Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Lovell RM, Ford AC. Global prevalence of and risk factors for irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. Jul 2012;10(7):712-721 e714.
  2. Mearin F, Lacy BE. Diagnostic criteria in IBS: useful or not? Neurogastroenterol Motil. Sep 2012;24(9):791-801.
  3. Mayer EA. Clinical practice. Irritable bowel syndrome. The New England journal of medicine. Apr 17 2008;358(16):1692-1699.
  4. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC). Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Available at: Last updated July 2, 2012. Accessed November 12, 2012.
  5. Mayo Clinic. Irritable bowel syndrome. Definition. Available at: July 29, 2011. Accessed November 12, 2012.
  6. Torpy JM, Golub RM. JAMA patient page. Irritable bowel syndrome. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. Oct 5 2011;306(13):1501.
  7. Trinkley KE and Nahata MC. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 2011;36:275-282.
  8. Lee L, Clarke JO, Pearson RL. Irritable bowel syndrome. First Consult 2012; Accessed 11/8/2012.
  9. Duigenan S, Gee MS. Imaging of pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol. Oct 2012;199(4):907-915.
  10. Greenwood-Van Meerveld B, Gibson M, Gunter W, Shepard J, Foreman R, Myers D. Stereotaxic delivery of corticosterone to the amygdala modulates colonic sensitivity in rats. Brain research. Mar 2 2001;893(1-2):135-142.
  11. Reddymasu SC, Sostarich S, McCallum RW. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: are there any predictors? BMC Gastroenterol. 2010;10:23.
  12. Yakoob J, Abbas Z, Khan R, Hamid S, Awan S, Jafri W. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and lactose intolerance contribute to irritable bowel syndrome symptomatology in Pakistan. Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association. Nov-Dec 2011;17(6):371-375.
  13. Sachdeva S, Rawat AK, Reddy RS, Puri AS. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in irritable bowel syndrome: frequency and predictors. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. Apr 2011;26 Suppl 3:135-138.
  14. Atkinson W, Sheldon TA, Shaath N, Whorwell PJ. Food elimination based on IgG antibodies in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Gut. Oct 2004;53(10):1459-1464.
  15. Lydiard RB, Falsetti SA. Experience with anxiety and depression treatment studies: implications for designing irritable bowel syndrome clinical trials. The American journal of medicine. Nov 8 1999;107(5A):65S-73S.
  16. Lydiard RB. Irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, and depression: what are the links? The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2001;62 Suppl 8:38-45; discussion 46-37.
  17. Asahina S, Hasegawa K, Tsuboi K. [Depression in patients of irritable bowel syndrome]. Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine. Aug 2006;64(8):1527-1531.
  18. Chang L. The role of stress on physiologic responses and clinical symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. Mar 2011;140(3):761-765.
  19. Mayer EA, Naliboff BD, Chang L, Coutinho SV. V. Stress and irritable bowel syndrome. American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology. Apr 2001;280(4):G519-524.
  20. Ford AC, Talley NJ, Schoenfeld PS, Quigley EM, Moayyedi P. Efficacy of antidepressants and psychological therapies in irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Gut. Mar 2009;58(3):367-378.
  21. Zijdenbos IL, de Wit NJ, van der Heijden GJ, Rubin G, Quartero AO. Psychological treatments for the management of irritable bowel syndrome. Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2009(1):CD006442.
  22. Hayee B, Forgacs I. Psychological approach to managing irritable bowel syndrome. Bmj. May 26 2007;334(7603):1105-1109.
  23. Spiller R, Lam C. An Update on Post-infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Role of Genetics, Immune Activation, Serotonin and Altered Microbiome. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. Jul 2012;18(3):258-268.
  24. Kanazawa M, Hongo M, Fukudo S. Visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. Apr 2011;26 Suppl 3:119-121.
  25. Spiller R. Clinical update: irritable bowel syndrome. Lancet. May 12 2007;369(9573):1586-1588.
  26. Fichna J, Storr MA. Brain-Gut Interactions in IBS. Frontiers in pharmacology. 2012;3:127.
  27. Stasi C, Rosselli M, Bellini M, Laffi G, Milani S. Altered neuro-endocrine-immune pathways in the irritable bowel syndrome: the top-down and the bottom-up model. Journal of gastroenterology. Jul 6 2012.
  28. Mach T. The brain-gut axis in irritable bowel syndrome--clinical aspects. Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. Jun 2004;10(6):RA125-131.
