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May 2011

Effect of administration of fermented milk containing whey protein concentrate to rats and healthy men on serum lipids and blood pressure.

The effect of fermented milk supplemented with whey protein concentrate on the serum lipid level of rats was investigated. The serum total cholesterol level for the group fed fermented milk with both Lactobacillus casei TMC0409 and Streptococcus thermophilus TMC 1543 was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05) in rats. Furthermore, the effect of the longterm intake of this fermented milk on the serum lipid level of twenty healthy adult men was investigated. During the 8-wk study, the volunteers consumed 200 ml of fermented milk or placebo in the morning and evening. Blood samples were drawn for analysis three times, just before taking the experimental diet, and after 4 wk and 8 wk of consumption. After 8 wk, the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level for the fermented milk group showed a significant rise after 4 wk (P<0.05), whereas that of the placebo group showed no change even after 4 wk (P>0.05). The triglyceride level for the fermented milk group lowered significantly after 4 wk (<0.05), whereas that of the placebo group showed no change even after 4 wk (P>0.05). The atherogenic index [(total cholesterol - high density lipoprotein cholesterol)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol] for the fermented milk group decreased significantly from 4.24 to 3.52 (P<0.05). The systolic blood pressure lowered significantly by the intake of fermented milk (P<0.05) On the other hand, such effect was not observed in the placebo group (P>0.05). These results indicate potential of the development of fermented milk with multiple therapeutic effects.

J Dairy Sci. 2000 Feb;83(2):255-63

Effects of whey peptides on cardiovascular disease risk factors.

Previous studies have shown that peptides derived from milk proteins can improve blood pressure. Therefore, the authors tested the blood pressure-lowering effects of a hydrolyzed whey protein supplement rich in bioactive peptides. In a 6-week controlled study, 30 prehypertensive or stage 1 hypertensive subjects (blood pressure >or=120/80 mm Hg and <or=155/95 mm Hg) were randomized to receive 20 g/d of either a hydrolyzed whey protein (active treatment) or an unmodified whey protein (control treatment). Blood pressure, blood lipids, safety measures, side effects, and diet were evaluated throughout the trial. After completion of treatment, a 4-week follow-up was conducted. There was a mean reduction of 8.0+/-3.2 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (P<.05) and of 5.5+/-2.1 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (P<.05) in the treatment group compared with the control group. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were significantly improved by treatment. Whey-derived peptides might be a viable treatment option for prehypertensive and/or stage 1 hypertensive populations.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2006 Nov;8(11):775-82

Angiotensin I converting enzyme-inhibitory activity of bovine, ovine, and caprine kappa-casein macropeptides and their tryptic hydrolysates.

This work evaluated the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities of bovine, ovine, and caprine kappa-casein macropeptides (CMPs) and their tryptic hydrolysates. The results obtained indicate that bovine, ovine, and caprine CMPs exhibited moderate in vitro ACE-inhibitory activities that increased considerably after digestion under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Active peptides could also be produced from CMPs via proteolysis with trypsin, with tryptic hydrolysates exhibiting a more extensive ACE-inhibitory activity than intact CMPs during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Two active fractions were chromatographically separated from the tryptic hydrolysate of the bovine CMP, but their complexity hampered the assignment of the ACE-inhibitory activity to specific peptide sequences. Evidence for the release of the strong ACE-inhibitory tripeptide IPP was found upon simulation of the gastrointestinal digestion of peptides released by trypsin from the CMP sequence. These findings might help to promote further exploitation of cheese whey in the preparation of nutraceuticals for inclusion in the composition of functional food products with high added values.

J Food Prot. 2003 Sep;66(9):1686-92

Release of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion: from batch experiment to semicontinuous model.

Gastrointestinal digestion is of major importance in the bioavailability of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides, bioactive peptides with possible antihypertensive effects. In this study, the conditions of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion leading to the formation and degradation of ACE inhibitory peptides were investigated for pea and whey protein. In batch experiments, the digestion simulating the physiological conditions sufficed to achieve the highest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC(50) values of 0.076 mg/mL for pea and 0.048 mg/mL for whey protein. The degree of proteolysis did not correlate with the ACE inhibitory activity and was always higher for pea than whey. In a semicontinuous model of gastrointestinal digestion, response surface methodology studied the influence of temperature and incubation time in both the stomach and small intestine phases on the ACE inhibitory activity and degree of proteolysis. For pea protein, a linear model for the degree of proteolysis and a quadratic model for the ACE inhibitory activity could be constituted. Within the model, a maximal degree of proteolysis was observed at the highest temperature and the longest incubation time in the small intestine phase, while maximal ACE inhibitory activity was obtained at the longest incubation times in the stomach and small intestine phase. These results show that ACE inhibitory activity of pea and whey hydrolysates can be controlled by the conditions of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Sep 10;51(19):5680-7

Structural analysis of new antihypertensive peptides derived from cheese whey protein by proteinase K digestion.

