Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Hepatitis B References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. A.D.A.M Editorial Board.Hepatitis B. Pubmed Health. 2010; Available at: [Accessed August 26, 2012]
  2. Merck. Acute Viral Hepatitis: Hepatitis: Merck Manual Professional. 2007. Available at: [Accessed August 28, 2012].
  3. Mayo clinic.Hepatitis B. 2011b. Available at: [Accessed August 26, 2012].
  4. El-Serag, H. B. Epidemiology of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma.Gastroenterology. 2012;142(6):1264–1273.e1
  5. Nebbia, G., Peppa, D., and Maini, M. K. Hepatitis B infection: current concepts and future challenges. QJM. 2012;105(2):109–13
  6. World Health Organization.Hepatitis B vaccines. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 2009;84(40):405–19
  7. Lee HC. Acute liver failure related to hepatitis B virus. Hepatologyresearch : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology. Nov 2008;38Suppl 1:S9-S13.
  8. Ioannou, G. N. Hepatitis B virus in the United States: infection, exposure, and immunity rates in a nationally representative survey. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154(5):319–28
  9. Scaglione, S. J., and Lok, A. S. F. Effectiveness of hepatitis B treatment in clinical practice. Gastroenterology. 2012;142(6):1360–1
  10. Mitchell, A. E., Colvin, H. M., and Palmer Beasley, R. Institute of Medicine recommendations for the prevention and control of hepatitis B and C. Hepatology. 2010;51(3):729–33
  11. Ladak, F., Gjelsvik, A., Feller, E., Rosenthal, S., and Montague, B. T. Hepatitis B in the United States: ongoing missed opportunities for hepatitis B vaccination, evidence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, 2007. Infection. 2012;40(4):405–13
  12. Mutimer, D. J., and Lok, A. Management of HBV- and HCV-induced end stage liver disease. Gut. 2012;61Suppl 1:i59–67
  13. Billioud, G., Pichoud, C., Puerstinger, G., Neyts, J., and Zoulim, F. The main hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutants resistant to nucleoside analogs are susceptible in vitro to non-nucleoside inhibitors of HBV replication. Antiviral Res. 2011;92(2):271–6
  14. Gish, R., Jia, J.-D., Locarnini, S., and Zoulim, F. Selection of chronic hepatitis B therapy with high barrier to resistance. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12(4):341–53
  15. Protzer, U., Maini, M. K., and Knolle, P. A. Living in the liver: hepatic infections. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2012;12(3):201–13
  16. Wilson, R., Purcell, D., Netter, H. J., and Revill, P. A. Does RNA interference provide new hope for control of chronic hepatitis B infection? Antivir.Ther.(Lond.). 2009;14(7):879–89
  17. Liaw, Y. F., and Chu, C.-M.Hepatitis B virus infection.Lancet. 2009;373(9663):582–92
  18. Tanwar, S., and Dusheiko, G. Is there any value to hepatitis B virus genotype analysis? CurrGastroenterol Rep. 2012;14(1):37–46
  19. Chien, R.-N., Lin, C.-Y., Yeh, C.-T., and Liaw, Y.-F. Hepatitis B virus genotype B is associated with better response to thymosin alpha1 therapy than genotype C. J. Viral Hepat. 2006;13(12):845–50
  20. Daniels, D., Grytdal, S., Wasley, A., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis - United States, 2007.MMWR SurveillSumm. 2009;58(3):1–27
  21. Kang, X., Xie, Q., Zhou, X., et al. Effects of hepatitis B virus S protein exposure on sperm membrane integrity and functions.PLoS ONE. 2012;7(3):e33471
  22. Lee, C., Gong, Y., Brok, J., Boxall, E. H., and Gluud, C. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(2):CD004790
  23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Hepatitis. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1990;39(RR-2):1–22.
  24. Byrd KK, Murphy TV, and Hu DJ. MD Consult. DNA Viruses: Hepadnaviridae. In: Long: Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 4th ed. 2012. Available at: Accessed September 21, 2012.
