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Bisphosphonates: safety and efficacy in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis affects more than 28 million Americans. With the advent of accessible and affordable diagnostic studies, awareness and recognition of this disease by patients and clinicians are growing. Osteoporotic fractures of the spine and hip are costly and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Over the past decade, a surge of new antiosteoporotic drugs have been labeled or are awaiting labeling by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. One class of agents used to treat osteoporosis is the bisphosphonates, which inhibit bone resorption, cause an increase in bone mineral density and reduce the risk of future fractures caused by aging, estrogen deficiency and corticosteroid use. Overall, bisphosphonates have been shown to have a strong safety and tolerability profile.
Am Fam Physician 2000 May 1;61(9):2731-6
Bisphosphonates: preclinical aspects and use in osteoporosis.
Bisphosphonates are synthetic compounds characterized by a P-C-P bond. They have a strong affinity to calcium phosphates and hence to bone mineral. In vitro they inhibit both formation and dissolution of the latter. Many of the bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption, the newest compounds being 10,000 times more active than etidronate, the first bisphosphonate described. The antiresorbing effect is cell mediated, partly by a direct action on the osteoclasts, partly through the osteoblasts, which produce an inhibitor of osteoclastic recruitment. When given in large amounts, some bisphosphonates can also inhibit normal and ectopic mineralization through a physical-chemical inhibition of crystal growth. In the growing rat the inhibition of resorption is accompanied by an increase in intestinal absorption and an increased balance of calcium. Bisphosphonates also prevent various types of experimental osteoporosis, such as after immobilization, ovariectomy, orchidectomy, administration of corticosteroids or low calcium diet. The P-C-P bond of the bisphosphonates is completely resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis. The bisphosphonates studied up to now, such as etidronate, clodronate, pamidronate, and alendronate, are absorbed, stored and excreted unaltered. The intestinal absorption of the bisphosphonates is low, between 1% or less and 10% of the amount ingested. The newer bisphosphonates are at the lower end of the scale. The absorption diminishes when the compounds are given with food, especially in the presence of calcium. Bisphosphonates are rapidly cleared from plasma, 20% to 80% being deposited in bone and the remainder excreted in the urine. In bone, they deposit at sites of mineralization as well as under the osteoclasts. In contrast to plasma, the half-life in bone is very long, partially as long as the half-life of the bone in which they are deposited. In humans, bisphosphonates are used successfully in diseases with increased bone turnover, such as Pagets disease, tumoural bone disease, as well as in osteoporosis. Various bisphosphonates, such as alendronate, clodronate, etidronate, ibandronate, pamidronate and tiludronate, have been investigated in osteoporosis. All inhibit bone loss in postmenopausal women and increase bone mass. Furthermore, bisphosphonates are also effective in preventing bone loss both in corticosteroid-treated and in immobilized patients. The effect on the rate of fractures has recently been proven for alendronate. In humans, the adverse effects depend upon the compound and the amount given. For etidronate, practically the only adverse effect is an inhibition of mineralization. The aminoderivatives induce for a period of two to three days a syndrome with pyrexia, which shows a similitude with an acute phase reaction. The more potent compounds can induce gastrointestinal disturbances, sometimes oesophagitis, when given orally. Bisphosphonates are an important addition to the therapeutic possibilities in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Ann Med 1997 Feb;29(1):55-62
Osteoporosis - evidence based therapy.
Osteoporosis therapy has been controversially discussed in the past. In the meantime, several therapeutic options to prevent fractures are available for this disease. With respect to proven fracture benefit, however, the quality of evidence from randomized and controlled clinical trials varies substantially among therapies. From systematic research the best external evidence is available for a supplementation with calcium and vitamin D and a therapy with the bisphosphonates alendronate or risedronate, as well as the SERM raloxifene. For other therapeutic agents like fluorides, vitamin D metabolites, calcitonin and etidronate the quality of evidence is much lower. So far, there is no evidence for other pharmaceutical therapies. Hip protectors are effective in the prevention of hip fractures.
Z Gastroenterol 2002 Apr;40 Suppl 1:57-61
Bisphosphonate therapy in osteoporosis. Inhibition of trabecular perforation by aminobisphosphonate.
After many years of experience with bisophosphonates in the treatment of tumor osteopathy and Pagets disease, these substances have now also been approved for use in the treatment of osteoporosis. Owing to their high affinity for calcium hydroxyapatite, the bisphosphonates are deposited in the bony surface, and the aminobisphosphonates exert their effect at the site of active resorption via direct inhibition of active osteoclasts. As a result of this inhibition of the osteoclastic bone resorption, trabecular perforation is reduced and during the course of bone remodelling by the activity of the osteoblasts, boneformation occurs. In addition to an increase in bone density, both etidronate and alendronate have been shown to inhibit vertebral fractures in patients with osteoporosis. In addition, in patients with preexisting fractures, alendronate is able, at the same time, to lower the incidence of fractures of the femoral neck. With proper administration, the associated occasional gastrointestinal side effects can be avoided. The introduction of bisphosphonates into the treatment of osteoporosis is definitely an enrichment of the therapeutic spectrum in conjunction with the basic treatment comprising calcium, vitamin D, diet and physical measures.
