Are omega-3 fatty acids the most important nutritional modulators of coronary heart disease risk?
With each passing year, the evidence linking an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) death with a chronic dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) grows stronger. Recently, a federally mandated evidence-based review in the United States concluded that n-3 FAs, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have clear cardioprotective effects, and national and international expert panels and health organizations have begun to call for increased EPA and DHA intakes. Consumption of between 450 and 1000 mg/d is recommended for those without and with known CHD, respectively. Based on animal and isolated cell studies, these FAs were presumed to have antiarrhythmic effects. The first direct evidence for this in humans was recently published, as were new data linking low n-3 FA intakes with risk for developing atrial fibrillation. The strength of the n-3 story has now led to a proposal that blood levels of EPA plus DHA be considered a new, modifiable, and clinically relevant risk factor for death from CHD.
Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2004 Nov;6(6):447-52
Atorvastatin decreases the coenzyme Q10 level in the blood of patients at risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke.
BACKGROUND: Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) are widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease and for the prevention of stroke. There have been various adverse effects, most commonly affecting muscle and ranging from myalgia to rhabdomyolysis. These adverse effects may be due to a coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) deficiency because inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis also inhibits the synthesis of CoQ(10). OBJECTIVE: To measure CoQ(10) levels in blood from hypercholesterolemic subjects before and after exposure to atorvastatin calcium, 80 mg/d, for 14 and 30 days. DESIGN: Prospective blinded study of the effects of short-term exposure to atorvastatin on blood levels of CoQ(10). SETTING: Stroke center at an academic tertiary care hospital.Patients We examined a cohort of 34 subjects eligible for statin treatment according to National Cholesterol Education Program: Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. RESULTS: The mean +/- SD blood concentration of CoQ(10) was 1.26 +/- 0.47 micro g/mL at baseline, and decreased to 0.62 +/- 0.39 micro g/mL after 30 days of atorvastatin therapy (P<.001). A significant decrease was already detectable after 14 days of treatment (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Even brief exposure to atorvastatin causes a marked decrease in blood CoQ(10) concentration. Widespread inhibition of CoQ(10) synthesis could explain the most commonly reported adverse effects of statins, especially exercise intolerance, myalgia, and myoglobinuria.
Arch Neurol. 2004 Jun;61(6):889-92
Systematic review of effect of coenzyme Q10 in physical exercise, hypertension and heart failure.
COENZYME Q10 IN PHYSICAL EXERCISE. We identified eleven studies in which CoQ10 was tested for an effect on exercise capacity, six showed a modest improvement in exercise capacity with CoQ10 supplementation but five showed no effect. CoQ10 IN HYPERTENSION. We identified eight published trials of CoQ10 in hypertension. Altogether in the eight studies the mean decrease in systolic blood pressure was 16 mm Hg and in diastolic blood pressure, 10 mm Hg. Being devoid of significant side effects CoQ10 may have a role as an adjunct or alternative to conventional agents in the treatment of hypertension. CoQ10 IN HEART FAILURE. We performed a randomised double blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of CoQ10 therapy in 35 patients with heart failure. Over 3 months, in the CoQ10 patients but not in the placebo patients there were significant improvements in symptom class and a trend towards improvements in exercise time. META-ANALYSIS OF RANDOMISED TRIALS OF COENZYME Q10 IN HEART FAILURE. In nine randomised trials of CoQ10 in heart failure published up to 2003 there were non-significant trends towards increased ejection fraction and reduced mortality. There were insufficient numbers of patients for meaningful results. To make more definitive conclusions regarding the effect of CoQ10 in cardiac failure we recommend a prospective, randomised trial with 200-300 patients per study group. Further trials of CoQ10 in physical exercise and in hypertension are recommended.
Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure: meta-analysis of randomized trials.
The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the evidence from rigorous clinical trials of the use of hawthorn extract to treat patients with chronic heart failure. We searched the literature using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, CISCOM, and AMED. Experts on and manufacturers of commercial preparations containing hawthorn extract were asked to contribute published and unpublished studies. There were no restrictions about the language of publication. Two reviewers independently performed the screening of studies, selection, validation, data extraction, and the assessment of methodological quality. To be included, studies were required to state that they were randomized, double-blind, and placebo controlled, and used hawthorn extract monopreparations. Thirteen trials met all inclusion criteria. In most of the studies, hawthorn was used as an adjunct to conventional treatment. Eight trials including 632 patients with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association classes I to III) provided data that were suitable for meta-analysis. For the physiologic outcome of maximal workload, treatment with hawthorn extract was more beneficial than placebo (weighted mean difference, 7 Watt; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3 to 11 Watt; P < 0.01; n = 310 patients). The pressure-heart rate product also showed a beneficial decrease (weighted mean difference, -20; 95% CI: -32 to -8 ; n = 264 patients) with hawthorn treatment. Symptoms such as dyspnea and fatigue improved significantly with hawthorn treatment as compared with placebo. Reported adverse events were infrequent, mild, and transient; they included nausea, dizziness, and cardiac and gastrointestinal complaints. In conclusion, these results suggest that there is a significant benefit from hawthorn extract as an adjunctive treatment for chronic heart failure.
