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Superoxide dismutase (SOD)

June 2006

Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) binds to type i collagen and protects against oxidative fragmentation.

The antioxidant enzyme extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is mainly found in the extracellular matrix of tissues. EC-SOD participates in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species by catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide radicals. The tissue distribution of the enzyme is particularly important because of the reactive nature of its substrate, and it is likely essential that EC-SOD is positioned at the site of superoxide production to prevent adventitious oxidation. EC-SOD contains a C-terminal heparin-binding region thought to be important for modulating its distribution in the extracellular matrix. This paper demonstrates that, in addition to binding heparin, EC-SOD specifically binds to type I collagen with a dissociation constant (K(d)) of 200 nm. The heparin-binding region was found to mediate the interaction with collagen. Notably, the bound EC-SOD significantly protects type I collagen from oxidative fragmentation. This expands the known repertoire of EC-SOD binding partners and may play an important physiological role in preventing oxidative fragmentation of collagen during oxidative stress.

J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 2;279(14):13705-10

Adaptive mechanisms to oxidative stress during aging.

Whether or not oxidative stress is the cause of the aging process, as proposed by the oxidative stress theory of aging remains unknown; but accumulated evidence overwhelmingly identifies increased oxidative stress with age as a source of damage to cellular structure and function. From an evolutionary perspective, the utilization of oxygen as a life supporting means makes oxidative stress an inescapable part of an organism's biological system. The inseparability of oxidative stress from the biological system can be viewed as an adaptive response that all aerobic organisms undergo to ward-off the potentially harmful effects of oxygen and its derivatives, including free radicals. The organism's adaptive mechanisms include an intricate network of defenses that regulate and guard against any over-acting oxidative reactions to ensure its survival. This review discusses and illustrates several adaptive responses at various levels (from gene regulation to physical exercise) that organisms use as part of their survival strategy.

Mech Ageing Dev. 2006 Feb 21

Cells discover fire: employing reactive oxygen species in development and consequences for aging.

The free radical theory of aging states that aging results from the accumulated damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Herein, we provide a critique of the theory that aims to point out the theory's weaknesses and put forward ideas for how future experiments must adjust to several emerging concepts. In the same way fire is dangerous and nonetheless humans learned how to use it, it now appears that cells evolved mechanisms to control and use ROS. The way ROS are used as signaling molecules in many crucial biological functions suggests ROS are not unwanted by-products of metabolism. We hypothesize that the connection between ROS and cellular processes like growth, proliferation, and apoptosis may explain why long-lived animals appear to have lower levels of ROS production: the longer development of long-lived animals may lead to lower steady state levels of ROS. With age, antioxidant systems become deregulated, just like so many other cellular components, and so oxidative damage occurs. Therefore, the production of ROS is not merely a cause of havoc but rather a complex and critical system whose disruption in disease and aging leads to oxidative damage. Potential roles of ROS in aging are discussed under this model.

Exp Gerontol. 2006 Jan;41(1):1-10

 Ageing free radicals and cellular stress.

A number of theories have attempted to account for ageing processes in various species. Following the << rate of living >> theory of Pearl, Harman suggested fifty years ago that the accumulation of oxidants could explain the alteration of physical and cognitive functions with ageing. Oxygen metabolism leads to reactive species, including free radicals, which tend to oxydize surrounding molecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids. As a consequence various functions of cells and tissues can be altered, leading to DNA instability, protein denaturation and accumulation of lipid byproducts. Oxidative stress is an adaptive process which is triggered upon oxidant accumulation and which comprises the induction of protective and survival functions. Experimental evidence suggests that the ageing organism is in a state of oxidative stress, which supports the free radical theory. A number of other theories have been proposed ; some of these are actually compatible with the free radical theory. Caloric restriction is among the best models to increase life span in many species. While the relationship between caloric restriction and corrected metabolic rate is controversial, the decrease in ROS production by mitochondria appears to be experimentally supported. The ROS and mitochondrial theories of ageing appear to be compatible. Genetic models of increased life span, particularly those affecting the Foxo pathway, are usually accompanied by an increased resistance to oxidative insult. The free radical theory is not consistent with programmed senescence theories involving the cell division dependent decrease in telomere length ; however, oxidants are known to alter telomere structure. An appealing view of the role of oxidative stress in ageing is the trade-off principle which states that a phenotypic trait can be evolutionarily conserved because of its positive effects on development, growth or fertility, and despite its negative effect on somatic functions and ageing. It is likely that most cellular stresses which comprise adaptive and toxic functions follow such a rule.

