Leptin signaling in the hypothalamus: emphasis on energy homeostasis and leptin resistance.
Leptin, the long-sought satiety factor of adipocytes origin, has emerged as one of the major signals that relay the status of fat stores to the hypothalamus and plays a significant role in energy homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms of leptin signaling in the hypothalamus during normal and pathological conditions, such as obesity, has been the subject of intensive research during the last decade. It is now established that leptin action in the hypothalamus in regulation of food intake and body weight is mediated by a neural circuitry comprising of orexigenic and anorectic signals, including NPY, MCH, galanin, orexin, GALP, alpha-MSH, NT, and CRH. In addition to the conventional JAK2-STAT3 pathway, it has become evident that PI3K-PDE3B-cAMP pathway plays a critical role in leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. It is now established that central leptin resistance contributes to the development of diet-induced obesity and ageing associated obesity. Central leptin resistance also occurs due to hyperleptinimia produced by exogenous leptin infusion. A defective nutritional regulation of leptin receptor gene expression and reduced STAT3 signaling may be involved in the development of leptin resistance in DIO. However, leptin resistance in the hypothalamic neurons may occur despite an intact JAK2-STAT3 pathway of leptin signaling. Thus, in addition to defective JAK2-STAT3 pathway, defects in other leptin signaling pathways may be involved in leptin resistance. We hypothesize that defective regulation of PI3K-PDE3B-cAMP pathway may be one of the mechanisms behind the development of central leptin resistance seen in obesity.
Front Neuroendocrinol. 2003 Dec;24(4):225-53
Fat storage in adipocytes requires inactivation of leptin’s paracrine activity: implications for treatment of human obesity.
Hyperleptinemia rapidly depletes adipocyte fat in lean rats, whereas comparable hyperleptinemia produced by adipocytes in diet-induced obesity does not, implying a leptinergic blockade in adipocytes during overnutrition. Indeed, activated STAT-3 in white adipose tissue (WAT) of normal rats was less on a 60% high fat diet (HFD) than on 4% fat, despite a 10-fold higher plasma leptin. In 6 days of a HFD, mRNA of the postreceptor leptin inhibitor, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3, increased 22-fold in WAT, while leptin receptor (Lepr-b) mRNA gradually disappeared, implying leptinergic blockade at both postreceptor and receptor levels. Adipocyte-specific Lepr-b overexpression of a Lepr-b transgene completely prevented the adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia and the increase in body fat induced in wild-type mice by HFD. Activated STAT-3 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and the mRNA of lipooxidative enzymes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-coactivator-1alpha, and uncoupling protein-1 and -2 were increased in WAT. Body temperature was elevated in the transgenic mice, suggesting uncoupled fatty acid oxidation of surplus fatty acids. In conclusion, storage of surplus calories in WAT and the development of diet-induced obesity require the blockade of a latent leptin-stimulated caloric sump in white adipocytes.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 13;102(50):18011-6.
Weight-reducing effects of the plasma protein encoded by the obese gene.
The gene product of the ob locus is important in the regulation of body weight. The ob product was shown to be present as a 16-kilodalton protein in mouse and human plasma but was undetectable in plasma from C57BL/6J ob/ob mice. Plasma levels of this protein were increased in diabetic (db) mice, a mutant thought to be resistant to the effects of ob. Daily intraperitoneal injections of either mouse or human recombinant OB protein reduced the body weight of ob/ob mice by 30% after 2 weeks of treatment with no apparent toxicity but had no effect on db/db mice. The protein reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure in ob/ob mice. Injections of wild-type mice twice daily with the mouse protein resulted in a sustained 12% weight loss, decreased food intake, and a reduction of body fat from 12.2 to 0.7%. These data suggest that the OB protein serves an endocrine function to regulate body fat stores.
Science. 1995 Jul 28;269(5223):543-6
Serum immunoreactive-leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese humans.
