Life Extension Responds to Misleading Article Published in Journal of the American Medical AssociationApril 2009
Soy, Lignans, and Cruciferous Vegetables
Men who regularly consume certain plant foods have sharply lower rates of prostate cancer. Studies show that cauliflower, broccoli, flax lignans, and soy isoflavones120-129 protect against a host of diseases, including prostate cancer. If the men in the placebo group ate an even slightly healthier diet, then they would be expected to enjoy a lower rate of prostate cancer compared with men who took the alpha tocopherol-selenium supplements but ate fewer cancer-preventing plant foods.
Low Testosterone Increases Prostate Cancer Risk
In a book authored by Harvard University experts titled Testosterone for Life, detailed findings are presented that dispel a misleading notion about testosterone causing prostate cancer.130 These researchers meticulously document their observations that men with low levels of testosterone have higher prostate cancer risks.
This finding provides another confounding factor that skews the results of the alpha tocopherol-selenium study. If men receiving the supplements had lower testosterone levels, they would conceivably have a higher rate of prostate cancer.
Risk of Supplementing With Only Alpha Tocopherol
We now know that when alpha tocopherol is taken by itself, it displaces critically important gamma tocopherol in our cells. An abundance of evidence points to the gamma tocopherol form of vitamin E as the most protective against prostate cancer. By supplementing aging men with only alpha tocopherol, scientists may have unwittingly increased prostate cancer risk in the men participating in the recent JAMA study by depriving prostate cells of critical gamma tocopherol.
Too Many Factors Involved in Prostate Cancer Causation
The alpha tocopherol-selenium study was designed based on prior studies showing sharply lower risks of prostate cancer in men who consumed these nutrients. It was also based on the premise that protecting genes against oxidative stress would reduce prostate cancer incidence in aged men.
We now know of dozens of factors involved in the development of full-blown prostate cancer. One could not expect that taking just two nutrients would result in less prostate cancer developing in these older study subjects. There are too many other causes that have to be factored in and were not known when the study was designed long ago.
It is encouraging that over the past 12 years, a plethora of new research findings have identified definitive ways for aging men to drastically slash their risk of developing prostate cancer.
If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension Health Advisor at 1-800-226-2370.
1. Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA. 2009 Jan 7;301(1):39-51.
2. Galli F, Stabile AM, Betti M, et al. The effect of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol and their carboxyethyl hydroxychroman metabolites on prostate cancer cell proliferation. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004 Mar 1;423(1):97-102.
3. Jiang Q, Wong J, Ames BN. Gamma-tocopherol induces apoptosis in androgen-responsive LNCaP prostate cancer cells via caspase-dependent and independent mechanisms. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1031:399-400.
4. Gysin R, Azzi A, Visarius T. Gamma-tocopherol inhibits human cancer cell cycle progression and cell proliferation by down-regulation of cyclins. FASEB J. 2002 Dec;16(14):1952-4.
5. Helzlsouer KJ, Huang HY, Alberg AJ, et al. Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Dec 20;92(24):2018-23.
6. Moyad MA, Brumfield SK, Pienta KJ. Vitamin E, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, and prostate cancer. Semin Urol Oncol. 1999 May;17(2):85-90.
7. Gann PH. Randomized trials of antioxidant supplementation for cancer prevention: first bias, now chance--next, cause. JAMA. 2009 Jan 7;301(1):102-3.
8. Faloon W. Merv Griffin’s Tragic Death from Prostate Cancer. Life Extension. 2008 Jan;14(1):7-11.
9. Faloon W. Avoiding Prostate Cancer. Life Extension. 2001 Mar.
10. Faloon W. Eating Your Way to Prostate Cancer. Life Extension. 2007 Feb; 13(2):33-41.
11. Prins GS, Tang WY, Belmonte J, Ho SM. Perinatal exposure to oestradiol and bisphenol A alters the prostate epigenome and increases susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008 Feb;102(2):134-8.
12. Singh PB, Matanhelia SS, Martin FL. A potential paradox in prostate adenocarcinoma progression: oestrogen as the initiating driver. Eur J Cancer. 2008 May;44(7):928-36.
13. Prins GS, Birch L, Tang WY, Ho SM. Developmental estrogen exposures predispose to prostate carcinogenesis with aging. Reprod Toxicol. 2007 Apr;23(3):374-82.
