Adrenal androgens and aging.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) are the principal C19 steroids produced by the human adrenals. Their plasma levels decline to less than 20% of their maximal value during aging. Because these steroids appear to play a role in the maintenance of immunity, musculoskeletal integrity, and cardiovascular health, age-associated declines in adrenal androgen production may contribute to decreased immune function, osteoporosis, and atherosclerosis. Production of DHEA and DHEAS has been localized to the zona reticularis (ZR) of the adrenal cortex and can be modulated by intra-adrenal or extra-adrenal modulators. Extra-adrenal modulators include corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), insulin, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Intra-adrenal regulators include enzymes and proteins involved in the steroidogenic pathway, specifically 17,20 lyase activity and DHEA sulfotransferase (DST). The natural histories of the emergence of adrenal androgen production and the ontogeny of the ZR appear to correlate closely. In addition, aging results in a decline in adrenal androgen production, and our data suggest a parallel diminution in the area represented by the ZR. This decline in the ZR may result from apoptosis, cellular and humoral immunity, or a reduction in the replicative capacity of the cells of the ZR.
Semin Reprod Med. 2004 Nov;22(4):361-8
The in vitro effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on human osteoarthritic chondrocytes.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the in vitro effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. DESIGN: Chondrocytes isolated from human osteoarthritic knee cartilage were three-dimensionally cultured in alginate beads, except for cell proliferation experiment. Cells were treated with DHEA in the presence or absence of IL-1beta. The effects on chondrocytes were analyzed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium inner salt (MTS) assay (for chondrocyte proliferation), a dimethylmethylene blue (DMB) assay (for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis), and an indole assay (for DNA amount). Gene expressions of type I and II collagen, metalloproteinase-1 and -3 (MMP-1 and -3), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) as well as the IL-1beta-induced gene expressions of MMP-1 and -3 were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein synthesis of MMP-1 and -3 and TIMP-1 was determined by Western blotting. RESULTS: The treatment of chondrocytes with DHEA did not affect chondrocyte proliferation or GAG synthesis up to 100 micro M of concentration. The gene expression of type II collagen increased in a dose-dependent manner, while that of type I decreased. DHEA suppressed the expression of MMP-1 significantly at concentrations exceeding 50 micro M. The gene expression of MMP-3 was also suppressed, but this was without statistical significance. The expression of TIMP-1 was significantly increased by DHEA at concentrations exceeding 10 micro M. The effects of DHEA on the gene expressions of MMP-1 and -3 were more prominent in the presence of IL-1beta, in which DHEA suppressed not only MMP-1, but also MMP-3 at the lower concentrations, 10 and 50 micro M, respectively. Western blotting results were in agreement with RT-PCR, which indicates that DHEA acts at the gene transcription level. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that DHEA has no toxic effect on chondrocytes up to 100 micro M of concentration and has an ability to modulate the imbalance between MMPs and TIMP-1 during OA at the transcription level, which suggest that it has a protective role against articular cartilage loss.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003 Aug;11(8):585-94
Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy on bone mineral density in older adults: a randomized, controlled trial.
CONTEXT: Dehydroepian-drosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS) decrease with aging and are important androgen and estrogen precursors in older adults. Declines in DHEAS with aging may contribute to physiological changes that are sex hormone dependent. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine whether DHEA replacement increases bone mineral density (BMD) and fat-free mass. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial was conducted at an academic research institution. Participants were 70 women and 70 men, aged 60-88 yr, with low serum DHEAS levels. INTERVENTION: The intervention was oral DHEA 50 mg/d or placebo for 12 months.MEASUREMENTS: BMD, fat mass, and fat-free mass were measured before and after intervention. RESULTS: Intent-to-treat analyses revealed trends for DHEA to increase BMD more than placebo at the total hip (1.0%, P = 0.05), trochanter (1.2%, P = 0.06), and shaft (1.2%, P = 0.05). In women only, DHEA increased lumbar spine BMD (2.2%, P = 0.04; sex-by-treatment interaction, P = 0.05). In secondary compliance analyses, BMD increases in hip regions were significant (1.2-1.6%; all P < 0.02) in the DHEA group. There were no significant effects of DHEA on fat or fat-free mass in intent-to-treat or compliance analyses. CONCLUSIONS: DHEA replacement therapy for 1 yr improved hip BMD in older adults and spine BMD in older women. Because there have been few randomized, controlled trials of the effects of DHEA therapy, these findings support the need for further investigations of the benefits and risks of DHEA replacement and the mechanisms for its actions.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Aug;91(8):2986-93
Effect of DHEA on abdominal fat and insulin action in elderly women and men: a randomized controlled trial.