  29. Orr WC, Crowell MD, Lin B, Harnish MJ, Chen JD. Sleep and gastric function in irritable bowel syndrome: derailing the brain-gut axis. Gut. Sep 1997;41(3):390-393.
  30. Azpiroz F. Gastrointestinal perception: pathophysiological implications. Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society. Jun 2002;14(3):229-239.
  31. Jarrett ME, Burr RL, Cain KC, Hertig V, Weisman P, Heitkemper MM. Anxiety and depression are related to autonomic nervous system function in women with irritable bowel syndrome. Digestive diseases and sciences. Feb 2003;48(2):386-394.
  32. Davis KD, Pope G, Chen J, Kwan CL, Crawley AP, Diamant NE. Cortical thinning in IBS: implications for homeostatic, attention, and pain processing. Neurology. Jan 8 2008;70(2):153-154.
  33. Dunlop SP, Coleman NS, Blackshaw E, Perkins AC, Singh G, Marsden CA, Spiller RC. Abnormalities of 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in irritable bowel syndrome. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. Apr 2005;3(4):349-357.
  34. Atkinson W, Lockhart S, Whorwell PJ, Keevil B, Houghton LA. Altered 5-hydroxytryptamine signaling in patients with constipation- and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. Jan 2006;130(1):34-43.
  35. Yamini D, Pimentel M. Irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. J Clin Gastroenterol. Nov-Dec 2010;44(10):672-675.
  36. Pyleris E, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Tzivras D, Koussoulas V, Barbatzas C, Pimentel M. The prevalence of overgrowth by aerobic bacteria in the small intestine by small bowel culture: relationship with irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci. May 2012;57(5):1321-1329.
  37. Keszthelyi D, Dackus GH, Masclee GM, Kruimel JW, Masclee AA. Increased proton pump inhibitor and NSAID exposure in irritable bowel syndrome: results from a case-control study. BMC Gastroenterol. Sep 5 2012;12(1):121.
  38. Kerckhoffs AP, Akkermans LM, de Smet MB, et al. Intestinal permeability in irritable bowel syndrome patients: effects of NSAIDs. Dig Dis Sci. Mar 2010;55(3):716-723.
  39. Villarreal AA, Aberger FJ, Benrud R, Gundrum JD. Use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and the development of irritable bowel syndrome. WMJ. Feb 2012;111(1):17-20.
  40. Pietzak M. Celiac disease, wheat allergy, and gluten sensitivity: when gluten free is not a fad. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. Jan 2012;36(1 Suppl):68S-75S.
  41. Di Sabatino A, Corazza GR. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity: sense or sensibility? Annals of internal medicine. Feb 21 2012;156(4):309-311.
  42. Lundin KE, Alaedini A. Non-celiac Gluten Sensitivity. Gastrointestinal endoscopy clinics of North America. Oct 2012;22(4):723-734.
  43. Usai P, Manca R, Cuomo R, Lai MA, Boi MF. Effect of gluten-free diet and co-morbidity of irritable bowel syndrome-type symptoms on health-related quality of life in adult coeliac patients. Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver. Sep 2007;39(9):824-828.
  44. Verdu EF, Armstrong D, Murray JA. Between celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome: the "no man's land" of gluten sensitivity. The American journal of gastroenterology. Jun 2009;104(6):1587-1594.
  45. Wahnschaffe U, Schulzke JD, Zeitz M, Ullrich R. Predictors of clinical response to gluten-free diet in patients diagnosed with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. Jul 2007;5(7):844-850; quiz 769.
  46. Qin HY, Wu JC, Tong XD, Sung JJ, Xu HX, Bian ZX. Systematic review of animal models of post-infectious/post-inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of gastroenterology. Feb 2011;46(2):164-174.
  47. Ghoshal UC, Ranjan P. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome: the past, the present and the future. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. Apr 2011;26 Suppl 3:94-101.
  48. Thabane M, Marshall JK. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. Aug 7 2009;15(29):3591-3596.
  49. Serghini M, Karoui S, Boubaker J, Filali A. [Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome]. La Tunisie medicale. Mar 2012;90(3):205-213.
  50. Pallotti F, Fogacci E, Frisoni C, Serra M, Bellacosa L, Carini G, . . . Barbara G. [Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome]. La Clinica terapeutica. 2011;162(2):157-161.
