.E. Management of the painful and nodular breast. Br. Med. Bull. 1991 Apr; 47(2): 284-94.
  103. McFayden, I.J., Forrest, A.P., Chetty, U., Raab, G. Cyclical breast pain?some observations and the difficulties in treatment. Br. J. Clin. Pract. 1992 Autumn; 46(3): 161-4.
  104. Cheung, K.L. Management of cyclical mastalgia in oriental women: pioneer experience of using gamolenic acid (Efamast) in Asia. Aust. N.Z. J. Surg. 1999 Jul; 69(7): 492-4.
  105. Norlock, F.E. Benign breast pain in women: a practical approach to evaluation and treatment. J. Am. Med. Womens Assoc. 2002 Spring; 57(2): 85-90.
  106. Pain, J.A., Cahill, C.J. Management of cyclical mastalgia. Br. J. Clin. Pract.1990; 44: 454-6.
  107. Gateley, C.A., Maddox, P.R., Pritchard, G.A., Sheridan, W., Harrison, B.J., Pye, J.K., Webster, D.J., Hughes, L.E., Mansel, R.E. Plasma fatty acid profiles in benign breast disorders. Br. J. Surg. 1992 May; 79(5): 407-9.
  108. Mancuso, P., Whelan, J., DeMichele, S.J., Snider, C.C., Guszcza, J.A., Claycombe, K.J., Smith, G.T., Gregory, T.J., Karlstad, M.D. Effects of eicosapentaenoic and gamma-linolenic acid on lung permeability and alveolar macrophage eicosanoid synthesis in endotoxic rats. Crit. Care Med. 1997 Mar; 25(3): 523-32.
  109. BCERF. Fruits and Vegetables and the Risk of Breast Cancer 1998 Dec. Program on Breast Cancer and Environmental Risk Factors in New York State. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.
  110. Goldin, B.R., Adlercreutz, H., Dwyer, J.T., Swenson, L., Warram, J.H., Gorbach, S.L. Effect of diet on excretion of estrogens in pre- and postmenopausal women. Cancer Res. 1981 Sep; 41(9, Pt. 2): 3771-3.
  111. Goldin, B.R., Adlercreutz, H., Gorbach, S.L., Warram, J.H., Dwyer, J.T., Swenson, L., Woods, M.N. Estrogen excretion patterns and plasma levels in vegetarian and omnivorous women. N. Engl. J. Med. 1982 Dec 16; 307(25): 1542-7.
  112. Anderson, J.W., Bridges, S.R. Dietary fiber content of selected foods. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.1988; 47: 440-7.
  113. Van Horn, L. Fiber, lipids, and coronary heart disease.A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation 1997 Jun 17; 95(12): 2701-4.
  114. Michnovicz, J.J., Adlercreutz, H., Bradlow, H.L. Changes in levels of urinary estrogen metabolites after oral indole-3-carbinol treatment in humans. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1997 May 21; 89(10): 718-23.
  115. Wong, G.Y., Bradlow, L., Sepkovic, D., Mehl, S., Mailman, J., Osborne, M.P. Dose-ranging study of indole-3-carbinol for breast cancer prevention. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl. 1997; 28-29: 111-6.
  116. Carter TH, Liu K, Ralph W, Jr, et al. Diindolylmethane alters gene expression in human keratinocytes in vitro. J Nutr. 2002 Nov;132(11):3314-24.
  117. Auborn KJ, Fan S, Rosen EM, et al. Indole-3-carbinol is a negative regulator of estrogen. J Nutr. 2003 Jul;133(7 Suppl):2470S-5S.
  118. Bradlow, H.L., Telang, N.T., Sepkovic, D.W., Osborne, M.P. Phytochemicals as modulators of cancer risk. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 1999b; 472: 207-21.
  119. Meng, Q., Yuan, F., Goldberg, I.D., Rosen, E.M., Auborn, K., Fan, S. Indole-3-carbinol is a negative regulator of estrogen receptor-alpha signaling in human tumor cells. J. Nutr. 2000 Dec; 130(12): 2927-31.
  120. Terry, P., Wolk, A., Persson, I., Magnusson, C. Brassica vegetables and breast cancer risk. JAMA 2001 Jun 20; 285(23): 2975-7.
