Life Extension Magazine November 2007
Topical Nutrients To Revitalize the Aging Neck
By Gary Goldfaden, MD
Antioxidant Benefits of Tea
Free radical damage to your skin is a leading cause of premature aging. The potent natural antioxidants found in white, green, black, and red tea extracts help reduce the inflammation and oxidative stress that can destroy the health of your skin cells.14-16 Red tea in particular possesses a very impressive antioxidant capacity.14 Tea extracts also enhance the powerful, free radicalquenching capabilities of vitamin E17 and provide the protective strength of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which can even guard your skin from the ravages of UV exposure and DNA damage.18 In addition, green tea may enhance intracellular superoxide dismutase (antioxidant) activity and increase total plasma antioxidant activity.19 Furthermore, the vitaminC activity of tea extracts20 may contribute to the formation of new collagen,21,22 improving both your skin tone and structure.
The outstanding free radicalquenching ability of topical tea extracts and their many benefits in countering the normal effects of aging make them highly desirable ingredients in any skin-care regimen.
Energize and Firm the Skin
Other notable ingredients that offer proven rejuvenating benefits for your skin when used topically include coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), alpha-lipoic acid, and dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE).
The antioxidants CoQ10 and alpha-lipoic acid are highly effective in countering the normal decline in mitochondrial energy production that accompanies aging.23 These nutrients are especially important for aging skin due to their essential role in promoting youthful skin cell structure and function.24,25
Another nutrient that fights sagging caused by the destruction of the skin’s underlying collagen structure is DMAE. This has been shown to produce a firming effect on the skin,26 and, based on clinical reports, it may be the first topical agent that can help firm sagging skin directly.27,28 DMAE also greatly increases the skin’s radiance and tone.
Put It All Together
It is now possible to rejuvenate the aging skin of your neck—without resorting to invasive surgical procedures. Remarkable topical nutrients such as acetyl hexapeptide-3, hyaluronic acid, retinol, N-acetyl glucosamine, niacinamide, CoQ10, concentrated tea extracts, alphalipoic acid, and DMAE help protect, repair, and strengthen your skin, while lessening the appearance of hyperpigmentation and vertical banding. These topical ingredients also help hydrate and revitalize dry-looking skin, firm and tighten sagging areas, and reduce the appearance of creases and folds. By applying these advanced topical agents one to two times daily, you can relieve the tell-tale signs of aging and achieve a firmer, more youthful-looking neck.
If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension Health Advisor at 1-800-226-2370.
1. Varani J, Warner RL, Gharaee-Kermani M, et al. Vitamin A antagonizes decreased cell growth and elevated collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinases and stimulates collagen accumulation in naturally aged human skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Mar;114(3):480-6.
2. Ruiz MA, Clares B, Morales ME, Cazalla S, Gallardo V. Preparation and stability of cosmetic formulations with an antiaging peptide. J Cosmet Sci. 2007 Mar- Apr;58(2):157-71.
3. Blanes-Mira C, Clemente J, Jodas G, et al. A synthetic hexapeptide (Argireline) with antiwrinkle activity. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2002;24(5):303-10.
4. Available at: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ fullpage.html?res=9E02EED61239F931A15 755C0A9629C8B63&sec=health. Accessed August 29, 2007.
5. Li L, Asteriou T, Bernert B, Heldin CH, Heldin P. Growth factor regulation of hyaluronan synthesis and degradation in human dermal fibroblasts: importance of hyaluronan for the mitogenic response of PDGF-BB. Biochem J. 2007 Jun 1;404(2):327-36.
6. Hornberg JJ, Dekker H, Peters PH, et al. Epidermal growth factor receptor-induced activator protein 1 activity controls densitydependent growth inhibition in normal rat kidney fibroblasts. Mol Biotechnol. 2006 Oct;34(2):101-8.
7. Duell EA, Kang S, Voorhees JJ. Unoccluded retinol penetrates human skin in vivo more effectively than unoccluded retinyl palmitate or retinoic acid. J Invest Dermatol. 1997 Sep;109(3):301-5.