Med Sci (Paris). 2006 Mar;22(3):266-72

Alzheimer's disease, oxidative injury, and cytokines.

Alzheimer's disease is infrequently a genetically driven disease. Rather it is the product of free radical injury inflicted over decades after an initial insult to the central nervous system (CNS). The brain is uniquely sensitive to oxidative injury. A variety of insults to the CNS are now associated with Alzheimer's disease. These include hypertension, diabetes, and head trauma. These then cause a cytokine cascade and microlocalized inflammation in the CNS, that in time results in clinical Alzheimer's disease. By the ninth decade of life over half of the population manifests Alzheimer's disease. Prevention or reversal of this pathophysiology will lie in administration of effective antioxidant therapy with specific treatments when etiologies are known.

J Alzheimers Dis. 2004 Dec;6(6):651-7

Regulation of superoxide-producing NADPH oxidases in nonphagocytic cells.

The membrane-integrated protein gp91phox functions as the catalytic center of the superoxide-producing phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Recent studies have identified homologs of gp91phox in nonphagocytic cells, which constitute the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family. Activation of the Nox oxidases leads to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby participating in a variety of biological events, such as host defense, hormone biosynthesis, and signal transduction. The activity of the Nox enzymes is regulated by various proteins, including the small GTPase Rac; regulatory mechanisms differ dependent on the type of the Nox proteins. For example, an oxidase activator (p47phox or Noxo1) and an oxidase activator (p67phox or Noxa1) are absolutely required for superoxide production by gp91phox and Nox1, but not by Nox3. Rac, albeit probably dispensable to the Nox3 activity, plays an essential role in activation of gp91phox. Thus, functional reconstitution of Nox systems is crucial for the study of Nox regulation. Here we describe a basic method for the reconstitution of Nox systems by expression of oxidase proteins in transfectable cells.

Methods Enzymol. 2006;406:456-68

A physiologically based model for ethanol and acetaldehyde metabolism in human beings.

Pharmacokinetic models for ethanol metabolism have contributed to the understanding of ethanol clearance in human beings. However, these models fail to account for ethanol's toxic metabolite, acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde accumulation leads to signs and symptoms, such as cardiac arrhythmias, nausea, anxiety, and facial flushing. Nevertheless, it is difficult to determine the levels of acetaldehyde in the blood or other tissues because of artifactual formation and other technical issues. Therefore, we have constructed a promising physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, which is an excellent match for existing ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration-time data. The model consists of five compartments that exchange material: stomach, gastrointestinal tract, liver, central fluid, and muscle. All compartments except the liver are modeled as stirred reactors. The liver is modeled as a tubular flow reactor. We derived average enzymatic rate laws for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), determined kinetic parameters from the literature, and found best-fit parameters by minimizing the squared error between our profiles and the experimental data. The model's transient output correlates strongly with the experimentally observed results for healthy individuals and for those with reduced ALDH activity caused by a genetic deficiency of the primary acetaldehyde-metabolizing enzyme ALDH2. Furthermore, the model shows that the reverse reaction of acetaldehyde back into ethanol is essential and keeps acetaldehyde levels approximately 10-fold lower than if the reaction were irreversible.

Alcohol. 2005 Jan;35(1):3-12

Reduction of diabetes-induced renal oxidative stress by a cantaloupe melon extract/gliadin biopolymers, oxykine, in mice.

Oxidative stress is implicated as an important mechanism by which diabetes causes nephropathy. Oxykine is the cantaloupe melon extract rich in vegetal superoxide dismutase covered by polymeric films of wheat matrix gliadin. In this study, we examined whether chronic oral administration of oxykine could prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy induced by oxidative stress using preclinical rodent model of type 2 diabetes. We used female db/db mice and their non-diabetic db/m littermates. The mice were divided into the following three groups: non-diabetic db/m; diabetic db/db, and diabetic db/db treated with oxykine. Blood glucose level, body weight, urinary albumin, and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured during the experiments. Histological and 8-OHdG immunohistochemical studies were preformed on 12 weeks from the beginning of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, the levels of blood glucose and the body weight were not significantly different between the oxykine-treated group and the non-treated db/db group, however both groups kept significantly high levels rather than db/m mice. The relative mesangial area calculated by mesangial area/total glomerular area ratio was significantly ameliorated in the oxykine treated group compared with non-treated db/db group. The increases in urinary albumin and 8-OHdG at 12 weeks of treatment were significantly inhibited by chronic treatment with oxykine. The 8-OHdG immunoreactive cells in the glomeruli of non-treated db/db mice were more numerous than that of oxykine-treated db/db mice. In this study, treatment of oxykine ameliorated the progression and acceleration of diabetic nephropathy for rodent model of type 2 diabetes. These results indicated that the oxykine reduced the diabetes-induced oxidative stress and renal mesangial cell injury. In conclusion, oxykine might be a novel approach for the prevention of diabetes nephropathy.