  121. Mowatt, T. Gourmet treats to keep you healthy. Life Extension Magazine 1998 Jun; 4(6): 22-6. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Life Extension Foundation.
  122. NIEHS.Background Information. Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C), 700-06-1 June 2000. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (
  123. Cover, C.M., Hsieh, S.J., Cram, E.J., Hong, C., Riby, J.E., Bjeldanes, L.F., Firestone, G.L. Indole-3-carbinol and tamoxifen cooperate to arrest the cell cycle of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 1999 Mar 15; 59(6): 1244-51.
  124. Imaginis.Soy and breast cancer.Imaginis Newsletter 2001 Jan 20. Durham, NC: Imaginis Corporation.
  125. Molteni, A., Brizio-Molteni, L., Persky, V.In vitro hormonal effects of soybean isoflavones. J. Nutr. 1995 Mar; 125(3, Suppl.): 751S-756S.
  126. Augustin, L.S., Dal Maso, L., La Vecchia, C., Parpinel, M., Negri, E., Vaccarella, S., Kendall, C.W., Jenkins, D.J., Francesch, S. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, and breast cancer risk: a case-control study. Ann. Oncol. 2001 Nov; 12(11): 1533-8.
  127. Quagliani, D. Complex carbohydrates: they're the best thing since sliced bread. Better Homes & Gardens 1997 May.
  128. Abrams, A. Use of vitamin E in chronic cystic mastitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 1965; 272: 2388.
  129. London, R.S., Sundaram, G.S., Schultz, M., Nair, P.P., Goldstein, P.J. Endocrine parameters and alpha-tocopherol therapy of patients with mammary dysplasia. Cancer Res. 1981; 41(9, Pt. 2): 3811-3.
  130. London, R.S., Sundaram, G.S., Murphy, L. et al. The effect of vitamin E on mammary dysplasia: a double-blind study. Obstet. Gynecol. 1985; 65: 104.
  131. Meyer, E.C., Sommers, D.K., Reitz, C.J., Mentis, H. Vitamin E and benign breast disease. Surgery 1990; 107(5): 549-51.
  132. Fontana, J.A., Nervi, C., Shao, Z.M., Jetten, A.M. Retinoid antagonism of estrogen-responsive transforming growth factor alpha and pS2 gene expression in breast carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 1992 Jul 15; 52(14): 3938-45.
  133. Wu, Q., Dawson, M.I., Zheng, Y., Hobbs, P.D., Agadir, A., Jong, L., Li, Y., Liu, R., Lin, B., Zhang, X.K. Inhibition of trans-retinoic acid-resistant human breast cancer cell growth by retinoid X receptor-selective retinoids. Mol. Cell. Biol . 1997 Nov; 17(11): 6598-6608.
  134. Yang, L.M., Tin, U.C., Wu, K., Brown, P. Role of retinoid receptors in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 1999 Oct; 4(4): 377-88.
  135. Widschwendter, M., Berger, J., Muller, H.M., Zeimet, A.G., Marth, C. Epigenetic downregulation of the retinoic acid receptor-beta2 gene in breast cancer. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 2001 Apr; 6(2): 193-201.
  136. Band, P.R., Deschamps, M., Falardeau, M., Ladouceur, J., Cote, J. Treatment of benign breast disease with vitamin A. Prev. Med. 1984; 13(5): 549-54.
  137. Santamaria, L., Dell'Orti, M., Bianchi Santamaria, A. Beta-carotene supplementation associated with intermittent retinal administration in the treatment of premenopausal mastodynia.Boll.Chim.Farm. 1989; 128(9): 284-7.
  138. Maliakal, P.P., Wanwimolruk, S. Effect of herbal teas on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2001 Oct; 53(10): 1323-9.
  139. Saller, R., Meier, R., Brignoli, R. The use of silymarin in the treatment of liver diseases. Drugs 2001; 61(14): 2035-63.
  140. Cho, S.Y., Park, J.Y., Park, E.M., Choi, M.S., Lee, M.K., Jeon, S.M., Jang, M.K., Kim, M.J., Park, Y.B. Alternation of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by supplementation of dandelion water extract. Clin.Chim.Acta 2002 Mar; 317(1-2): 109-17.