14. Ho SM, Tang WY, Belmonte de FJ, Prins GS. Developmental exposure to estradiol and bisphenol A increases susceptibility to prostate carcinogenesis and epigenetically regulates phosphodiesterase type 4 variant 4. Cancer Res. 2006 Jun 1;66(11):5624-32.
15. Prins GS, Birch L, Couse JF, et al. Estrogen imprinting of the developing prostate gland is mediated through stromal estrogen receptor alpha: studies with alphaERKO and betaERKO mice. Cancer Res. 2001 Aug 15;61(16):6089-97.
16. Prins GS. Development of the prostate. In: Haseltine F, Paulsen C, Wang C, editors. Reproductive Issues and the Aging Male. New York: Embryonic, Inc; 1993;101-12.
17. Henderson BE, Bernstein L, Ross RK, Depue RH, Judd HL. The early in utero oestrogen and testosterone environment of blacks and whites: potential effects on male offspring. Br J Cancer. 1988 Feb;57(2):216-8.
18. Haber D. Roads leading to breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2000 Nov 23;343(21):1566-8.
19. Holick MF. Vitamin D and sunlight: strategies for cancer prevention and other health benefits. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 Sep;3(5):1548-54.
20. Newcomer LM, King IB, Wicklund KG, Stanford JL. The association of fatty acids with prostate cancer risk. Prostate. 2001 Jun 1;47(4):262-8.
21. Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Michaud DS, et al. Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):204-16.
22. Hassan S, Carraway RE. Involvement of arachidonic acid metabolism and EGF receptor in neurotensin-induced prostate cancer PC3 cell growth. Regul Pept. 2006 Jan 15;133(1-3):105-14.
23. Moretti RM, Montagnani MM, Sala A, Motta M, Limonta P. Activation of the orphan nuclear receptor RORalpha counteracts the proliferative effect of fatty acids on prostate cancer cells: crucial role of 5-lipoxygenase. Int J Cancer. 2004 Oct 20;112(1):87-93.
24. Matsuyama M, Yoshimura R, Mitsuhashi M, et al. Expression of lipoxygenase in human prostate cancer and growth reduction by its inhibitors. Int J Oncol. 2004 Apr;24(4):821-7.
25. Gupta S, Srivastava M, Ahmad N, et al. Lipoxygenase-5 is overexpressed in prostate adenocarcinoma. Cancer. 2001 Feb 15;91(4):737-43.
26. Kelavkar UP, Nixon JB, Cohen C, et al. Overexpression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells increases tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2001 Nov;22(11):1765-73.
27. Ghosh J, Myers CE. Arachidonic acid stimulates prostate cancer cell growth: critical role of 5-lipoxygenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Jun 18;235(2):418-23.
28. Gao X, Grignon DJ, Chbihi T, et al. Elevated 12-lipoxygenase mRNA expression correlates with advanced stage and poor differentiation of human prostate cancer. Urology. 1995 Aug;46(2):227-37.
29. Sundaram S, Ghosh J. Expression of 5-oxoETE receptor in prostate cancer cells: critical role in survival. Biochem BiophysRes Commun. 2006 Jan 6;339(1):93-8.
30. Myers CE, Ghosh J. Lipoxygenase inhibition in prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 1999;35(5-6):395-8.
31. Helgadottir A, Manolescu A, Thorleifsson G, et al. The gene encoding 5-lipoxygenase activating protein confers risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Nat Genet. 2004 Mar;36(3):233-9.
32. Poff CD, Balazy M. Drugs that target lipoxygenases and leukotrienes as emerging therapies for asthma and cancer. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy. 2004 Mar;3(1):19-33.
33. Crooks SW, Bayley DL, Hill SL, Stockley RA. Bronchial inflammation in acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: the role of leukotriene B4. Eur Respir J. 2000 Feb;15(2):274-80.
34. Tabata T, Ono S, Song C, et al. Role of leukotriene B4 in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1997 Feb;35(2):160-6.
35. Gadaleta D, Fantini GA, Silane MF, Davis JM. Neutrophil leukotriene generation and pulmonary dysfunction after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Surgery. 1994 Nov;116(5):847-52.
36. Shindo K, Miyakawa K, Fukumura M. Plasma levels of leukotriene B4 in asthmatic patients. Int J Tissue React. 1993;15(5):181-4.
37. Mullane K, Hatala MA, Kraemer R, Sessa W, Westlin W. Myocardial salvage induced by REV-5901: an inhibitor and antagonist of the leukotrienes. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1987 Oct;10(4):398-406.