Am J Med. 2003 Jun 1;114(8):665-74
Magnesium deficiency and sudden death.
A link between Mg deficiency and sudden death is suggested by a substantial number of studies published over the past three decades. Data come from epidemiologic, autopsy, clinical, and animal studies. They suggest that: (1) Sudden death is common in areas where community water supplies are Mg-deficient. (2) Myocardial Mg content is low in people who die of sudden death. (3) Cardiac arrhythmias and coronary artery vasospasm can be caused by Mg deficiency and (4) Intravenous Mg reduces the risk of arrhythmia and death immediately after acute myocardial infarction. Because of these data, Mg supplementation has been proposed as a possible method of reducing the risk of sudden death. Suggested ways of supplementing Mg include public education to change dietary habits, addition of Mg to community water supplies, fortification of foods, and oral supplementation. Despite the substantial number of studies linking Mg deficiency with sudden death, no prospective studies have yet investigated whether large-scale Mg supplementation is useful for the primary prevention of sudden death.
Am Heart J. 1992 Aug;124(2):544-9
Early protection against sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction: time-course analysis of the results of the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI)-Prevenzione.
BACKGROUND: Our purpose was to assess the time course of the benefit of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on mortality documented by the GISSI-Prevenzione trial in patients surviving a recent (<3 months) myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 11 323 patients were randomly assigned to supplements of n-3 PUFAs, vitamin E (300 mg/d), both, or no treatment (control) on top of optimal pharmacological treatment and lifestyle advice. Intention-to-treat analysis adjusted for interaction between treatments was carried out. Early efficacy of n-3 PUFA treatment for total, cardiovascular, cardiac, coronary, and sudden death; nonfatal myocardial infarction; total coronary heart disease; and cerebrovascular events was assessed by right-censoring follow-up data 12 times from the first month after randomization up to 12 months. Survival curves for n-3 PUFA treatment diverged early after randomization, and total mortality was significantly lowered after 3 months of treatment (relative risk [RR] 0.59; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.97; P=0.037). The reduction in risk of sudden death was specifically relevant and statistically significant already at 4 months (RR 0.47; 95% CI 0.219 to 0.995; P=0.048). A similarly significant, although delayed, pattern after 6 to 8 months of treatment was observed for cardiovascular, cardiac, and coronary deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The early effect of low-dose (1 g/d) n-3 PUFAs on total mortality and sudden death supports the hypothesis of an antiarrhythmic effect of this drug. Such a result is consistent with the wealth of evidence coming from laboratory experiments on isolated myocytes, animal models, and epidemiological and clinical studies.
Circulation. 2002 Apr 23;105(16):1897-903
Termination of asynchronous contractile activity in rat atrial myocytes by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
A protective effect of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in preventing ventricular fibrillation in experimental animals and cultured cardiomyocytes has been demonstrated in a number of studies. In this study, a possible role for the n-3 PUFAs in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) was investigated at the cellular level using atrial myocytes isolated from young adult rats as the experimental model. Electrically-stimulated, synchronously-contracting myocytes were induced to contract asynchronously by the addition of 10 microM isoproterenol. Asynchronous contractile activity was reduced following acute addition of the n-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) at 10 microM, compared with no fatty acid addition (from 99.0+/-1.0% to 30.7+/-5.2% (p < 0.05) for DHA and 23.8+/-2.8% (p < 0.01) for EPA), while the saturated fatty acid, docosanoic acid (DA) and the methyl ester of DHA (DHA m.e.) did not exert a significant effect on asynchronous contractile activity. Asynchronous contractile activity was also reduced to 1.7+/-1.7% in the presence of the membrane fluidising agent, benzyl alcohol (p < 0.001 vs no fatty acid addition). Cell membrane fluidity was determined by steady state fluorescence anisotropy using the fluorescent probe, TMAP-DPH. Addition of DHA, EPA or benzyl alcohol significantly increased sarcolemmal membrane fluidity (decreased anisotropy, r(ss)) of atrial myocytes compared with no addition of fatty acid (control) (from r(ss) = 0.203+/-0.004 to 0.159+/-0.004 (p < 0.01) for DHA, 0.166+/-0.001 (p < 0.01) for EPA and 0.186+/-0.003 (p < 0.05) for benzyl alcohol, while DA and DHA m.e. were without effect. It is concluded that the n-3 PUFAs exert anti-asynchronous effects in rat atrial myocytes by a mechanism which may involve changes in membrane fluidity.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2000 Mar;206(1-2):33-41
Concise review of atrial fibrillation: treatment update considerations in light of AFFIRM and RACE.
Clin Cardiol. 2004 Sep;27(9):495-500