Fortschr Med 1997 Oct 20;115(29):37-42
Bisphosphonates: from the laboratory to the clinic and back again.
Bisphosphonates (BPs) used as inhibitors of bone resorption all contain two phosphonate groups attached to a single carbon atom, forming a P-C-P structure. The bisphosphonates are therefore stable analogues of naturally occurring pyrophosphate-containing compounds, which now helps to explain their intracellular as well as their extracellular modes of action. Bisphosphonates adsorb to bone mineral and inhibit bone resorption. The mode of action of bisphosphonates was originally ascribed to physico-chemical effects on hydroxyapatite crystals, but it has gradually become clear that cellular effects must also be involved. The marked structure-activity relationships observed among more complex compounds indicate that the pharmacophore required for maximal activity not only depends upon the bisphosphonate moiety but also on key features, e.g., nitrogen substitution in alkyl or heterocyclic side chains. Several bisphosphonates (e.g., etidronate, clodronate, pamidronate, alendronate, tiludronate, risedronate, and ibandronate) are established as effective treatments in clinical disorders such as Pagets disease of bone, myeloma and bone metastases. Bisphosphonates are also now well established as successful antiresorptive agents for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. In particular, etidronate and alendronate are approved as therapies in many countries, and both can increase bone mass and produce a reduction in fracture rates to approximately half of control rates at the spine, hip, and other sites in postmenopausal women. In addition to inhibition of osteoclasts, the ability of bisphosphonates to reduce the activation frequency and birth rates of new bone remodeling units, and possibly to enhance osteon mineralization, may also contribute to the reduction in fractures. The clinical pharmacology of bisphosphonates is characterized by low intestinal absorption, but highly selective localization and retention in bone. Significant side effects are minimal. Current issues with bisphosphonates include the introduction of new compounds, the choice of therapeutic regimen (e.g., the use of intermittent dosing rather than continuous), intravenous vs. oral therapy, the optimal duration of therapy, the combination with other drugs, and extension of their use to other conditions, including steroid-associated osteoporosis, male osteoporosis, arthritis, and osteopenic disorders in childhood. Bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption by being selectively taken up and adsorbed to mineral surfaces in bone, where they interfere with the action of osteoclasts. It is likely that bisphosphonates are internalized by osteoclasts and interfere with specific biochemical processes and induce apoptosis. The molecular mechanisms by which these effects are brought about are becoming clearer. Recent studies show that bisphosphonates can be classified into at least two groups with different modes of action. Bisphosphonates that closely resemble pyrophosphate (such as clodronate and etidronate) can be metabolically incorporated into nonhydrolysable analogues of ATP that may inhibit ATP-dependent intracellular enzymes. The more potent, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (such as pamidronate, alendronate, risedronate, and ibandronate) are not metabolized in this way but can inhibit enzymes of the mevalonate pathway, thereby preventing the biosynthesis of isoprenoid compounds that are essential for the post-translational modification of small GTPases. The inhibition of protein prenylation and the disruption of the function of these key regulatory proteins explains the loss of osteoclast activity and induction of apoptosis. These different modes of action might account for subtle differences between compounds in terms of their clinical effects. In conclusion, bisphosphonates are now established as an important class of drugs for the treatment of bone diseases, and their mode of action is being unraveled. As a result, their full therapeutic potential is gradual.
Bone 1999 Jul;25(1):97-106
Continuous therapy with pamidronate, a potent bisphosphonate, in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
There is a need for effective and acceptable therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. The bisphosphonates show promise in this role, but the effects of the potent bisphosphonates in established osteoporosis have not yet been reported. We performed a 2-yr, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of pamidronate (150 mg/day) in 48 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Bone mineral density of the total body, lumbar spine and proximal femur was measured every six months by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Bone mineral density increased progressively in the total body (1.9 +/- 0.7%; P < 0.01), lumbar spine (7.0 +/- 1.0%; P < 0.0001), and femoral trochanter (5.4 +/- 1.3%; P < 0.001) in subjects receiving pamidronate, but did not change significantly in those receiving placebo. There were significant decreases in bone density at both the femoral neck (P < 0.02) and Wards triangle (P < 0.01) in subjects taking placebo, which did not occur in the pamidronate group. The differences between the treatment groups were significant at all sites (0.0001 < P < 0.05) except Wards triangle. Vertebral fracture rates were 13/100 patient yr in the pamidronate group and 24/100 patient yr in those receiving placebo (P = 0.07), and there was a nonsignificant trend toward height loss being less in those receiving pamidronate (P = 0.16). It is concluded that pamidronate is an effective therapy in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994 Dec;79(6):1595-9