  25. Chevaliez, S., Rodriguez, C., and Pawlotsky, J.-M.New virologic tools for management of chronic hepatitis B and C. Gastroenterology. 2012;142(6):1303–1313.e1
  26. Xu, M., Wang, B., Fu, Y., et al. Changes of fecal Bifidobacterium species in adult patients with hepatitis B virus-induced chronic liver disease. Microb. Ecol. 2012;63(2):304–13
  27. Garcia-Tsao, G., Lim, J. K., Lim, J., Members of Veterans Affairs Hepatitis C Resource Center Program. Management and treatment of patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension: recommendations from the Department of Veterans Affairs Hepatitis C Resource Center Program and the National Hepatitis C Program. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104(7):1802–29
  28. Mayo Clinic.Cirrhosis.2011a Mayo Clinic. Available at: [Accessed August 26, 2012].
  29. Chen, C.-J., Yang, H.-I., Su, J., et al. Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma across a biological gradient of serum hepatitis B virus DNA level.JAMA. 2006;295(1):65–73
  30. Ichai, P., and Samuel, D. Epidemiology of liver failure.Clin Res HepatolGastroenterol. 2011;35(10):610–7
  31. Shimizu, I., Kohno, N., Tamaki, K., et al. Female hepatology: favorable role of estrogen in chronic liver disease with hepatitis B virus infection. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13(32):4295–305
  32. Yuan, J. M., Ross, R. K., Stanczyk, F. Z., et al. A cohort study of serum testosterone and hepatocellular carcinoma in Shanghai, China.Int J Cancer. 1995;63(4):491–3
  33. Lin MC, Wu CC, Cheng SB, Liu TJ, P'Eng F K. The influence of high serum testosterone levels on the long-term prognosis in male patients undergoing hepatectomy for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma without vascular invasion. World journal of surgery.Jul 2007;31(7):1469-1473.
  34. Nikolopoulos, G. K., Paraskevis, D., Hatzitheodorou, E., et al. Impact of hepatitis B virus infection on the progression of AIDS and mortality in HIV-infected individuals: a cohort study and meta-analysis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2009;48(12):1763–71
  35. Hou, J., Liu, Z., and Gu, F. Epidemiology and Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection. Int J Med Sci. 2005;2(1):50–7
  36. Gitlin, N. Hepatitis B: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Clin Chem. 1997;43(8 Pt 2):1500–6
  37. Castera, L. Noninvasive methods to assess liver disease in patients with hepatitis B or C. Gastroenterology. 2012;142(6):1293–4
  38. Marieb, E., and Hoehn, K. Human anatomy & physiology. 8th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings. 2010.
  39. Grimm, D., and Thimme, R. Hepatology International, Volume 5, Number 2 - SpringerLink. Hepatol Int. 2011;
  40. Deres, K., Schröder, C. H., Paessens, A., et al. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by drug-induced depletion of nucleocapsids. Science. 2003;299(5608):893–6
  41. Stray, S. J., Bourne, C. R., Punna, S., Lewis, W. G., Finn, M. G., and Zlotnick, A. A heteroaryldihydropyrimidine activates and can misdirect hepatitis B virus capsid assembly. ProcNatlAcadSci USA. 2005;102(23):8138–43
  42. Weber O, Schlemmer KH, Hartmann E, Hagelschuer I, Paessens A, Graef E, . . . Wohlfeil S. Inhibition of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) by a novel non-nucleosidic compound in a transgenic mouse model. Antiviral research.May 2002;54(2):69-78.
  43. Gish, R. G., Satishchandran, C., Young, M., and Pachuk, C. RNA interference and its potential applications to chronic HBV treatment: results of a Phase I safety and tolerability study. Antivir.Ther.(Lond.). 2011;16(4):547–54
  44. Delaney, W., Bartholomeusz, A., and Locarnini, S. A. Evolving therapies for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection.Expert OpinInvestig Drugs. 2002;11(2):169–87
  45. Yang, Y.-F., Zhao, W., Zhong, Y.-D., et al. Comparison of the efficacy of thymosin alpha-1 and interferon alpha in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: a meta-analysis. Antiviral Res. 2008;77(2):136–41
  46. Mao, H.-Y., and Shi, T.-D. [Treatment with interferon and thymosin alpha-1 versus interferon monotherapy for HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B: a meta-analysis]. ZhonghuaGanZang Bing ZaZhi. 2011;19(1):29–33
  47. Zhang, Y.-Y., Chen, E.-Q., Yang, J., Duan, Y.-R., and Tang, H. Treatment with lamivudine versus lamivudine and thymosin alpha-1 for e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B patients: a meta-analysis. Virol. J. 2009;6:63.