8. Roos TC, Jugert FK, Merk HF, Bickers DR. Retinoid metabolism in the skin. Pharmacol Rev. 1998 Jun;50(2):315-33.
9. Ross AC. Overview of retinoid metabolism. J Nutr. 1993 Feb;123(2 Suppl):346-50.
10. Bissett DL. Glucosamine: an ingredient with skin and other benefits. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2006 Dec;5(4):309-15.
11. Hakozaki T, Minwalla L, Zhuang J, et al. The effect of niacinamide on reducing cutaneous pigmentation and suppression of melanosome transfer. Br J Dermatol. 2002 Jul;147(1):20-31.
12. Greatens A, Hakozaki T, Koshoffer A, et al. Effective inhibition of melanosome transfer to keratinocytes by lectins and niacinamide is reversible. Exp Dermatol. 2005 Jul;14(7):498-508.
13. Bissett DL, Robinson LR, Raleigh PS, et al. Reduction in the appearance of facial hyperpigmentation by topical N-acetyl glucosamine. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007 Mar;6(1):20-6.
14. McKay DL, Blumberg JB. A review of the bioactivity of South African herbal teas: rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia). Phytother Res. 2007 Jan;21(1):1-16.
15. Ojo OO, Ladeji O, Nadro MS. Studies of the antioxidative effects of green and black tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts in rats. J Med Food. 2007 Jun;10(2):345-9.
16. Gawlik M, Czajka A. The effect of green, black and white tea on the level of alpha and gamma tocopherols in free radicalinduced oxidative damage of human red blood cells. Acta Pol Pharm. 2007 Mar- Apr;64(2):159-64.
17. Kuchide M, Tokuda H, Takayasu J, et al. Cancer chemopreventive effects of oral feeding alpha-tocopherol on ultraviolet light B induced photocarcinogenesis of hairless mouse. Cancer Lett. 2003 Jul 10;196(2):169-77.
18. Katiyar SK. Skin photoprotection by green tea: antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord. 2003 Sep;3(3):234-42.
19. Li YM, Chan HY, Huang Y, Chen ZY. Green tea catechins upregulate superoxide dismutase and catalase in fruit flies. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 May;51(5):546-54.
20. du Toit R, Volsteedt Y, Apostolides Z. Comparison of the antioxidant content of fruits, vegetables and teas measured as vitamin C equivalents. Toxicology. 2001 Sep 14;166(1-2):63-9.
21. Wha Kim S, Lee IW, Cho HJ, et al. Fibroblasts and ascorbate regulate epidermalization in reconstructed human epidermis. J Dermatol Sci. 2002 Dec;30(3):215-23.
22. Bell E, Rosenberg M, Kemp P, et al. Recipes for reconstituting skin. J Biomech Eng. 1991 May;113(2):113-9.
23. Rodriguez MC, MacDonald JR, Mahoney J, Parise G, Beal MF, Tarnopolsky MA.
Beneficial effects of creatine, CoQ10, and lipoic acid in mitochondrial disorders.
24. Blatt T, Lenz H, Koop U, et al. Stimulation of skin’s energy metabolism provides multiple benefits for mature human skin. Biofactors. 2005;25(1-4):179-85.
25. Han B, Nimni ME. Transdermal delivery of amino acids and antioxidants enhance collagen synthesis: in vivo and in vitro studies. Connect Tissue Res. 2005;46(4- 5):251-7.
26. Uhoda I, Faska N, Robert C, Cauwenbergh G, Piérard GE. Split face study on the cutaneous tensile effect of 2- dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) gel. Skin Res Technol. 2002 Aug;8(3):164-7.
27. Morissette G, Germain L, Marceau F. The antiwrinkle effect of topical concentrated 2-dimethylaminoethanol involves a vacuolar cytopathology. Br J Dermatol. 2007 Mar;156(3):433-9.
28. Grossman R. The role of dimethylaminoethanol in cosmetic dermatology. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2005;6(1):39-47.