BACKGROUND. Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is a hormone secreted by adipocytes. Animals with mutations in the ob gene are obese and lose weight when given leptin, but little is known about the physiologic actions of leptin in humans. METHODS. Using a newly developed radioimmunoassay, wer measured serum concentrations of leptin in 136 normal-weight subjects and 139 obese subjects (body-mass index, > or = 27.3 for men and > or = 27.8 for women; the body-mass index was defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters). The measurements were repeated in seven obese subjects after weight loss and during maintenance of the lower weight. The ob messenger RNA (mRNA) content of adipocytes was determined in 27 normal-weight and 27 obese subjects. RESULTS. The mean (+/- SD) serum leptin concentrations were 31.3 +/- 24.1 ng per milliliter in the obese subjects and 7.5 +/- 9.3 ng per milliliter in the normal-weight subjects (P < 0.001). There was a strong positive correlation between serum leptin concentrations and the percentage of body fat (r = 0.85, P < 0.001). The ob mRNA content of adipocytes was about twice as high in the obese subjects as in the normal-weight subjects (P < 0.001) and was correlated with the percentage of body fat (r = 0.68, P < 0.001) in the 54 subjects in whom it was measured. In the seven obese subjects studied after weight loss, both serum leptin concentrations and ob mRNA content of adipocytes declined, but these measures increased again during the maintenance of the lower weight. CONCLUSIONS. Serum leptin concentrations are correlated with the percentage of body fat, suggesting that most obese persons are insensitive to endogenous leptin production.
N Engl J Med. 1996 Feb 1;334(5):292-5
Metabolic syndrome and stroke.
The metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent worldwide, and its cardiovascular toll is expected to rise with the growing obesity epidemic. Mounting evidence points to an association between metabolic syndrome and first or recurrent stroke. This article discusses the emerging data supporting a link between stroke and the metabolic syndrome and underscores the need to better understand the syndrome’s pathophysiology, with a goal to appropriately and intensively limit the burden of this multiple risk factor entity.
Curr Diab Rep. 2008 Feb;8(1):37-41
Central leptin gene therapy fails to overcome leptin resistance associated with diet-induced obesity.
The objective of this study was to determine if central overexpression of leptin could overcome the leptin resistance caused by 100 days of high-fat feeding. Three-month old-F344XBN male rats were fed either control low fat chow (Chow), which provides 15% of energy as fat, or a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF), which provides 59% of energy as fat. Over several weeks, the HF-fed animals spontaneously split into two groups of animals: those that became obese on the HF diet (DIO) and those that did not gain extra weight on the HF diet [diet resistant (DR)]. After 100 days of HF feeding, animals were given a single intracerebroventricular injection containing 5.75E10 particles of rAAV encoding leptin (rAAV-leptin) or control virus (rAAV-con). Chow animals responded robustly to rAAV-leptin, including significant anorexia, weight loss, and lipopenia. In contrast, DIO were completely unresponsive to rAAV-leptin. DR rats responded to rAAV-leptin, but in a more variable fashion than Chow. Unlike what was observed in Chow, the anorectic response to rAAV-leptin rapidly attenuated and was no longer significant by day 14 postvector delivery. Both DIO and DR animals were found to have reduced long-form leptin receptor expression and enhanced basal P-STAT-3 in the hypothalamus with respect to Chow. rAAV-leptin caused an increase in STAT3 phosphorylation and proopiomelanocortin expression in the hypothalamus and an increase in uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipose tissue in both Chow and DR animals, but failed to do so in DIO. This suggests that central overexpression of leptin is not a viable strategy to reverse diet-induced obesity.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003 Nov;285(5):R1011-20.
Plasma leptin and insulin relationships in obese and nonobese humans.
Hyperinsulinemia. is associated with an overexpression of mRNA for the ob protein leptin in rodent models of genetic obesity, and insulin has been reported to directly stimulate leptin mRNA in rat adipocytes. Human obesity is also associated with increased leptin mRNA as well as plasma levels, but there have been no reports of the effect of insulin on leptin secretion. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that insulin stimulates leptin secretion in humans. Using a newly developed leptin assay, immunoreactive leptin was measured in fasting and postprandial plasma samples from 27 healthy adults and in samples before and during euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic then stepped hypoglycemic (hourly steps at 85, 75, 65, 55, and 45 mg/dl) clamps from 10 healthy subjects and 11 patients with IDDM. Plasma leptin was correlated (r = 0.84, P = 0.0005) with BMI in obese but not nonobese subjects and with fasting (r = 0.75, P = 0.008) but not postprandial plasma insulin levels. (Leptin levels did not change postprandially.) Euglycemic hyperinsulinemia did not alter leptin levels, nor did hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Thus, because circulating leptin levels are not increased during postprandial hyperinsulinemia or during euglycemic (or hypoglycemic) hyperinsulinemia, we conclude that, at least in the short term, insulin does not increase leptin secretion in humans and that hyperleptinemia in obese individuals is not likely the result of hyperinsulinemia.