Whey protein was digested with one of seven kinds of proteases at 37 degrees C (trypsin, proteinase K, actinase E, thermolysin, or papain) or at 25 degrees C (pepsin or chymotrypsin) for 24 h. The digested samples were assayed for the inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme and for changes in the systolic blood pressure caused in spontaneously hypertensive rats after gastric intubation. The strongest depressive effect on the systolic blood pressure (-55 mm Hg) was observed at 6 h after gastric intubation of the whey protein that was digested by proteinase K. Finally, six peptides were chromatographically isolated from the proteinase K digest by a combination of hydrophobic reversed-phase HPLC and gel filtration. The amino acid sequences and their origins were clarified as follows: Val-Tyr-Pro-Phe-Pro-Gly [beta-casein (CN); f 59-64], Gly-Lys-Pro (beta 2-microglobulin; f 18-20), Ile-Pro-Ala (beta-lactoglobulin; f 78-80), Phe-Pro (serum albumin; f 221-222; beta-CN, f 62-63, f 157-158, and f 205-206), Val-Tyr-Pro (beta-CN; f 59-61), and Thr-Pro-Val-Val-Val-Pro-Pro-Phe-Leu-Gln-Pro (beta-CN; f 80-90). Chemical synthesis of these six peptides confirmed that all peptides, except an undecapeptide, have antihypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. The synthetic tripeptide Ile-Pro-Ala, originating from beta-lactoglobulin, showed the strongest antihypertensive activity (-31 mm Hg).

J Dairy Sci. 1998 Dec;81(12):3131-8

Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory properties of whey protein digests: concentration and characterization of active peptides.

The aim of this study was to identify whey-derived peptides with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. The bovine whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin were hydrolysed with pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatin, elastase or carboxypeptidase alone and in combination. The total hydrolysates were fractionated in a two step ultrafiltration process, first with a 30 kDa membrane and then with a 1 kDa membrane. Inhibition of ACE was analysed spectrophotometrically. The peptides were isolated by chromatography and identified by mass and sequencing analysis. The most potent inhibitory peptides were synthesized by the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl solid phase method. Inhibition of ACE was observed after hydrolysis with trypsin alone, and with an enzyme combination containing pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Whey protein digests gave a 50% inhibition (IC50) of ACE activity at concentration ranges within 345-1733 micrograms/ml. The IC50 values for the 1-30 kDa fractions ranged from 485 to 1134 micrograms/ml and for the < 1 kDa fraction from 109 to 837 mg/ml. Several ACE-inhibitory peptides were isolated from the hydrolysates by reversed-phase chromatography, and the potencies of the purified peptide fractions had IC50 values of 77-1062 microM. The ACE-inhibitory peptides identified were alpha-lactalbumin fractions (50-52), (99-108) and (104-108) and beta-lactoglobulin fractions (22-25), (32-40), (81-83), (94-100), (106-111) and (142-146).

J Dairy Res. 2000 Feb;67(1):53-64

In vitro study on digestion of peptides in Emmental cheese: analytical evaluation and influence on angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides.

A simple in vitro protocol simulating gastrointestinal digestion of proteins and peptides to investigate the effect of digestive enzymes on the biological activity of peptides present in dairy products was developed. This protocol consisted in a 30 min incubation with pepsin followed by a 4 h incubation with trypsin or pancreatin. It was applied to an Emmental cheese water-soluble extract (WSE) and to a casein solution (as a control). Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) allowed to monitor the digestion of proteins. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) allowed to monitor the conversion of proteins and peptides into peptides and amino acids: it is proposed to use the mean retention time corresponding to the overall retention time distribution of molecules to assess the effect of digestive enzymes. The biological activity focused in this study was the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Digestion of Emmental WSE induced an increase of the ACE inhibition as compared to undigested WSE while a 10 kDa ultrafiltered WSE lost a part of its ACE inhibitory activity after digestion process. These results strongly suggest that digestive enzymes diminished the ACE inhibition by the peptides present in Emmental cheese WSE, while the digestion of peptides of high molecular weight would generate new ACE inhibitory peptides.