  141. Hagymasi, K., Kocsis, I., Lugasi, A., Feher, J., Blazovics, A. Extrahepatic biliary obstruction: can silymarin protect liver function? Phytother. Res. 2002 Mar; 16(Suppl. 1): S78-S80.
  142. Kosina, P., Kren, V., Gebhardt, R., Grambal, F., Ulrichova, J., Walterova, D. Antioxidant properties of silybin glycosides.Phytother. Res. 2002 Mar; 16(Suppl. 1): S33-S39.
  143. Lieber CS, Leo MA, Cao Q, Ren C, DeCarli LM. Silymarin retards the progression of alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis in baboons. J ClinGastroenterol. 2003 Oct;37(4):336-9.
  144. Szilárd S, Szentgyörgyi D, Demeter I. Protective effect of Legalon in workers exposed to organic solvents. Acta Med Hung. 1988;45(2):249-56.
  145. Shaarawy SM, Tohamy AA, Elgendy SM, et al. Protective effects of garlic and silymarin on NDEA-induced rats hepatotoxicity. Int J Biol Sci. 2009 Aug;5(6):549-57.
  146. Eminzade S, Uras F, Izzettin FV. Silymarin protects liver against toxic effects of anti-tuberculosis drugs in experimental animals. NutrMetab (Lond). 2008 Jul 5;5:18.
  147. Russell, L.C. Caffeine restriction as initial treatment for breast pain. Nurse Practitioner 1989; 14(2): 36-7, 40.
  148. Allen, S.S., Froberg, D.C. The effect of decreased caffeine consumption on benign proliferative breast disease: a randomized clinical trial. Surgery 1985; 91: 263.
  149. Allen, S.S., Froberg, D.G. The effect of decreased caffeine consumption on benign proliferative breast disease: a randomized clinical trial. Surgery 1987 Jun; 101(6): 720-30.
  150. Horner, N.K., Lampe, J.W. Potential mechanisms of diet therapy for fibrocystic breast conditions show inadequate evidence of effectiveness. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 2000 Nov; 100(11): 1368-80.
  151. Minton, J.P., Abou-Issa, H., Reiches, N., Roseman, J.M. Clinical and biochemical studies on methylxanthine-related fibrocystic breast disease. Surgery 1981; 90(2): 299-304.
  152. Minton, J.P., Foecking, M.K., Webster, D.J., Matthews, R.H. Caffeine, cyclic nucleotides, and breast disease. Surgery 1979; 86(1): 105-9.
  153. Minton, J.P., Abou-Issa, H. Nonendocrine theories of the etiology of benign breast disease. World J. Surg. 1989 Nov-Dec; 13(6): 680-4.
  154. Boyle, C.A., Berkowitz, G.S., LiVolsi, V.A., Ort, S., Merino, M.J., White, C., Kelsey, J.L. Caffeine consumption and fibrocystic breast disease: a case-control epidemiologic study. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1984; 72(5): 1015-9.
  155. La Vecchia, C., Franceschi, S., Parazzini, F., Regallo, M., Decarli, A., Gallus, G., Di Pietro, S., Tognoni, G. Benign breast disease and consumption of beverages containing methylxanthines. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1985; 74(5): 995-1000.
  156. Rosenberg, L., Miller, D.R., Helmrich, S.P., Kaufman, D.W., Schottenfeld, D., Stolley, P.D., Shapiro, S. Breast cancer and the consumption of coffee. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1985; 122(3): 391-9.
  157. La Vecchia , C., Franceschi, S., Parazzini, F., Regallo, M., Decarli, A., Gallus, G., Di Pietro, S., Tognoni, G. Benign breast disease and consumption of beverages containing methylxanthines. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1985; 74(5): 995-1000.
  158. Schairer, C., Brinton, L.A., Hoover, R.N. Methylxanthines and benign breast disease. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1986; 124(4): 603-11.
  159. Estes, N. Mastodynia due to fibrocystic disease of the breast controlled with thyroid hormone. Am. J. Surg. 1981; Dec; 142(6): 764-6.