  51. Schwille-Kiuntke J, Frick JS, Zanger P, Enck P. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome--a review of the literature. Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie. Aug 2011;49(8):997-1003.
  52. Heitkemper MM, Chang L. Do fluctuations in ovarian hormones affect gastrointestinal symptoms in women with irritable bowel syndrome? Gender medicine. 2009;6 Suppl 2:152-167.
  53. Jane ZY, Chang CC, Lin HK, Liu YC, Chen WL. The association between the exacerbation of irritable bowel syndrome and menstrual symptoms in young Taiwanese women. Gastroenterology nursing: the official journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates. Jul-Aug 2011;34(4):277-286.
  54. Cui N, Wu BP, Wu SZ. [Association of peripheral blood estradiol, progesterone and testosterone levels with irritable bowel syndrome]. Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University. Mar 2006;26(3):367-368.
  55. Di Palma JA, Herrera JL. The Role of Effective Clinician-Patient Communication in the Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Chronic Constipation. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2012; 46(9):748-51.
  56. Spiegel BM, Farid M, Esrailian E, Talley J, Chang L. Is irritable bowel syndrome a diagnosis of exclusion?: a survey of primary care providers, gastroenterologists, and IBS experts. Am J Gastroenterol. Apr 2010;105(4):848-858.
  57. Dang J, Ardila-Hani A, Amichai MM, Chua K, Pimentel M. Systematic review of diagnostic criteria for IBS demonstrates poor validity and utilization of Rome III. Neurogastroenterol Motil. Sep 2012;24(9):853-e397.
  58. Thompson WG. The Road to Rome. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:1552-1556.
  59. Ferri: In: Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2013, 1st ed. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, An Imprint of Elsevier. Available at: Accessed November 12, 2012.
  60. Longstreth GF, Thompson WG, Chey WD, Houghton LA, Mearin F, Spiller RC. Functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology. Apr 2006;130(5):1480-1491.
  61. Ruepert L, Quartero AO, de Wit NJ, van der Heijden GJ, Rubin G, Muris JW. Bulking agents, antispasmodics and antidepressants for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011(8):CD003460.
  62. Roerig JL, Steffen KJ, Mitchel JE, Zunker C. Laxative abuse: epidemiology, diagnosis and management. Drugs. 2010;70(12):1487-503.
  63. Attar A, Lemann M, Ferguson A, et al. Comparison of a low dose polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution with lactulose for treatment of chronic constipation. Gut. Feb 1999;44(2):226-230.
  64. Barish CF, Drossman D, Johanson JF, Ueno R. Efficacy and safety of lubiprostone in patients with chronic constipation. Dig Dis Sci. Apr 2010;55(4):1090-1097.
  65. Lacy BE, Levy LC. Lubiprostone: a novel treatment for chronic constipation. Clin Interv Aging. 2008;3(2):357-364.
  66. Ambizas EM, Ginzburg R. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator for treatment of chronic constipation. Ann Pharmacother. Jun 2007;41(6):957-964.
  67. Wittmann T, Paradowski L, Ducrotte P, Bueno L, Delestrain MCA. Clinical trial: the efficacy of alverine citrate/simeticone combination on abdominal pain/discomfort in irritable bowel syndrome - a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aliment Pharm Ther. Mar 15 2010;31(6):615-624.
  68. Mitchell SA, Mee AS, Smith GD, Palmer KR, Chapman RW. Alverine citrate fails to relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. Jun 2002;16(6):1187-1195.
  69. PubMed Health. Propantheline. AHFS Consumer Medication Information 2011; Accessed 11/7/2012.
  70. Masand PS, Pae CU, Krulewicz S, Peindl K, Mannelli P, Varia IM, Patkar AA. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine controlled-release in irritable bowel syndrome. Psychosomatics. Jan-Feb 2009;50(1):78-86.
  71. Ladabaum U, Sharabidze A, Levin TR, et al. Citalopram provides little or no benefit in nondepressed patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. Jan 2010;8(1):42-48 e41.
  72. Brennan BP, Fogarty KV, Roberts JL, Reynolds KA, Pope HG, Jr., Hudson JI. Duloxetine in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: an open-label pilot study. Hum Psychopharmacol. Jul 2009;24(5):423-428.
  73. Cremonini F, Nicandro JP, Atkinson V, Shringarpure R, Chuang E, Lembo A. Randomised clinical trial: alosetron improves quality of life and reduces restriction of daily activities in women with severe diarrhoea-predominant IBS. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. Sep 2012;36(5):437-448.