CONTEXT: Dehydroepian-drosterone (DHEA) administration has been shown to reduce accumulation of abdominal visceral fat and protect against insulin resistance in laboratory animals, but it is not known whether DHEA decreases abdominal obesity in humans. DHEA is widely available as a dietary supplement without a prescription. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether DHEA replacement therapy decreases abdominal fat and improves insulin action in elderly persons. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in a US university-based research center from June 2001 to February 2004. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-six elderly persons (28 women and 28 men aged 71 [range, 65-78] years) with age-related decrease in DHEA level. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to receive 50 mg/d of DHEA or matching placebo for 6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measures were 6-month change in visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat measured by magnetic resonance imaging and glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). RESULTS: Of the 56 men and women enrolled, 52 underwent follow-up evaluations. Compliance with the intervention was 97% in the DHEA group and 95% in the placebo group. Based on intention-to-treat analyses, DHEA therapy compared with placebo induced significant decreases in visceral fat area (-13 cm2 vs +3 cm2, respectively; P = .001) and subcutaneous fat (-13 cm2 vs +2 cm2, P = .003). The insulin area under the curve (AUC) during the OGTT was significantly reduced after 6 months of DHEA therapy compared with placebo (-1119 muU/mL per 2 hours vs +818 muU/mL per 2 hours, P = .007). Despite the lower insulin levels, the glucose AUC was unchanged, resulting in a significant increase in an insulin sensitivity index in response to DHEA compared with placebo (+1.4 vs -0.7, P = .005). CONCLUSION: DHEA replacement could play a role in prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome associated with abdominal obesity.
JAMA. 2004 Nov 10;292(18):2243-8
Effects of DHEA administration on episodic memory, cortisol and mood in healthy young men: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
RATIONALE: Dehydroepian-drosterone (DHEA) has been reported to enhance cognition in rodents, although there are inconsistent findings in humans. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DHEA administration in healthy young men on episodic memory and its neural correlates utilising an event-related potential (ERP) technique. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy young men were treated with a 7-day course of oral DHEA (150 mg b.d.) or placebo in a double blind, random, crossover and balanced order design. Subjective mood and memory were measured using visual analogue scales (VASs). Cortisol concentrations were measured in saliva samples. ERPs were recorded during retrieval in an episodic memory test. Low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to identify brain regions involved in the cognitive task. RESULTS: DHEA administration led to a reduction in evening cortisol concentrations and improved VAS mood and memory. Recollection accuracy in the episodic memory test was significantly improved following DHEA administration. LORETA revealed significant hippocampal activation associated with successful episodic memory retrieval following placebo. DHEA modified ERPs associated with retrieval and led to a trend towards an early differential activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). CONCLUSIONS: DHEA treatment improved memory recollection and mood and decreased trough cortisol levels. The effect of DHEA appears to be via neuronal recruitment of the steroid sensitive ACC that may be involved in pre-hippocampal memory processing. These findings are distinctive, being the first to show such beneficial effects of DHEA on memory in healthy young men.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Nov;188(4):541-51
Improvement of sustained attention and visual and movement skills, but not clinical symptoms, after dehydroepiandrosterone augmentation in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.
BACKGROUND: Dehydroe-piandrosterone (DHEA) augmentation has been reported, in a preliminary fashion, to be useful in the management of schizophrenia symptoms and side effects. In this study, the intention was to investigate the efficacy and safety of DHEA administration to ongoing antipsychotic medication in a multicenter, 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. METHODS: Fifty-five of 62 inpatients and outpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnosis of schizophrenia completed the trial. Patients were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups receiving either DHEA (200 mg/d) or placebo for 6 weeks with the crossover between DHEA and placebo occurring after 6 weeks. Patients continued to receive their regular antipsychotic medication for the duration of the study. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, DHEA administration did not produce significant improvement in clinical symptoms, side effects, and quality-of-life scores. However, 6 weeks of DHEA administration (but not placebo) was associated with a significant improvement in Positive and Negative Symptom Scale ratings compared with baseline. Furthermore, 6 weeks of DHEA treatment was associated with significant improvement in cognitive functions of visual sustained attention and visual and movement skills compared with placebo conditions. The DHEA augmentation was associated with elevations of serum concentrations of both DHEA and its sulfate ester. The DHEA treatment was well tolerated without any serious adverse effects. CONCLUSION: This short-term study does not support DHEA’s value as an effective adjunct in the treatment of symptoms, side effects, and quality-of-life impairment in schizophrenia, while suggesting that DHEA improves sustained attention and visual and movement skills. A long-term, large-scale study with a broader dose range is warranted to further investigate DHEA’s role in the management of schizophrenia.
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006 Oct;26(5):495-9
Dehydroepiandrosterone monotherapy in midlife-onset major and minor depression.