  48. SciClone.Zadaxin Product Monograph. 2012:1–58
  49. Rich, J. D., Ching, C. G., Lally, M. A., et al. A review of the case for hepatitis B vaccination of high-risk adults. Am. J. Med. 2003;114(4):316–8
  50. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Hepatitis B virus: a comprehensive strategy for eliminating transmission in the United States through universal childhood vaccination. Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 1991;40(RR-13):1–25
  51. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Immunization of adolescents. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the American Medical Association. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1996;45(RR-13):1–16
  52. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Availability of hepatitis B vaccine that does not contain thimerosal as a preservative.MMWR Morb.Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 1999;48(35):780–2
  53. Marion, S. A., TommPastore, M., Pi, D. W., and Mathias, R. G. Long-term follow-up of hepatitis B vaccine in infants of carrier mothers. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1994;140(8):734–46
  54. Tohme, R. A., Ribner, B., Huey, M. J., and Spradling, P. R. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage and documented seroprotection among matriculating healthcare students at an academic institution in the United States. Infect Control HospEpidemiol. 2011;32(8):818–21
  55. Rauf, N., Tahir, S. S., Dilawar, S., Ahmad, I., and Parvez, S. Serum selenium concentration in liver cirrhotic patients suffering from hepatitis B and C in Pakistan.Biological Trace Element Research. 2012;145(2):144–50
  56. Khan, M. S., Dilawar, S., Ali, I., and Rauf, N.The possible role of selenium concentration in hepatitis B and C patients.Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(2):106–10
  57. Abediankenari, S., Ghasemi, M., Nasehi, M. M., Abedi, S., and Hosseini, V. Determination of trace elements in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Acta Med Iran. 2011;49(10):667–9
  58. Yu, S. Y., Zhu, Y. J., and Li, W. G. Protective role of selenium against hepatitis B virus and primary liver cancer in Qidong. Biological Trace Element Research. 1997;56(1):117–24
  59. Bravi, F., Bosetti, C., Tavani, A., et al. Coffee drinking and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis. Hepatology. 2007;46(2):430–5
  60. Larsson, S. C., and Wolk, A. Coffee consumption and risk of liver cancer: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2007;132(5):1740–5
  61. Leung, W. W.-M., Ho, S. C., Chan, H. L. Y., Wong, V., Yeo, W., and Mok, T. S. K. Moderate coffee consumption reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B chronic carriers: a case-control study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 2011;65(6):556–8
  62. Wang, G.-F., Shi, L.-P., Ren, Y.-D., et al. Anti-hepatitis B virus activity of chlorogenic acid, quinic acid and caffeic acid in vivo and in vitro. Antiviral Res. 2009a;83(2):186–90
  63. Xu, J., Wang, J., Deng, F., Hu, Z., and Wang, H. Green tea extract and its major component epigallocatechingallate inhibits hepatitis B virus in vitro. Antiviral Res. 2008;78(3):242–9
  64. He, W., Li, L.-X., Liao, Q.-J., Liu, C.-L., and Chen, X.-L.Epigallocatechingallate inhibits HBV DNA synthesis in a viral replication - inducible cell line. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17(11):1507–14
  65. Li, Y., Chang, S.-C., Goldstein, B. Y., et al. Green tea consumption, inflammation and the risk of primary hepatocellular carcinoma in a Chinese population. Cancer Epidemiol. 2011;35(4):362–8
  66. Inoue, M., Kurahashi, N., Iwasaki, M., et al. Effect of coffee and green tea consumption on the risk of liver cancer: cohort analysis by hepatitis virus infection status. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(6):1746–53