Diabetes. 1996 May;45(5):695-8
Rapid transformation of white adipocytes into fat-oxidizing machines.
Adenovirus-induced hyperleptinemia rapidly depletes body fat in normal rats without increasing free fatty acids and ketogenesis, implying that fat-storing adipocytes are oxidizing the fat. To analyze the ultrastructural changes of adipocytes accompanying this functional transformation, we examined the fat tissue by electron microscopy. After 14 days of hyperleptinemia, adipocytes had become shrunken, fatless, and encased in a thick basement-membrane-like matrix. They were crowded with mitochondria that were much smaller than those of brown adipocytes. Their gene expression profile revealed striking up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (an up-regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis not normally expressed in white fat), increased uncoupling proteins-1 and -2, and down-regulation of lipogenic enzymes. Phosphorylation of both acetyl CoA carboxylase and AMP-activated protein kinase was increased, thus explaining the increase in fatty acid oxidation. The ability to transform adipocytes into unique fat-burning cells may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for obesity.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004 Feb 17;101(7):2058-63
Combined leptin actions on adipose tissue and hypothalamus are required to deplete adipocyte fat in lean rats: implications for obesity treatment.
Intense hyperleptinemia completely depletes adipocyte fat of normal rats within 14 days. To determine the mechanism, epididymal fat pads from normal wild-type (+/+) and obese (fa/fa) Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) donor rats were transplanted into normal +/+ and fa/fa ZDF recipients. Hyperleptinemia induced by adenovirus-leptin administration depleted all fat from native fat pads and from fat transplants from +/+ donors but not from transplants from ZDF(fa/fa) donors with defective leptin receptors. In both native and transplanted +/+ fat pads, large numbers of mitochondria were apparent, and genes involved in fatty acid oxidation were up-regulated. However, +/+ fat pads transplanted into fa/fa recipients did not respond to hyperleptinemia, suggesting lack of an essential leptin-stimulated cohormone(s). In +/+ but not in fa/fa rats, plasma catecholamine levels rose, and both P-STAT3 and P-CREB increased in adipose tissue, suggesting that both direct and indirect (hypothalamic) leptin receptor-mediated actions of hyperleptinemia are involved in depletion of adipocyte fat.
J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 29;281(52):40283-91
Low-dose leptin reverses skeletal muscle, autonomic, and neuroendocrine adaptations to maintenance of reduced weight.
Maintenance of a reduced body weight is accompanied by decreased energy expenditure that is due largely to increased skeletal muscle work efficiency. In addition, decreased sympathetic nervous system tone and circulating concentrations of leptin, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine act coordinately to favor weight regain. These “weight-reduced” phenotypes are similar to those of leptin-deficient humans and rodents. We examined metabolic, autonomic, and neuroendocrine phenotypes in 10 inpatient subjects (5 males, 5 females [3 never-obese, 7 obese]) under 3 sets of experimental conditions: (a) maintaining usual weight by ingesting a liquid formula diet; (b) maintaining a 10% reduced weight by ingesting a liquid formula diet; and (c) receiving twice-daily subcutaneous doses of leptin sufficient to restore 8 am circulating leptin concentrations to pre-weight-loss levels and remaining on the same liquid formula diet required to maintain a 10% reduced weight. During leptin administration, energy expenditure, skeletal muscle work efficiency, sympathetic nervous system tone, and circulating concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine returned to pre-weight-loss levels. These responses suggest that the weight-reduced state may be regarded as a condition of relative leptin insufficiency. Prevention of weight regain might be achievable by strategies relevant to reversing this leptin-insufficient state.
J Clin Invest. 2005 Dec;115(12):3579-86
Leptin—from regulation of fat metabolism to stimulation of breast cancer growth.