Biofactors. 2005;23(2):85-95

Influence of an orally effective SOD on hyperbaric oxygen-related cell damage.

In a prospective, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled study, we tested the hypothesis that a new formulation consisting of wheat gliadin chemically combined with a vegetal (thus orally effective) preparation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) allows to prevent hyperbaric oxygen (HBO)-induced oxidative cell stress. Twenty healthy volunteers were exposed to 100% oxygen breathing at 2.5 ATA for a total of 60 min. DNA strand breaks (tail moments) were determined using the alkaline version of the comet assay. Whole blood concentrations of reduced (GSH) and oxidised (GSSG) glutathione and F2-isoprostanes, SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (Cat) activities and red cell malondialdehyde (MDA) content were determined. After HBO exposure the tail moment (p = 0.03) and isoprostane levels (p = 0.049) were significantly lower in the group that received the vegetal formulation. Neither SOD and Cat nor GSH and GSSG were significantly affected by this preparation or HBO exposure. By contrast, blood GPx activity, which tended to be lower in the SOD-group already before the HBO exposure (p = 0.076), was significantly lower afterwards (p = 0.045). We conclude that an orally effective SOD-wheat gliadin mixture is able to protect against DNA damage, which coincided with reduced blood isoprostane levels, and may therefore be used as an antioxidant.

Free Radic Res. 2004 Sep;38(9):927-32

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a Cucumis melo LC. extract rich in superoxide dismutase activity.

The present study was conducted to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo LC., Cucurbitaceae) extract (CME) selected for its high superoxide dismutase activity. Peritoneal macrophages were pre-activated in vitro with 300 IU of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and were then challenged in culture with IgGl/anti-IgG1 immune complexes (IgG1IC) in presence of various CME extracts. The subsequent production of free radicals (superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite) and of pro-(TNF-alpha) and anti-(IL-10) inflammatory cytokines was evaluated. The CME inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the production of superoxide anion with a maximal effect at 100 microg/ml. This inhibitory effect of CME appeared to be closely linked to the SOD activity because it was dramatically decreased after heat inactivation of the SOD activity (HI-CME). In addition, the CME inhibited the production of peroxynitrite strengthening the antioxidant properties of this CME rich in SOD activity. The production of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, namely TNF-alpha and IL-10, being conditioned by the redox status of macrophages we also evaluated the effect of CME and HI-CME on the IgG1IC-induced cytokine production. When the SOD activity was present in the CME it promoted the IgG1IC-induced production of IL-10 instead of TNF-alpha. These data demonstrated that, in addition to its antioxidant properties, the anti-inflammatory properties of the CME extract were principally related to its capacity to induce the production of IL-10 by peritoneal macrophages. The particular properties of wheat gliadin (Triticum vulgare, Poaceae) for the oral delivery of functional proteins led us to test it in a new nutraceutical formula based on its combination with the CME thus monitoring the SOD activity release during the gastro-intestinal digestive process. In these experiments C57BL/6 mice were supplemented orally everyday during 28 days with: (1) the placebo, (2) the CME extract alone, (3) the gliadin, (4) the CME/gliadin combination, or (5) the HI-CME/gliadin combination (SOD inactivated). At the end of the supplementation period all the animals were injected intra-peritoneal (i.p.) with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma (300 IU) and peritoneal macrophages were harvested 24 h after to test their capacities to produce free radicals, TNF-alpha and IL-10 after triggering with IgG1IC. We demonstrated that animals supplemented during 28 days with the CME/gliadin combination were protected against the pro-inflammatory properties of IFN-gamma while the other products were inefficient. These data did not only indicate that the SOD activity is important for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the CME extract, but also demonstrated that when the SOD activity is preserved during the digestive process by its combination with wheat gliadin it is possible to elicit in vivo the pharmacological effects of this antioxidant enzyme.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Sep;94(1):67-75