  67. Balamtekin, N., Kurekci, A. E., Atay, A., Plasma levels of trace elements have an implication on interferon treatment of children with chronic hepatitis B infection. Biological Trace Element Research. 2010;135(1-3):153–61
  68. Kuloğlu, Z., Kırbaş, G., Erden, E., and Kansu, A. Interferon-alpha-2a and zinc combination therapy in children with chronic hepatitis B infection.Biological Trace Element Research. 2011;143(3):1302–9
  69. Ozbal, E., Helvaci, M., Kasirga, E., Akdenizoğlu, F., and Kizilgüneşler, A. Serum zinc as a factor predicting response to interferon-alpha2b therapy in children with chronic hepatitis B. Biological Trace Element Research. 2002;90(1-3):31–8
  70. Petrova, M., and Kamburov, V. Breastfeeding and chronic HBV infection: clinical and social implications. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16(40):5042–6
  71. Hara, K., Ikeda, M., Saito, S., et al. Lactoferrin inhibits hepatitis B virus infection in cultured human hepatocytes. Hepatol. Res. 2002;24(3):228
  72. Li, S., Zhou, H., Huang, G., and Liu, N. Inhibition of HBV infection by bovine lactoferrin and iron-, zinc-saturated lactoferrin. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 2009;198(1):19–25
  73. Fiorino, S., Conti, F., Gramenzi, A., et al. Vitamins in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis.Br J Nutr. 2011;105(7):982–9
  74. Mladěnka, P., Macáková, K., Filipský, T., et al.In vitro analysis of iron chelating activity of flavonoids. J. Inorg. Biochem. 2011;105(5):693–701
  75. Monnier, L., Colette, C., Aguirre, L., and Mirouze, J. Evidence and mechanism for pectin-reduced intestinal inorganic iron absorption in idiopathic hemochromatosis.Am J ClinNutr. 1980;33(6):1225–32
  76. Borsari, M., Gabbi, C., Ghelfi, F., et al. Silybin, a new iron-chelating agent. J. Inorg. Biochem. 2001;85(2-3):123–9
  77. Thephinlap, C., Phisalaphong, C., Lailerd, N., et al. Reversal of cardiac iron loading and dysfunction in thalassemic mice by curcuminoids. Med Chem. 2011;7(1):62–9
  78. Brock, J. H. Lactoferrin in human milk: its role in iron absorption and protection against enteric infection in the newborn infant. Arch. Dis. Child. 1980;55(6):417–21
  79. Mandel, S., Amit, T., Reznichenko, L., Weinreb, O., and Youdim, M. B. H. Green tea catechins as brain-permeable, natural iron chelators-antioxidants for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2006;50(2):229–34
  80. Duygu, F., Karsen, H., Aksoy, N., and Taskin, A. Relationship of Oxidative Stress in Hepatitis B Infection Activity with HBV DNA and Fibrosis. Ann Lab Med. 2012;32(2):113
  81. Lin, C.-C., Liu, W.-H., Wang, Z.-H., and Yin, M.-C.Vitamins B status and antioxidative defense in patients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection.Eur J Nutr. 2011;50(7):499–506
  82. TasdelenFisgin, N., Aydin, B. K., Sarikaya, H., et al. Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Clin. Lab. 2012;58(3-4):273–80
  83. Lin, H.-C., Chen, Y.-F., Hsu, W.-H., Yang, C.-W., Kao, C.-H., and Tsai, T.-F. Resveratrol Helps Recovery from Fatty Liver and Protects against Hepatocellular Carcinoma Induced by Hepatitis B Virus X Protein in a Mouse Model. Cancer Prevention Research. 2012;5(7):952–62
  84. Kim, H. J., Yoo, H. S., Kim, J. C., et al. Antiviral effect of Curcuma longa Linn extract against hepatitis B virus replication. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;124(2):189–96
  85. Rechtman, M. M., Har-Noy, O., Bar-Yishay, I., et al. Curcumin inhibits hepatitis B virus via down-regulation of the metabolic coactivator PGC-1alpha. FEBS letters. 2010;584(11):2485–90
  86. Nguyen-Khac E, Thevenot T, Piquet MA, et al. Glucocorticoids Plus N-Acetylcysteine in Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis. N Engl J Med. 2011;359(19):1781-9. Available at: Accessed August 30, 2012.