  74. PubMed Health. Alosetron. AHFS Consumer Medication Information 2010; Accessed 11/6/2012.
  75. Gallo-Torres H, Brinker A, Avigan M. Alosetron: ischemic colitis and serious complications of constipation. The American journal of gastroenterology. May 2006;101(5):1080-1083.
  76. Lee HR, Pimentel M. Bacteria and irritable bowel syndrome: the evidence for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Current gastroenterology reports. Aug 2006;8(4):305-311.
  77. Quigley EM, Quera R. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: roles of antibiotics, prebiotics, and probiotics. Gastroenterology. Feb 2006;130(2 Suppl 1):S78-90.
  78. Bures J, Cyrany J, Kohoutova D, Forstl M, Rejchrt S, Kvetina J, . . . Kopacova M. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. Jun 28 2010;16(24):2978-2990.
  79. Lembo AJ, Schneier HA, Shiff SJ, et al. Two randomized trials of linaclotide for chronic constipation. N Engl J Med. Aug 11 2011;365(6):527-536.
  80. Gordon M, Naidoo K, Akobeng AK, Thomas AG. Osmotic and stimulant laxatives for the management of childhood constipation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;7:CD009118.
  81. Hauser G, Tkalcic M, Pletikosic S, Grabar N, Stimac D. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate - possible role in determining the existence of the low grade inflammation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome patients. Medical hypotheses. Jun 2012;78(6):818-820.
  82. Camilleri M, Lasch K, Zhou W. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Methods, Mechanisms, and Pathophysiology. The confluence of increased permeability, inflammation, and pain in irritable bowel syndrome. American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology. Oct 2012;303(7):G775-785.
  83. Klotz U. The pharmacological profile and clinical use of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid). Arzneimittel-Forschung. Feb 2012;62(2):53-58.
  84. Bafutto M, Almeida JR, Leite NV, Oliveira EC, Gabriel-Neto S, Rezende-Filho J. Treatment of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome and noninfective irritable bowel syndrome with mesalazine. Arquivos de gastroenterologia. Jan-Mar 2011;48(1):36-40.
  85. Dorofeyev AE, Kiriyan EA, Vasilenko IV, Rassokhina OA, Elin AF. Clinical, endoscopical and morphological efficacy of mesalazine in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Clinical and experimental gastroenterology. 2011;4:141-153.
  86. Corinaldesi R, Stanghellini V, Cremon C, Gargano L, Cogliandro RF, De Giorgio R, . . . Barbara G. Effect of mesalazine on mucosal immune biomarkers in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled proof-of-concept study. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. Aug 2009;30(3):245-252.
  87. Ostgaard H, Hausken T, Gundersen D, El-Salhy M. Diet and effects of diet management on quality of life and symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Mol Med Report. Jun 2012;5(6):1382-1390.
  88. Barrett JS, Gibson PR. Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and nonallergic food intolerance: FODMAPs or food chemicals? Therap Adv Gastroenterol. Jul 2012;5(4):261-268.
  89. Staudacher HM, Whelan K, Irving PM, Lomer MC. Comparison of symptom response following advice for a diet low in fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs) versus standard dietary advice in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. J Hum Nutr Diet. Oct 2011;24(5):487-495.
  90. Volta U, De Giorgio R. New understanding of gluten sensitivity. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. May 2012;9(5):295-299.
  91. Carroccio A, Mansueto P, Iacono G, et al. Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity Diagnosed by Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Challenge: Exploring a New Clinical Entity. Am J Gastroenterol. Jul 24 2012.
  92. Biesiekierski JR, Newnham ED, Irving PM, et al. Gluten causes gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects without celiac disease: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. Mar 2011;106(3):508-514; quiz 515.
  93. Drisko J, Bischoff B, Hall M, McCallum R. Treating irritable bowel syndrome with a food elimination diet followed by food challenge and probiotics. J Am Coll Nutr. Dec 2006;25(6):514-522.
  94. Shanahan F, Whorwell PJ. IgG-mediated food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome: a real phenomenon or an epiphenomenom? Am J Gastroenterol. Jul 2005;100(7):1558-1559.
  95. Bradford K, Shih W, Videlock EJ, et al. Association between early adverse life events and irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. Apr 2012;10(4):385-390 e381-383.
