Flaxseed and its lignan and oil components reduce mammary tumor growth at a late stage of carcinogenesis.
Flaxseed, a rich source of mammalian lignan precursor secoisolariciresinol-diglycoside (S.D.) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), has been shown to be protective at the early promotion stage of carcinogenesis. The objective of this study was to determine whether supplementation with flaxseed, its lignan or oil fractions, beginning 13 weeks after carcinogen administration, would reduce the size of established mammary tumors (present at the start of treatment) and appearance of new tumors in rats. Dietary groups consisted of the basal diet (BD, 20% corn oil) alone or supplemented with a gavage of 2200 nmol/day S.D. [S.D., equal to level in 5% flaxseed (F)], 1.82% flaxseed oil (OIL, equal to level in 5% F) or 2.5% or 5% flaxseed (2.5% F and 5% F, respectively). After seven weeks of treatment, established tumor volume was over 50% smaller in all treatment groups (OIL, 2.5% F, 5% F, P < 0.04; S.D., P < 0.08) while there was no change in the BD group. New tumor number and volume were lowest in the S.D. (P < 0.02) and 2.5% F (P < 0.07) groups. The combined established and new tumor volumes were smaller for the S.D., 2.5% F and 5% F groups (P < 0.02) compared to the OIL and BD groups. The high negative correlation (r = -0.997, P < 0.001) between established tumor volume and urinary mammalian lignan excretion in the BD, S.D., 2.5% F and 5% F groups indicates that the reduction in tumor size is due in part to the lignans derived from the S.D. in flaxseed. However, there was no relationship between new or total tumor development and urinary lignan levels. The effect of flaxseed oil may be related to its high ALA content. In conclusion, the S.D. in flaxseed appears to be beneficial throughout the promotional phase of carcinogenesis whereas the oil component is more effective at the stage when tumors have already been established.
Carcinogenesis 1996 Jun;17(6):1373-6
Flaxseed consumption influences endogenous hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women.
Lignans, similar in structure to endogenous sex steroid hormones, may act in vivo to alter hormone metabolism and subsequent cancer risk. The objective of this study was to examine effects of dietary intake of a lignan-rich plant food (flaxseed) on serum concentrations of endogenous hormones and binding proteins (estrone, estrone sulfate, 17 beta-estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, progesterone, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone and free testosterone) in postmenopausal women. This randomized, crossover trial consisted of three seven-week feeding periods, during which 28 postmenopausal women, aged 52 to 82 yr, consumed their habitual diets plus 0, 5, or 10 g of ground flaxseed. Serum samples collected during the last week of each feeding period were analyzed for serum hormones using standard diagnostic kits. The flaxseed diets significantly reduced serum concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol by 3.26 pg/ml (12.06 pmol/l) and estrone sulfate by 0.09 ng/ml (0.42 nmol/l) and increased prolactin by 1.92 micrograms/l (0.05 IU/ml). Serum concentrations of androstenedione, estrone, sex hormone-binding globulin, progesterone, testosterone, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were not altered with flaxseed feeding. In this group of postmenopausal women, consuming flaxseed in addition to their habitual diets influenced their endogenous hormone metabolism by decreasing serum 17 beta-estradiol and estrone sulfate and increasing serum prolactin concentrations.
Nutr Cancer 2001;39(1):58-65
Case-control study of phyto-oestrogens and breast cancer.
BACKGROUND: Phyto-oestrogens are a group of naturally occurring chemicals derived from plants; they have a structure similar to oestrogen, and form part of our diet. They also have potentially anticarcinogenic biological activity. We did a case-control study to assess the association between phyto-oestrogen intake (as measured by urinary excretion) and the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Women with newly diagnosed early breast cancer were interviewed by means of questionnaires, and a 72 h urine collection and blood sample were taken before any treatment started. Controls were randomly selected from the electoral roll after matching for age and area of residence. 144 pairs were included for analysis. The urine samples were assayed for the isoflavonic phyto-oestrogens daidzein, genistein and equol, and the lignans enterodiol, enterolactone and matairesinol. FINDINGS: After adjustment for age at menarche, parity, alcohol intake, and total fat intake, high excretion of both equol and enterolactone was associated with a substantial reduction in breast-cancer risk, with significant trends through the quartiles: equol odds ratios were 1.00, 0.45 (95% CI 0.20, 1.02), 0.52 (0.23, 1.17), and 0.27 (0.10, 0.69)—trend p = 0.009—and enterolactone odds ratios were 1.00, 0.91 (0.41, 1.98), 0.65 (0.29, 1.44), 0.36 (0.15, 0.86)—trend p = 0.013. For most other phytoestrogens there was a reduction in risk, but it did not reach significance. Difficulties with the genistein assay precluded analysis of that substance.
INTERPRETATION: There is a substantial reduction in breast-cancer risk among women with a high intake (as measured by excretion) of phyto-oestrogens-particularly the isoflavonic phyto-oestrogen equol and the lignan enterolactone. These findings could be important in the prevention of breast cancer.
Lancet 1997 Oct 4;350(9083):990-4
O-Glycosylation of human sex hormone-binding globulin is essential for inhibition of estradiol-induced MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation.
Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a homodimeric plasma glycoprotein, and each SHBG monomer may have an O-linked oligosaccharide at Thr(7) and up to two N-linked oligosaccharides at Asn(351) and Asn(367). In addition, a common genetic variant of SHBG exists with an extra site for N-glycosylation at residue 327. In the present study, we isolated MCF-7 derived cell lines expressing human SHBG cDNAs encoding the wild type protein or various glycosylation mutants. Estradiol (1 nM) treatment of parental (untransfected) MCF-7 cells or MCF-7 cells transfected with control expression vectors resulted in an increase in proliferation which was fully abrogated by co-incubation with an equimolar amount of human SHBG. In contrast, the same amount of purified SHBG added to MCF-7 cells expressing wild type SHBG partially inhibited the estradiol-induced cell proliferation. A high affinity binding site for SHBG was detectable on untransfected and control cells, but not on MCF-7 cells expressing wild type SHBG. Moreover, the treatment of MCF-7 cells with the conditioned medium containing wild type SHBG caused the disappearance of the SHBG plasma membrane-binding site. Media containing SHBG N-glycosylation mutants exerted the same effect, but mutants lacking the O-linked oligosaccharide at Thr(7) failed to do so. Estradiol-induced proliferation of parental MCF-7 cells was also inhibited by treatment with conditioned medium containing wild type SHBG or SHBG mutants lacking N-linked oligosaccharides, or containing an additional N-linked oligosaccharide at residue 327. However, MCF-7 conditioned medium containing SHBG mutants lacking an O-linked oligosaccharide at Thr(7) failed to exert this effect. These data suggest that O-glycosylation of SHBG is essential for SHBG binding to a membrane receptor that is responsible for inhibiting the estradiol-induced proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Mol Cell Endocrinol 2002 Mar 28;189(1-2):135-43
Effect of soy protein foods on low-density lipoprotein oxidation and ex vivo sex hormone receptor activity—a controlled crossover trial.
Plant-derived estrogen analogs (phytoestrogens) may confer significant health advantages including cholesterol reduction, antioxidant activity, and possibly a reduced cancer risk. However, the concern has also been raised that phytoestrogens may be endocrine disrupters and major health hazards. We therefore assessed the effects of soy foods as a rich source of isoflavonoid phytoestrogens on LDL oxidation and sex hormone receptor activity. Thirty-one hyperlipidemic subjects underwent two one-month low-fat metabolic diets in a randomized crossover study. The major differences between the test and control diets were an increase in soy protein foods (33 g/d soy protein) providing 86 mg isoflavones/2,000 kcal/d and a doubling of the soluble fiber intake. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the start and at weeks two and four, with 24-hour urine collections at the end of each phase. Soy foods increased urinary isoflavone excretion on the test diet versus the control (3.8+/-0.7 v 0.0+/-0.0 mg/d, P < .001). The test diet decreased both oxidized LDL measured as conjugated dienes in the LDL fraction (56+/-3 v 63+/-3 micromol/L, P < .001) and the ratio of conjugated dienes to LDL cholesterol (15.0+/-1.0 v 15.7+/-0.9, P = .032), even in subjects already using vitamin E supplements (400 to 800 mg/d). No significant difference was detected in ex vivo sex hormone activity between urine samples from the test and control periods. In conclusion, consumption of high-isoflavone foods was associated with reduced levels of circulating oxidized LDL even in subjects taking vitamin E, with no evidence of increased urinary estrogenic activity. Soy consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk without increasing the risk for hormone-dependent cancers.
Metabolism 2000 Apr;49(4):537-43
Cardioprotection by the phytoestrogen genistein in experimental myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury.
1. Soybean phytoestrogens have no oestrogen agonist effects on the reproductive system and therefore it is reasonable to explore the potential of these naturally occurring plant oestrogens in the cardiovascular pathology. We therefore investigated the effects of genistein in a rat model of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. 2. Anaesthetized rats were subjected to total occlusion (45 min) of the left main coronary artery followed by five h reperfusion (MI/R). Sham operated rats were used as controls. Myocardial necrosis, myocardial myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), serum creatinine phosphokinase activity (CPK), serum and macrophage Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), cardiac intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) immunostaining, cardiac mRNA for ICAM-1 evaluated by the means of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT - PCR), ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial contractility (left ventricle dP/dt(max)) were evaluated. 3. Myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion in untreated rats produced marked myocardial necrosis, increased serum CPK activity and MPO activity both in the area-at-risk and in the necrotic area, reduced myocardial contractility, caused ventricular arrhythmias and induced a marked increase in serum and macrophage TNF-alpha. Furthermore myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury increased ICAM-1 expression in the myocardium. 4. Administration of genistein (1 mg kg(-1), i.v., five min after coronary artery occlusion) lowered myocardial necrosis and MPO activity in the area-at-risk and in the necrotic area, decreased serum CPK activity, increased myocardial contractility, decreased the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias, reduced serum and macrophages levels of TNF-alpha and blunted ICAM-1 expression in the injured myocardium. Finally genistein added in vitro to peritoneal macrophages collected from untreated rats subjected to myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury significantly reduced TNF-alpha production. 5. Our data suggest that genistein limits the inflammatory response and protects against myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury.
Br J Pharmacol 1999 Dec;128(8):1683-90