  160. Patrick, L. Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations. Altern Med Rev. 2008 Jun;13(2):116-27.
  161. Eskin BA. Iodine and mammary cancer.AdvExp Med Biol. 1977;91:293-304.
  162. Smyth PP. Role of iodine in antioxidant defence in thyroid and breast disease. Biofactors. 2003;19(3-4):121-30.
  163. Venturi S, Donati FM, Venturi A, Venturi M, Grossi L, Guidi A. Role of iodine in evolution and carcinogenesis of thyroid, breast and stomach. AdvClin Path. 2000 Jan;4(1):11-7.
  164. Venturi S. Is there a role for iodine in breast diseases? Breast. 2001 Oct;10(5):379-82.
  165. Stadel BV. Dietary iodine and risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer.Lancet. 1976 Apr 24;1(7965):890-1.
  166. Many MC, Papadopolos C, Martin I, et al. Iodine induced cell damage in mouse hyperplastic thyroid is associated with lipid peroxidation. In: Gordon A, Gross J, Hennemann G, eds. Progress in Thyroid Research. New York, NY: Routledge; 1991:213-5.
  167. Triggiani V, Tafaro E, Giagulli VA, et al. Role of iodine, selenium and other micronutrients in thyroid function and disorders. EndocrMetab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2009 Sep;9(3):277-94.
  168. Krouse TB, Eskin BA, Mobini J. Age-related changes resembling fibrocystic disease in iodine-blocked rat breasts. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1979 Nov;103(12):631-4.
  169. Eskin BA, Grotkowski CE, Connolly CP, Ghent WR.Different tissue responses for iodine and iodide in rat thyroid and mammary glands.Biol Trace Elem Res. 1995 Jul;49(1):9-19.
  170. Ghent WR, Eskin BA, Low DA, Hill LP.Iodine replacement in fibrocystic disease of the breast. Can J Surg. 1993 Oct;36(5):453-60.
  171. Nolan LA, Windle RJ, Wood SA, et al. Chronic iodine deprivation attenuates stress-induced and diurnal variation in corticosterone secretion in female Wistar rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2000 Dec;12(12):1149-59.
  172. Stolc V. Stimulation of iodoproteins and thyroxine formation in human leukocytes by phagocytosis.BiochemBiophys Res Commun. 1971 Oct 1;45(1):159-66.
  173. Cohen M, Klein E, Kuten A, Fried G, Zinder O, Pollack S. Increased emotional distress in daughters of breast cancer patients is associated with decreased natural cytotoxic activity, elevated levels of stress hormones and decreased secretion of Th1 cytokines. Int J Cancer. 2002 Jul 20;100(3):347-54.
  174. Inaudi P, Bernabei A, Gioffre W, et al. Plasma and cyst fluid levels of delta 5 and delta 4 steroid hormones in women with gross cystic breast disease. ClinEndocrinol (Oxf). 1987 Dec;27(6):643-8.
  175. James GD, Gastrich HJ, Valdimarsdottir HB, Bovbjerg DH. The rate of urinary cortisol excretion at work is persistently elevated in women at familial risk for breast cancer. Am J Hum Biol. 2008 Jul-Aug;20(4):478-80.
  176. Thornton LM, Andersen BL, Carson WE, 3rd. Immune, endocrine, and behavioral precursors to breast cancer recurrence: a case-control analysis. Cancer ImmunolImmunother. 2008 Oct;57(10):1471-81.
  177. Martinez, L., Castilla, J.A., Gil, T., Molina, J., Alarcon, J.L., Marcos, C., Herruzo, A. Thyroid hormones in fibrocystic breast disease. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 1995 Jun; 132(6): 673-6.
  178. Zych, F., Mizia-Stec, K., Mucha, Z., Zych-Twardowska, E. Fibrocystic disease of breast and pituitary-thyroid axis function. Pol. MerkuriuszLek. 1996 Oct; 1(4): 227-8 (in Polish).
  179. Ditmar, F.W., Luh, W. Treatment of fibrocystic mastopathy with hydrolytic enzymes. Int. J. Exp. Clin. Chemother. 1993; 6(1): 9-20.
  180. Kee WH, et al. The treatment of breast engorgement with Serrapeptase (Danzen): a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Singapore Med J.; 1989 30 (1); 48-54.