  96. Berman SM, Suyenobu BY, Naliboff BD, et al. Evidence for Altered Central Noradrenergic Modulation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Gastroenterology. May 2009;136(5):A170-A170.
  97. Zernicke KA, Campbell TS, Blustein PK, et al. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms: A Randomized Wait-list Controlled Trial. Int J Behav Med. May 23 2012.
  98. Brandt LJ, Chey WD, Foxx-Orenstein AE, et al. An evidence-based position statement on the management of irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. Jan 2009;104 Suppl 1:S1-35.
  99. Johannesson E, Simren M, Strid H, Bajor A, Sadik R. Physical activity improves symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. May 2011;106(5):915-922.
  100. Stuardi T, Macpherson H. Acupuncture for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients in a Pragmatic Trial. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.). Oct 26 2012.
  101. Macpherson H, Tilbrook H, Bland MJ, Bloor K, Brabyn S, Cox H, . . . Whorwell P. Acupuncture for irritable bowel syndrome: primary care based pragmatic randomised controlled trial. BMC gastroenterology. Oct 24 2012;12(1):150.
  102. Shi ZM, Zhu YS, Wang QX, Lei MN. [Comparative study on irritable bowel syndrome treated with acupuncture and western medicine]. Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion. Jul 2011;31(7):607-609.
  103. Manheimer E, Cheng K, Wieland LS, Min LS, Shen X, Berman BM, Lao L. Acupuncture for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2012;5:CD005111.
  104. Grassi M, Petraccia L, Mennuni G, Fontana M, Scarno A, Sabetta S, Fraioli A. Changes, functional disorders, and diseases in the gastrointestinal tract of elderly. Nutricion hospitalaria : organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral. Jul-Aug 2011;26(4):659-668.
  105. Cappello G, Spezzaferro M, Grossi L, Manzoli L, Marzio L. Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Dig Liver Dis. Jun 2007;39(6):530-536.
  106. Merat S, Khalili S, Mostajabi P, Ghorbani A, Ansari R, Malekzadeh R. The effect of enteric-coated, delayed-release peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci. May 2010;55(5):1385-1390.
  107. Liu JH, Chen GH, Yeh HZ, Huang CK, Poon SK. Enteric-coated peppermint-oil capsules in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized trial. J Gastroenterol. Dec 1997;32(6):765-768.
  108. May B, Kuntz HD, Kieser M, Kohler S. Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittel-Forschung. Dec 1996;46(12):1149-1153.
  109. Ciorba MA. A Gastroenterologist's Guide to Probiotics. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. Sep 2012;10(9):960-968.
  110. Carroll IM, Ringel-Kulka T, Siddle JP, Ringel Y. Alterations in composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. Jun 2012;24(6):521-e248.
  111. Chassard C, Dapoigny M, Scott KP, et al. Functional dysbiosis within the gut microbiota of patients with constipated-irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. Apr 2012;35(7):828-838.
  112. Barbara G, Zecchi L, Barbaro R, et al. Mucosal permeability and immune activation as potential therapeutic targets of probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome. J Clin Gastroenterol. Oct 2012;46 Suppl:S52-55.
  113. Ong DK, Mitchell SB, Barrett JS, et al. Manipulation of dietary short chain carbohydrates alters the pattern of gas production and genesis of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. Aug 2010;25(8):1366-1373.
  114. Duboc H, Rainteau D, Rajca S, et al. Increase in fecal primary bile acids and dysbiosis in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. Jun 2012;24(6):513-e247.
  115. Balsari A, Ceccarelli A, Dubini F, Fesce E, Poli G. The Fecal Microbial-Population in the Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Microbiologica. 1982;5(3):185-194.
  116. O'Mahony L, McCarthy J, Kelly P, et al. Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium in irritable bowel syndrome: symptom responses and relationship to cytokine profiles. Gastroenterology. Mar 2005;128(3):541-551.
  117. Guglielmetti S, Mora D, Gschwender M, Popp K. Randomised clinical trial: Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75 significantly alleviates irritable bowel syndrome and improves quality of life--a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. May 2011;33(10):1123-1132.
  118. Nobaek S, Johansson ML, Molin G, Ahrne S, Jeppsson B. Alteration of intestinal microflora is associated with reduction in abdominal bloating and pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. May 2000;95(5):1231-1238.
  119. Bouhnik Y, Alain S, Attar A, et al. Bacterial populations contaminating the upper gut in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. May 1999;94(5):1327-1331.