CONTEXT: Alternative and over-the-counter medicines have become increasingly popular choices for many patients who prefer not to take traditional antidepressants. The adrenal androgen and neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is available as over-the-counter hormonal therapy and previously has been reported to have antidepressant-like effects. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of DHEA as a monotherapy treatment for midlife-onset depression. DESIGN: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover treatment study was performed from January 4, 1996, through August 31, 2002. Settings The National Institute of Mental Health Midlife Outpatient Clinic in the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, Md. Patients Men (n = 23) and women (n = 23) aged 45 to 65 years with midlife-onset major or minor depression participated in this study. None of the subjects received concurrent antidepressant medications. Intervention Six weeks of DHEA therapy, 90 mg/d for 3 weeks and 450 mg/d for 3 weeks, and 6 weeks of placebo. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The 17-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Additional measures included the Derogatis Interview for Sexual Functioning. Results were analyzed by means of repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc Bonferroni t tests. RESULTS: Six weeks of DHEA administration was associated with a significant improvement in the 17-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale ratings compared with both baseline (P<.01) and 6 weeks of placebo treatment (P<.01). A 50% or greater reduction in baseline Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores was observed in 23 subjects after DHEA and in 13 subjects after placebo treatments. Six weeks of DHEA treatment also was associated with significant improvements in Derogatis Interview for Sexual Functioning scores relative to baseline and placebo conditions. CONCLUSION: We find DHEA to be an effective treatment for midlife-onset major and minor depression.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;62(2):154-62
Association of plasma sex hormone levels with functional decline in elderly men and women.
AIM: We aimed to determine whether plasma sex hormone levels are associated with activities of daily living (ADL), cognition, depression and vitality in elderly individuals with functional decline.METHODS: Two hundred and eight consecutive persons 70 years or older (108 men and 100 women; mean +/- standard deviation, 81 +/- 7 years) with a chronic stable condition, receiving long-term care at a long-term care facilities located in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, were enrolled. Plasma total testosterone, free testosterone (only in men), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) and estradiol levels were determined in the morning after an overnight fast. Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed including basic ADL by Barthel Index, instrumental ADL, cognitive function by Hasegawa Dementia Scale--Revised, mood by Geriatric Depression Scale and ADL-related vitality by Vitality Index. RESULTS: Simple regression analysis showed that, in men, plasma total and free testosterone levels were associated with basic ADL (R = 0.292 and R = 0.282), instrumental ADL (R = 0.261 and R = 0.408), cognitive function (R = 0.393 and R = 0.553) and vitality (R = 0.246 and R = 0.396), while DHEA(-S) was associated with cognitive function, and estradiol with cognitive function as well as vitality. In women, the only significant correlation was between DHEA(-S) and basic ADL. Adjustment for age and nutritional markers did not influence the associations of plasma sex hormone levels with functional scores except for that of free testosterone with Barthel Index. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that sex hormones have sex-specific associations with physical and neuropsychiatric functions in elderly individuals, and that endogenous testosterone is related to global function in elderly men.
Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2009 Sep;9(3):282-9
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cognitive function in the elderly: The InCHIANTI Study.
DHEA and its sulfate derivative (DHEAS) decline with age. The decline in DHEAS levels has been associated with many physiological impairments in older persons including cognitive dysfunction. However, data regarding the possible relationship between DHEAS and cognition are scant. We investigated whether DHEAS levels are associated with presence and development of lower cognitive function measured by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in older men and women. One thousand and thirty-four residents aged > or =65 yr of the InCHIANTI Study with data available on DHEAS and MMSE were randomly selected. MMSE was administered at baseline and 3 yr later. Among these, 841 completed a 3-yr follow-up. Parsimonious models obtained by backward selection from initial fully-adjusted models were used to identify independent factors associated with MMSE and DHEAS. The final analysis was performed in 755 participants (410 men and 345 women) with MMSE score > or =21. A significant age-related decline of both DHEAS levels (p<0.001) and MMSE score (p<0.001) was found over the 3-yr follow-up. At enrolment, DHEAS was significantly and positively associated with MMSE score, independently of age and other potential confounders (beta+/-SE 0.003+/-0.001, p<0.005). Low baseline DHEAS levels were predictive of larger decline of MMSE and this relationship was significant after adjusting for covariates (beta+/-SE -0.004+/-0.002, p<0.03). Our data show a significant and positive association between DHEAS and cognitive function, assessed by MMSE test. Low DHEAS levels predict accelerated decline in MMSE score during the 3-yr follow-up period.
J Endocrinol Invest. 2009 Oct;32(9):766-72
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels are associated with more favorable cognitive function in women.
CONTEXT: It has been proposed that dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) exert neuroprotective effects in the brain, yet evidence of associations between the endogenous levels of these steroids and measures of cognitive function is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate whether circulating levels of DHEAS independently contribute to aspects of cognitive function in women in the community. DESIGN: This was a community-based, cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred ninety-five women, aged 21-77 yr, were recruited from a community-based data set and participated between September 2003 and December 2004. Women were excluded if they reported any health condition that might potentially adversely affect cognitive function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The individual scores of a comprehensive battery of tests of cognitive function and the serum level of DHEAS (square root transformed) were measured.RESULTS: In the multiple linear regression analysis, the DHEAS term made a significant independent positive contribution to the Controlled Oral Word Association Test score, a measure of executive function. In addition, women with a DHEAS level in the highest tertile who also had more than 12 yr of education performed better on both Digit Span Forward and Digit Span Backward tests, which are tests of simple concentration and working memory, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Higher endogenous DHEAS levels are independently and favorably associated with executive function, concentration, and working memory.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Mar;93(3):801-8