Nahrung. 2003 Apr;47(2):87-94

The impact of fermentation and in vitro digestion on the formation of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity from pea and whey protein.

Pea and whey protein were fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in monoculture and in combination at 28 and 37 degrees C in order to release angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides. The fermentation products were subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and the digests of nonfermented samples served as controls. After fermentation, the ACE inhibitory activity (%) increased by 18 to 30% for all treatments, except for the fermentations of whey protein with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 28 degrees C, where no significant change was observed. After digestion, however, both fermented and nonfermented samples reached maximum ACE inhibitory activity. The whey digests tended to have lower (50%) inhibitory concentrations (IC50; 0.14 to 0.07 mg/ml), hence, higher ACE inhibitory activity, than the pea digests (0.23 to 0.11 mg/ml). The nonfermented whey protein digest showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity of all. For pea protein, the nonfermented sample had the lowest IC50 value. These results suggest that in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was the predominant factor controlling the formation of ACE inhibitory activity, hence, indicating its importance in the bioavailability of ACE inhibitory peptides.

J Dairy Sci. 2003 Feb;86(2):429-38

A quantitative in silico analysis calculates the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity in pea and whey protein digests.

Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides can induce antihypertensive effects after oral administration. By means of an ACE inhibitory peptide database, containing about 500 reported sequences and their IC(50) values, the different proteins in pea and whey were quantitatively evaluated as precursors for ACE inhibitory peptides. This analysis was combined with experimental data from the evolution in ACE inhibitory activity and protein degradation during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Pea proteins produced similar in silico scores and were degraded early in the in vitro digestion. High ACE inhibitory activity was observed after the simulated stomach phase and augmented slightly in the simulated small intestine phase. The major whey protein beta-lactoglobulin obtained the highest in silico scores, which corresponded with the fact that degradation of this protein in vitro only occurred from the simulated small intestine phase on and resulted in a 10-fold increase in the ACE inhibitory activity. Whey protein obtained total in silico scores of about 124 ml/mg, compared to 46 ml/mg for pea protein, indicating that whey protein would be a richer source of ACE inhibitory peptides than pea protein. Although beta-lactoglobulin is only partially digested, a higher ACE inhibitory activity was indeed found in the whey (IC(50) = 0.048 mg/ml) compared to the pea digest (IC(50) = 0.076 mg/ml). In silico gastrointestinal digestion of the highest scoring proteins in pea and whey, vicilin and albumin PA2, and beta-lactoglobulin, respectively, directly released a number of potent ACE inhibitory peptides. Several other ACE inhibitory sequences resisted in silico digestion by gastrointestinal proteases. Briefly, the quantitative in silico analysis will facilitate the study of precursor proteins on a large scale and the specific release of bioactive peptides.

Biochimie. 2004 Mar;86(3):231-9

Influence of the lactokinin Ala-Leu-Pro-Met-His-Ile-Arg (ALPMHIR) on the release of endothelin-1 by endothelial cells.

Milk protein-derived peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity can reduce blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. The lactokinin Ala-Leu-Pro-Met-His-Ile-Arg (ALPMHIR) is an ACE-inhibitory peptide released by tryptic digestion from the milk protein beta-lactoglobulin. Its ACE-inhibitory activity is 100 times lower than that of captopril. The latter is known to inhibit the release of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) by endothelial cells. The effects of ALPMHIR on the endothelium are currently unknown. In this study, the influence of ALPMHIR on release of ET-1 by endothelial cells was investigated. The basal ET-1 release of the cells was reduced by 29% (p<0.01) in the presence of 1 mM ALPMHIR, compared to 42% (p<0.01) for 0.1 mM captopril. Addition of 10 U/ml thrombin to the incubation medium increased the release of ET-1 by 66% (p<0.01). Co-incubation of 10 U/ml thrombin with 1 microM captopril or with 0.1 mM ALPMHIR inhibited the stimulated ET-1 release by 45% (p<0.01) and by 32% (p<0.01), respectively. These data indicate that dietary peptides, such as ALPMHIR, can modulate ET-1 release by endothelial cells. These effects, among other mechanisms, may play a role in the anti-hypertensive effect of milk protein-derived peptides.

Regul Pept. 2004 Apr 15;118(1-2):105-9