  120. Tana C, Umesaki Y, Imaoka A, Handa T, Kanazawa M, Fukudo S. Altered profiles of intestinal microbiota and organic acids may be the origin of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. May 2010;22(5):512-519, e114-515.
  121. Carroll IM, Chang YH, Park J, Sartor RB, Ringel Y. Luminal and mucosal-associated intestinal microbiota in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Gut Pathog. 2010;2(1):19.
  122. Rajilic-Stojanovic M, Biagi E, Heilig HG, et al. Global and deep molecular analysis of microbiota signatures in fecal samples from patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. Nov 2011;141(5):1792-1801.
  123. Walker AF, Middleton RW, Petrowicz O. Artichoke leaf extract reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in a post-marketing surveillance study. Phytother Res. Feb 2001;15(1):58-61.
  124. Holtmann G, Liebregts T, Collet W, Windeck T. Functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome - Treatment effects of artichoke-leaf-extract: A placebo-controlled, randomised, multicenter trial. Gastroenterology. Apr 2003;124(4):A182-A182.
  125. Bundy R, Walker AF, Middleton RW, Marakis G, Booth JC. Artichoke leaf extract reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and improves quality of life in otherwise healthy volunteers suffering from concomitant dyspepsia: a subset analysis. J Altern Complement Med. Aug 2004b;10(4):667-669.
  126. Chen CQ, Fichna J, Bashashati M, Li YY, Storr M. Distribution, function and physiological role of melatonin in the lower gut. World J Gastroenterol. Sep 14 2011;17(34):3888-3898.
  127. Song GH, Leng PH, Gwee KA, Moochhala SM, Ho KY. Melatonin improves abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome patients who have sleep disturbances: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study. Gut. Oct 2005;54(10):1402-1407.
  128. Lu WZ, Gwee KA, Moochhalla S, Ho KY. Melatonin improves bowel symptoms in female patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. Nov 15 2005;22(10):927-934.
  129. Saha L, Malhotra S, Rana S, Bhasin D, Pandhi P. A preliminary study of melatonin in irritable bowel syndrome. J Clin Gastroenterol. Jan 2007;41(1):29-32.
  130. Bundy R, Walker AF, Middleton RW, Booth J. Turmeric extract may improve irritable bowel syndrome symptomology in otherwise healthy adults: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. Dec 2004a;10(6):1015-1018.
  131. Choi CH, Jo SY, Park HJ, Chang SK, Byeon JS, Myung SJ. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial of saccharomyces boulardii in irritable bowel syndrome: effect on quality of life. Journal of clinical gastroenterology. Sep 2011;45(8):679-683.
  132. Edwards D, Heufelder A, Zimmermann A. Therapeutic Effects and Safety of Rhodiola rosea Extract WS(R) 1375 in Subjects with Life-stress Symptoms - Results of an Open-label Study. Phytother Res. Aug 2012;26(8):1220-1225.
  133. Suarez-Hitz KA, Otto B, Bidlingmaier M, Schwizer W, Fried M, Ehlert U. Altered psychobiological responsiveness in women with irritable bowel syndrome. Psychosom Med. Feb-Mar 2012;74(2):221-231.
  134. Hellhammer J, Hero T, Franz N, Contreras C, Schubert M. Omega-3 fatty acids administered in phosphatidylserine improved certain aspects of high chronic stress in men. Nutr Res. Apr 2012;32(4):241-250.
  135. Starks MA, Starks SL, Kingsley M, Purpura M, Jager R. The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008;5:11.
  136. Noreen EE, Sass MJ, Crowe ML, Pabon VA, Brandauer J, Averill LK. Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010;7:31.
  137. Tubaki BR, Chandrashekar CR, Sudhakar D, et al. Clinical efficacy of Manasamitra Vataka (an Ayurveda medication) on generalized anxiety disorder with comorbid generalized social phobia: a randomized controlled study. J Altern Complement Med. 2012;18(6):612-21.
  138. Singh RH and Singh L. Studies on the anti-anxiety effect of the medyha rosayanna drug, Brahmi (Bapopa monniera Wettst) Part 1. J Res Ayur Siddha. 1980;1:133-48.
  139. Yadav SK, Jain AK, Tripathi SN, et al. Irritable bowel syndrome: therapeutic evaluation of indigenous drugs. Indian J Med Res. 1989;90:496-503.