38. Adam O, Beringer C, Kless T, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of a low arachidonic acid diet and fish oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int. 2003 Jan;23(1):27-36.
39. Pizzorno J. Omega 3-fatty acids: a key nutrient in cancer care. Presented at Comprehensive Cancer Care 2001, Arlington, VA, Oct 17-21, 2001.
40. Barham JB, Edens MB, Fonteh AN, et al. Addition of eicosapentaenoic acid to gamma-linolenic acid-supplemented diets prevents serum arachidonic acid accumulation in humans. J Nutr. 2000 Aug;130(8):1925-31.
41. Akiba S, Murata T, Kitatani K, Sato T. Involvement of lipoxygenase pathway in docosapentaenoic acid-induced inhibition of platelet aggregation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2000 Nov;23(11):1293-7.
42. Schwartz J. Role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lung disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):393S-6S.
43. Ikeda I, Yoshida H, Tomooka M, et al. Effects of long-term feeding of marine oils with different positional distribution of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on lipid metabolism, eicosanoid production, and platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic rats. Lipids. 1998 Sep;33(9):897-904.
44. Ghosh J. Inhibition of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase triggers prostate cancer cell death through rapid activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Jul 25;307(2):342-9.
45. Gupta S, Srivastava M, Ahmad N, Sakamoto K, Bostwick DG, Mukhtar H. Lipoxygenase-5 is overexpressed in prostate adenocarcinoma. Cancer. 2001 Feb 15;91(4):737-43.
46. Ye YN, Liu ES, Shin VY, Wu WK, Cho CH. Contributory role of 5-lipoxygenase and its association with angiogenesis in the promotion of inflammation-associated colonic tumorigenesis by cigarette smoking. Toxicology. 2004 Oct 15;203(1-3):179-88.
47. Ghosh J, Myers CE. Inhibition of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase triggers massive apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998 Oct 27;95(22):13182-7.
48. Anderson KM, Seed T, Vos M et al. 5-Lipoxygenase inhibitors reduce PC-3 cell proliferation and initiate nonnecrotic cell death. Prostate. 1998 Nov 1;37(3):161-73.
49. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, et al. N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4.
50. Calder PC. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation: from molecular biology to the clinic. Lipids. 2003 Apr;38(4):343-52.
51. Hazai E, Bikadi Z, Zsila F, Lockwood SF. Molecular modeling of the non-covalent binding of the dietary tomato carotenoids lycopene and lycophyll, and selected oxidative metabolites with 5-lipoxygenase. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Oct 15;14(20):6859-67.
52. Paubert-Braquet M, Mencia Huerta JM, Cousse H, Braquet P. Effect of the lipidic lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon) on the ionophore A23187-stimulated production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997 Sep;57(3):299-304.
53. De Caterina R, Zampolli A. From asthma to atherosclerosis--5-lipoxygenase, leukotrienes, and inflammation. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jan 1;350(1):4-7.
54. Safayhi H, Rall B, Sailer ER, Ammon HP. Inhibition by boswellic acids of human leukocyte elastase. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Apr;281(1):460-3.
55. Safayhi H, Sailer ER, Ammon HP. Mechanism of 5-lipoxygenase inhibition by acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid. Mol Pharmacol. 1995 Jun;47(6):1212-6.
56. Basch E, Boon H, vies-Heerema T, et al. Boswellia: an evidence-based systematic review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. J Herb Pharmacother. 2004;4(3):63-83.
57. Kimmatkar N, Thawani V, Hingorani L, Khiyani R. Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee--a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial. Phytomedicine. 2003 Jan;10(1):3-7.
58. Ammon HP. Boswellic acids (components of frankincense) as the active principle in treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2002;152(15-16):373-8.
59. Gupta I, Parihar A, Malhotra P, et al. Effects of gum resin of Boswellia serrata in patients with chronic colitis. Planta Med. 2001 Jul;67(5):391-5.
60. Gerhardt H, Seifert F, Buvari P, Vogelsang H, Repges R. Therapy of active Crohn disease with Boswellia serrata extract H 15. Z Gastroenterol. 2001 Jan;39(1):11-7.
61. Gupta I, Gupta V, Parihar A, et al. Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study. Eur J Med Res. 1998 Nov 17;3(11):511-4.
62. Sailer ER, Subramanian LR, Rall B, et al. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA): structure requirements for binding and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Feb;117(4):615-8.