Leptin restricts intake of calories as a satiety hormone. It probably stimulates neoplastic proliferation in breast cancer, too. Growth of malignant cells could be regulated by various leptin-induced second messengers like STAT3 (signal transducers and activators of transcription 3), AP-1 (transcription activator protein 1), MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and ERKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinases). They seem to be involved in aromatase expression, generation of estrogens and activation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) in malignant breast epithelium. Leptin may maintain resistance to antiestrogen therapy. Namely, it increased activation of estrogen receptors, therefore, it was suspected to reduce or even overcome the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on breast cell proliferation. Although several valuable reviews have been focused on the role of leptin in breast cancer, the status of knowledge in this field changes quickly and our insight should be continuously revised. In this summary, we provide refreshed interpretation of intensively reported scientific queries of the topic.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2006;12(2):69-72
High leptin levels are associated with stroke.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Leptin, an important hormone for body weight regulation, may be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular manifestations of obesity. We tested whether leptin may be an independent risk marker for stroke in a case-referent study. METHODS: Definitive acute stroke events, defined by MONICA criteria, were identified from October 1, 1995 to April 30, 1999. Referents without known cardiovascular disease were randomly selected from a population census. Patient characteristics were taken from hospital files and leptin was analyzed in stored samples. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine possible differences in leptin levels between groups. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-seven cases with ischemic stroke and 69 cases with hemorrhagic stroke were identified. In comparison with referents, male patients with stroke had significantly higher leptin levels. Both male and female stroke patients had increased blood pressure compared with the referents. In multivariate analyses, high leptin levels were associated with both ischemic (OR = 4.89; 95% CI: 1.89-12.62) and hemorrhagic (OR = 3.86; 95% CI: 1.13-13.16) stroke in men, and with ischemic stroke in women (OR = 4.10; 95% CI: 1.45-11.62). The combination of high leptin levels and increased blood pressure (systolic or diastolic) was associated with a strong positive interaction in males with hemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSION: Leptin may be an important link for the development of cerebrovascular disease in the insulin resistance syndrome in men.
Cerebrovasc Dis. 2003;15(1-2):63-9
The use of a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.
AIM: To evaluate the effects of two formulations, Cissus quadrangularis-only and a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination, on weight loss in overweight and obese human subjects. METHODS: The study was a 10 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design involving 72 obese or overweight participants (45.8% male; 54.2% female; ages 21-44; mean age = 29.3). The participants were randomly divided into three equal (n = 24) groups: placebo, Cissus quadrangularis-only, and Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination. Capsules containing the placebo or active formulations were administered twice daily before meals; no major dietary changes nor exercises were suggested during the study. A total of six anthropomorphic and serological measurements (body weight, body fat, waist size; total plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, fasting blood glucose level) were taken at baseline and at 4, 8, and 10 weeks. RESULTS: Compared to the placebo group, the two active groups showed a statistically significant difference on all six variables by week 10. The magnitude of the differences was noticeable by week 4 and continued to increase over the trial period. CONCLUSION: Although the Cissus quadrangularis-only group showed significant reductions on all variables compared to the placebo group, the Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination resulted in even larger reductions. This apparently synergistic formulation should prove helpful in the management of obesity and its related complications.
Lipids Health Dis. 2008 Mar 31;7:12
The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon.
Dietary fibres are frequently used for the treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Irvingia gabonensis seeds in the management of obesity. This was carried out as a double blind randomised study involving 40 subjects (mean age 42.4 years). Twenty-eight subjects received Irvingia gabonensis (IG) (1.05 g three time a day for one month) while 12 were on placebo (P) and the same schedule. During the one-month study period all subjects were on a normocaloric diet evaluated every week by a dietetic record book. At the end, the mean body weight of the IG group was decreased by 5.26 +/- 2.37% (p < 0.0001) and that of the placebo group by 1.32 +/- 0.41% (p < 0.02). The difference observed between the IG and the placebo groups was significant (p < 0.01). The obese patients under Irvingia gabonensis treatment also had a significant decrease of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and an increase of HDL-cholesterol. On the other hand, the placebo group did not manifest any changes in blood lipid components. Irvingia gabonensis seed may find application in weight lose.
Lipids Health Dis. 2005 May 25;4:12