  87. Weiss, L., Hildt, E., and Hofschneider, P. H. Anti-hepatitis B virus activity of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC): new aspects of a well-established drug. Antiviral Res. 1996;32(1):43–53
  88. Shohrati, M., Dermanaki, F., Babaei, F., and Alavian, S. M. Evaluation of the effects of oral N-acetylcysteine and a placebo in paraclinical and oxidative stress parameters of patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepat Mon. 2010;10(2):95–100
  89. Wang, N., Shi, X.-F., Guo, S.-H., Zhang, D.-Z., and Ren, H. [A clinical study of N-acetylcysteine treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients].ZhonghuaGanZang Bing ZaZhi. 2008;16(7):487–9
  90. Shi, X.-F., Guo, S.-H., Wu, G., et al. [A multi-center clinical study of N-acetylcysteine on chronic hepatitis B].ZhonghuaGanZang Bing ZaZhi. 2005;13(1):20–3
  91. Gunduz, H., Karabay, O., Tamer, A., Ozaras, R., Mert, A., and Tabak, O. F. N-acetyl cysteine therapy in acute viral hepatitis.World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9(12):2698–700
  92. Weidenbach, H., Orth, M., Adler, G., Mertens, T., and Schmid, R. M. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B with high-dose intravenous N-acetyl-L-cysteine.Hepatogastroenterology. 2003;50(54):2105–8
  93. Cui, X., Wang, Y., Kokudo, N., Fang, D., and Tang, W. Traditional Chinese medicine and related active compounds against hepatitis B virus infection.Biosci Trends. 2010;4(2):39–47
  94. Liu, J., Lin, H., and McIntosh, H. Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection: a systematic review. J. Viral Hepat. 2001;8(5):358–66
  95. Xia, Y., Luo, H., Liu, J. P., and Gluud, C. Phyllanthus species for chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(4):CD008960
  96. Marshall, K. Therapeutic applications of whey protein.Altern Med Rev. 2004;9(2):136–56
  97. Watanabe, A., Okada, K., Shimizu, Y., et al. Nutritional therapy of chronic hepatitis by whey protein (non-heated). J Med. 2000;31(5-6):283–302
  98. Wang, S., Li, J., Huang, H., et al. Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of astragaloside IV isolated from radix Astragali. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2009b;32(1):132–5
  99. Dang, S.-S., Jia, X.-L., Song, P., et al. Inhibitory effect of emodin and Astragalus polysaccharide on the replication of HBV.World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15(45):5669–73
  100. Tang, L. L., Sheng, J. F., Xu, C. H., and Liu, K. Z. Clinical and experimental effectiveness of Astragali compound in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B. J. Int. Med. Res. 2009;37(3):662–7
  101. Ma, W.-H., Huang, H., Zhou, P., and Chen, D.-F.Schisanwilsonenes A-C, anti-HBV Carotanesesquiterpenoids from the fruits of Schisandrawilsoniana. J. Nat. Prod. 2009a;72(4):676–8
  102. Ma, W.-H., Lu, Y., Huang, H., Zhou, P., and Chen, D.-F.Schisanwilsonins A-G and related anti-HBV lignans from the fruits of Schisandrawilsoniana.Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2009b;19(17):4958–62
  103. Wu, M.-D., Huang, R.-L., Kuo, L.-M.Y., Hung, C.-C., Ong, C.-W., and Kuo, Y.-H.The anti-HBsAg (human type B hepatitis, surface antigen) and anti-HBeAg (human type B hepatitis, e antigen) C18 dibenzocyclooctadienelignans from Kadsuramatsudai and Schizandraarisanensis. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2003;51(11):1233–6
  104. Loo, W. T. Y., Cheung, M. N. B., and Chow, L. W. C. Fructusschisandrae (Wuweizi)-containing compound inhibits secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Biomed Pharmacother. 2007;61(9):606–10
  105. Yip, A. Y. S., Loo, W. T. Y., and Chow, L. W. C. FructusSchisandrae (Wuweizi) containing compound in modulating human lymphatic system - a Phase I minimization clinical trial. Biomed Pharmacother. 2007;61(9):588–90
  106. Abenavoli, L., Capasso, R., Milic, N., and Capasso, F. Milk thistle in liver diseases: past, present, future. Phytother Res. 2010;24(10):1423–32
  107. Rambaldi, A., Jacobs, B. P., Iaquinto, G., and Gluud, C. Milk Thistle for Alcoholic and/or Hepatitis B or C Liver Diseases-A Systematic Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Review with Meta-Analyses of Randomized Clinical Trials. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(11):2583–91
  108. Varghese, L., Agarwal, C., Tyagi, A., Singh, R. P., and Agarwal, R. Silibinin efficacy against human hepatocellular carcinoma.Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11(23):8441–8
  109. Wu, Y.-F., Fu, S.-L., Kao, C.-H., et al. Chemopreventive effect of silymarin on liver pathology in HBV X protein transgenic mice. Cancer Res. 2008;68(6):2033–42
  110. Buzzelli, G., Moscarella, S., Giusti, A., Duchini, A., Marena, C., and Lampertico, M.A pilot study on the liver protective effect of silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex (IdB1016) in chronic active hepatitis.Int J ClinPharmacolTherToxicol. 1993;31(9):456–60