63. Roy S, Khanna S, Shah H, et al. Human genome screen to identify the genetic basis of the anti-inflammatory effects of Boswellia in microvascular endothelial cells. DNA Cell Biol. 2005 Apr;24(4):244-55.
64. Roy S, Khanna S, Krishnaraju AV, et al. Regulation of vascular responses to inflammation: inducible matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells is sensitive to antiinflammatory Boswellia. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006 Mar;8(3-4):653-60.
65. Jiang WG, Douglas-Jones AG, Mansel RE. Aberrant expression of 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (5-LOXAP) has prognostic and survival significance in patients with breast cancer. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006 Feb;74(2):125-34.
66. Yoshimura R, Matsuyama M, Mitsuhashi M, et al. Relationship between lipoxygenase and human testicular cancer. Int J Mol Med. 2004 Mar;13(3):389-93.
67. Zhang L, Zhang WP, Hu H, et al. Expression patterns of 5-lipoxygenase in human brain with traumatic injury and astrocytoma. Neuropathology. 2006 Apr;26(2):99-106.
68. Soumaoro LT, Iida S, Uetake H, et al. Expression of 5-lipoxygenase in human colorectal cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Oct 21;12(39):6355-60.
69. Hayashi T, Nishiyama K, Shirahama T. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase pathway suppresses the growth of bladder cancer cells. Int J Urol. 2006 Aug;13(8):1086-91.
70. Matsuyama M, Yoshimura R, Tsuchida K et al. Lipoxygenase inhibitors prevent urological cancer cell growth. Int J Mol Med. 2004 May;13(5):665-8.
71. Hoque A, Lippman SM, Wu TT, et al. Increased 5-lipoxygenase expression and induction of apoptosis by its inhibitors in esophageal cancer: a potential target for prevention. Carcinogenesis. 2005 Apr;26(4):785-91.
72. Hennig R, Ding XZ, Tong WG, et al. 5-Lipoxygenase and leukotriene B(4) receptor are expressed in human pancreatic cancers but not in pancreatic ducts in normal tissue. Am J Pathol. 2002 Aug;161(2):421-8.
73. Ding XZ, Iversen P, Cluck MW, Knezetic JA, Adrian TE. Lipoxygenase inhibitors abolish proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Jul 22;261(1):218-23.
74. Matsuyama M, Yoshimura R, Mitsuhashi M, et al. 5-Lipoxygenase inhibitors attenuate growth of human renal cell carcinoma and induce apoptosis through arachidonic acid pathway. Oncol Rep. 2005 Jul;14(1):73-9.
75. Zhi H, Zhang J, Hu G, et al. The deregulation of arachidonic acid metabolism-related genes in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2003 Sep 1;106(3):327-33.
76. Penglis PS, Cleland LG, Demasi M, Caughey GE, James MJ. Differential regulation of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2 production in human monocytes: implications for the use of cyclooxygenase inhibitors. J Immunol. 2000 Aug 1;165(3):1605-11.
77. Rubinsztajn R, Wronska J, Chazan R. Urinary leukotriene E4 concentration in patients with bronchial asthma and intolerance of non-steroids anti-inflammatory drugs before and after oral aspirin challenge. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2003 Aug;110(2):849-54.
78. Subbarao K, Jala VR, Mathis S, et al. Role of leukotriene B4 receptors in the development of atherosclerosis: potential mechanisms. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004 Feb;24(2):369-75.
79. Laufer S. Role of eicosanoids in structural degradation in osteoarthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2003 Sep;15(5):623-7.
80. de Leval X, Hanson J, David JL, et al. New developments on thromboxane and prostacyclin modulators part II: prostacyclin modulators. Curr Med Chem. 2004 May;11(10):1243-52.
81. Cheng Y, Austin SC, Rocca B, et al. Role of prostacyclin in the cardiovascular response to thromboxane A2. Science. 2002 Apr 19;296(5567):539-41.
82. Catella-Lawson F. Vascular biology of thrombosis: platelet-vessel wall interactions and aspirin effects. Neurology. 2001;57(5 Suppl 2):S5-S7.
83. James MJ, Penglis PS, Caughey GE, Demasi M, Cleland LG. Eicosanoid production by human monocytes: does COX-2 contribute to a self-limiting inflammatory response? Inflamm Res. 2001 May;50(5):249-53.
