Blood PressureAugust 2006
Impact of high-normal blood pressure on the risk of cardiovascular disease.
BACKGROUND: Information is limited regarding the absolute and relative risk of cardiovascular disease in persons with high-normal blood pressure (systolic pressure of 130 to 139 mm Hg, diastolic pressure of 85 to 89 mm Hg, or both). METHODS: We investigated the association between blood-pressure category at base line and the incidence of cardiovascular disease on follow-up among 6,859 participants in the Framingham Heart Study who were initially free of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: A stepwise increase in cardiovascular event rates was noted in persons with higher baseline blood-pressure categories. The 10-year cumulative incidence of cardiovascular disease in subjects 35 to 64 years of age who had high-normal blood pressure was 4% (95% confidence interval, 2 to 5%) for women and 8% (95% confidence interval, 6 to 10%) for men; in older subjects (those 65 to 90 years old), the incidence was 18% (95% confidence interval, 12 to 23%) for women and 25% (95% confidence interval, 17 to 34%) for men. As compared with optimal blood pressure, high-normal blood pressure was associated with a risk-factor-adjusted hazard ratio for cardiovascular disease of 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 4.1) in women and 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.2) in men. CONCLUSIONS: High-normal blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Our findings emphasize the need to determine whether lowering high-normal blood pressure can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 1;345(18):1291-7
Feasibility of treating prehypertension with an angiotensin-receptor blocker.
BACKGROUND: Prehypertension is considered a precursor of stage 1 hypertension and a predictor of excessive cardiovascular risk. We investigated whether pharmacologic treatment of prehypertension prevents or postpones stage 1 hypertension. METHODS: Participants with repeated measurements of systolic pressure of 130 to 139 mm Hg and diastolic pressure of 89 mm Hg or lower, or systolic pressure of 139 mm Hg or lower and diastolic pressure of 85 to 89 mm Hg, were randomly assigned to receive two years of candesartan (Atacand, AstraZeneca) or placebo, followed by two years of placebo for all. When a participant reached the study end point of stage 1 hypertension, treatment with antihypertensive agents was initiated. Both the candesartan group and the placebo group were instructed to make changes in lifestyle to reduce blood pressure throughout the trial. RESULTS: A total of 409 participants were randomly assigned to candesartan, and 400 to placebo. Data on 772 participants (391 in the candesartan group and 381 in the placebo group; mean age, 48.5 years; 59.6% men) were available for analysis. During the first two years, hypertension developed in 154 participants in the placebo group and 53 of those in the candesartan group (relative risk reduction, 66.3%; P<0.001). After four years, hypertension had developed in 240 participants in the placebo group and 208 of those in the candesartan group (relative risk reduction, 15.6%; P<0.007). Serious adverse events occurred in 3.5% of the participants assigned to candesartan and 5.9% of those receiving placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Over a period of four years, stage 1 hypertension developed in nearly two thirds of patients with untreated prehypertension (the placebo group). Treatment of prehypertension with candesartan appeared to be well tolerated and reduced the risk of incident hypertension during the study period. Thus, treatment of prehypertension appears to be feasible.
N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 20;354(16):1685-97
Pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces systolic blood pressure.
Consumption of pomegranate juice which is rich in tannins, possess anti-atherosclerotic properties which could be related to its potent anti-oxidative characteristics. As some antioxidants were recently shown to reduce blood pressure, we studied the effect of pomegranate juice consumption (50 ml, 1.5mmol of total polyphenols per day, for 2 weeks) by hypertensive patients on their blood pressure and on serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. A 36% decrement in serum ACE activity and a 5% reduction in systolic blood pressure were noted. Similar dose-dependent inhibitory effect (31%) of pomegranate juice on serum ACE activity was observed also in vitro. As reduction in serum ACE activity, even with no decrement in blood pressure, was previously shown to attenuate atherosclerosis, pomegranate juice can offer a wide protection against cardiovascular diseases which could be related to its inhibitory effect on oxidative stress and on serum ACE activity.
Atherosclerosis. 2001 Sep;158(1):195-8
Antioxidants for hypertension
Increasing evidence implicates reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of hypertension and its cardiovascular complications. By altering the balance in the endothelium between vasoconstrictors such as thromboxane and isoprostanes and vasodilators such as nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species contribute to endothelium-dependent contractions and increased vascular resistance. Antioxidants can restore endothelial function and decrease blood pressure in several models of hypertension and in some, but not all, studies of humans with essential hypertension. The potential of antioxidant therapy for hypertension is considerable.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 1998 Sep;7(5):531-8
Blood pressure usually considered normal is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease.
PURPOSE: Research on the risk of cardiovascular disease among individuals with prehypertension (blood pressure 120/80 to 139/89 mm Hg) is incomplete. Additional information among individuals with a high risk of cardiovascular disease complications may help to focus current and future efforts. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort analysis among 8,960 middle-aged adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. The exposure variables were blood pressure levels: high normal blood pressure, systolic blood pressure 130-139 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure 85-89 mm Hg; and normal blood pressure, systolic blood pressure 120-129 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure 80-84 mm Hg. The outcome was incident cardiovascular disease defined as fatal/nonfatal coronary heart disease, cardiac procedure, silent myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. Subgroup analysis was performed among blacks, diabetics, individuals aged 55-64 years, individuals with renal insufficiency, and among individuals with varying levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Compared with optimal blood pressure (systolic blood pressure <120 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure <80 mm Hg), the relative risk (RR) of cardiovascular disease for high normal blood pressure was 2.33 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.85-2.92), and RR for normal blood pressure was 1.81 (1.47-2.22); among blacks: RR for high normal blood pressure was 3.29 (95% CI, 1.68-6.45); among diabetics: RR for high normal blood pressure 4.10 (95% CI, 2.26-7.46); age 55-64 years: RR for high normal blood pressure 2.41 (95% CI, 1.75-3.30) among individuals with renal insufficiency: RR for high normal blood pressure was 1.90 (95% CI, 1.34-2.70); among individuals with BMI >30 kg/m2: RR for high normal blood pressure was 3.56 (95% CI, 1.99-6.35); and among individuals with LDL >160 mg/dL, RR for high normal blood pressure was 1.85 (95% CI, 1.26-2.72). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with prehypertensive levels of blood pressure have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease relative to those with optimal levels. The association is pronounced among blacks, among individuals with diabetes mellitus, and among those with high BMI.
Am J Med. 2006 Feb;119(2):133-41
Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing.
The antioxidant activity of pomegranate juices was evaluated by four different methods (ABTS, DPPH, DMPD, and FRAP) and compared to those of red wine and a green tea infusion. Commercial pomegranate juices showed an antioxidant activity (18-20 TEAC) three times higher than those of red wine and green tea (6-8 TEAC). The activity was higher in commercial juices extracted from whole pomegranates than in experimental juices obtained from the arils only (12-14 TEAC). HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses of the juices revealed that commercial juices contained the pomegranate tannin punicalagin (1500-1900 mg/L) while only traces of this compound were detected in the experimental juice obtained from arils in the laboratory. This shows that pomegranate industrial processing extracts some of the hydrolyzable tannins present in the fruit rind. This could account for the higher antioxidant activity of commercial juices compared to the experimental ones. In addition, anthocyanins, ellagic acid derivatives, and hydrolyzable tannins were detected and quantified in the pomegranate juices.
J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Oct;48(10):4581-9