84. Garcia Rodriguez LA. The effect of NSAIDs on the risk of coronary heart disease: fusion of clinical pharmacology and pharmacoepidemiologic data. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2001 Nov;19(6 Suppl 25):S41-4.
85. Pommery N, Taverne T, Telliez A, et al. New COX-2/5-LOX inhibitors: apoptosis-inducing agents potentially useful in prostate cancer chemotherapy. J Med Chem. 2004 Dec 2;47(25):6195-206.
86. Onguru O, Casey MB, Kajita S, Nakamura N, Lloyd RV. Cyclooxygenase-2 and thromboxane synthase in non-endocrine and endocrine tumors: a review. Endocr Pathol. 2005;16(4):253-77.
87. Mutoh M, Takahashi M, Wakabayashi K. Roles of prostanoids in colon carcinogenesis and their potential targeting for cancer chemoprevention. Curr Pharm Des. 2006;12(19):2375-82.
88. Wang D, Dubois RN. Prostaglandins and cancer. Gut. 2006 Jan;55(1):115-22.
89. Wang D, Wang H, Shi Q, et al. Prostaglandin E(2) promotes colorectal adenoma growth via transactivation of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. Cancer Cell. 2004 Sep;6(3):285-95.
90. Paramo JA, Beloqui O, Orbe J. Cyclooxygenase-2: a new therapeutic target in atherosclerosis? Med Clin (Barc). 2006 May 27;126(20):782-6.
91. Catella-Lawson F. Vascular biology of thrombosis: platelet-vessel wall interactions and aspirin effects. Neurology. 2001;57(5 Suppl 2):S5-S7.
92. Feldman M, Cryer B, Rushin K, Betancourt J. A comparison of every-third-day versus daily low-dose aspirin therapy on serum thromboxane concentrations in healthy men and women. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2001 Jan;7(1):53-7.
93. Sciulli MG, Renda G, Capone ML, et al. Heterogeneity in the suppression of platelet cyclooxygenase-1 activity by aspirin in coronary heart disease. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Aug;80(2):115-25.
94. Eidelman RS, Hebert PR, Weisman SM, Hennekens CH. An update on aspirin in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Sep 22;163(17):2006-10.
95. Berger JS, Roncaglioni MC, Avanzini F, et al. Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in women and men: a sex-specific meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2006 Jan 18;295(3):306-13.
96. Zhang F, Altorki NK, Mestre JR, Subbaramaiah K, Dannenberg AJ. Curcumin inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 transcription in bile acid- and phorbol ester-treated human gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Carcinogenesis. 1999 Mar;20(3):445-51.
97. Bengmark S. Curcumin, an atoxic antioxidant and natural NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic diseases. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2006 Jan;30(1):45-51.
98. Shah BH, Nawaz Z, Pertani SA, et al. Inhibitory effect of curcumin, a food spice from turmeric, on platelet-activating factor- and arachidonic acid-mediated platelet aggregation through inhibition of thromboxane formation and Ca2+ signaling. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Oct 1;58(7):1167-72.
99. Lantz RC, Chen GJ, Solyom AM, Jolad SD, Timmermann BN. The effect of turmeric extracts on inflammatory mediator production. Phytomedicine. 2005 Jun;12(6-7):445-52.
100. Lev-Ari S, Maimon Y, Strier L, Kazanov D, Arber N. Down-regulation of prostaglandin E2 by curcumin is correlated with inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cell lines. J Soc Integr Oncol. 2006;4(1):21-6.
101. Chauhan DP. Chemotherapeutic potential of curcumin for colorectal cancer. Curr Pharm Des. 2002;8(19):1695-706.
102. Lev-Ari S, Strier L, Kazanov D, et al. Celecoxib and curcumin synergistically inhibit the growth of colorectal cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;11(18):6738-44.
103. Park C, Kim GY, Kim GD, et al. Induction of G2/M arrest and inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 activity by curcumin in human bladder cancer T24 cells. Oncol Rep. 2006 May;15(5):1225-31.
104. Hong J, Bose M, Ju J, et al. Modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by curcumin and related beta-diketone derivatives: effects on cytosolic phospholipase A(2), cyclooxygenases and 5-lipoxygenase. Carcinogenesis. 2004 Sep;25(9):1671-9.
105. Yoysungnoen P, Wirachwong P, Bhattarakosol P, Niimi H, Patumraj S. Effects of curcumin on tumor angiogenesis and biomarkers, COX-2 and VEGF, in hepatocellular carcinoma cell-implanted nude mice. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2006;34(1-2):109-15.
106. Lev-Ari S, Zinger H, Kazanov D, et al. Curcumin synergistically potentiates the growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects of celecoxib in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Biomed Pharmacother. 2005 Oct;59(Suppl 2):S276-80.
107. Tunstall RG, Sharma RA, Perkins S, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and oxidative DNA adducts in murine intestinal adenomas: modification by dietary curcumin and implications for clinical trials. Eur J Cancer. 2006 Feb;42(3):415-21.
108. Lee J, Im YH, Jung HH, et al. Curcumin inhibits interferon-alpha induced NF-kappaB and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Aug 26;334(2):313-8.
109. Hong J, Smith TJ, Ho CT, August DA, Yang CS. Effects of purified green and black tea polyphenols on cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid in human colon mucosa and colon tumor tissues. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001 Nov 1;62(9):1175-83.
110. Noreen Y, Ringbom T, Perera P, Danielson H, Bohlin L. Development of a radiochemical cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in vitro assay for identification of natural products as inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis. J Nat Prod. 1998 Jan;61(1):2-7.
111. Ahmed S, Rahman A, Hasnain A, et al. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits the IL-1 beta-induced activity and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase-2 in human chondrocytes. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002 Oct 15;33(8):1097-105.
112. Subbaramaiah K, Michaluart P, Chung WJ, et al. Resveratrol inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 transcription in human mammary epithelial cells. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1999;889:214-23.
113. Bhat KP, Pezzuto JM. Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2002 May;957:210-29.
114. Szewczuk LM, Penning TM. Mechanism-based inactivation of COX-1 by red wine m-hydroquinones: a structure-activity relationship study. J Nat Prod. 2004 Nov;67(11):1777-82.
115. Katiyar SK. Matrix metalloproteinases in cancer metastasis: molecular targets for prostate cancer prevention by green tea polyphenols and grape seed proanthocyanidins. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2006 Mar;6(1):17-24.
116. St Sauver JL, Jacobson DJ, McGree ME, Lieber MM, Jacobsen SJ. Protective association between nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use and measures of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Oct 15;164(8):760-8.
117. Egan K, FitzGerald GA. Eicosanoids and the vascular endothelium.Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2006;(176 Pt 1):189-211.
118. Wu KK. Aspirin and other cyclooxygenase inhibitors: new therapeutic insights. Semin Vasc Med. 2003 May;3(2):107-12.
119. Xu S, Gao JP, Zhou WQ. Cyclooxygenase-2 and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in prostate cancer. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2008 Nov;14(11):1031-4.
120. Heald CL, Ritchie MR, Bolton-Smith C, Morton MS, Alexander FE. Phyto-oestrogens and risk of prostate cancer in Scottish men. Br J Nutr. 2007 Aug;98(2):388-96.
121. Hedelin M, Klint A, Chang ET, et al. Dietary phytoestrogen, serum enterolactone and risk of prostate cancer: the cancer prostate Sweden study (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control. 2006 Mar;17(2):169-80.
122. Holzbeierlein JM, McIntosh J, Thrasher JB. The role of soy phytoestrogens in prostate cancer. Curr Opin Urol. 2005 Jan;15(1):17-22.
123. Kumar NB, Cantor A, Allen K, et al. The specific role of isoflavones in reducing prostate cancer risk. Prostate. 2004 May 1;59(2):141-7.
124. Lee MM, Gomez SL, Chang JS, et al. Soy and isoflavone consumption in relation to prostate cancer risk in China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Jul;12(7):665-8.
125. McCann SE, Ambrosone CB, Moysich KB, et al. Intakes of selected nutrients, foods, and phytochemicals and prostate cancer risk in western New York. Nutr Cancer. 2005;53(1):33-41.
126. Vij U, Kumar A. Phyto-oestrogens and prostatic growth. Natl Med J India. 2004 Jan;17(1):22-6.
127. Sonoda T, Nagata Y, Mori M, et al. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Japan: possible protective effect of traditional Japanese diet. Cancer Sci. 2004 Mar;95(3):238-42.
128. Clarke JD, Dashwood RH, Ho E. Multi-targeted prevention of cancer by sulforaphane. Cancer Lett. 2008 Oct 8;269(2):291-304.
129. Donaldson MS. Nutrition and cancer: a review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet. Nutr J. 2004 Oct 20;3:19.
130. Morgentaler A. Testosterone For Life. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2008.