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Neck Cream

April 2013

By Atherosclerosis

Improving self-esteem by improving physical attractiveness.

Many characteristics comprise a person’s personality: achievement orientation, interest to be sociable, aggressiveness, need for order, disposition, and so on. One of the most important personality characteristics in every person’s life is self-esteem, which can be defined in terms of cognitive generalizations derived from past experiences. Since people are not isolated from their environment, a person’s experiences impact his or her self-esteem. Since a person’s physical attractiveness is known to be a major factor in his or her experiences, it is logical (as well as empirically documented) to be a substantial influence on self-esteem. The research shows that improving a physical trait improves attitude, personality, and self-esteem. Likewise, improving physical attractiveness improves interpersonal interactions. These more positive interactions are internalized intrapersonally (within a person), with direct, corresponding impact on the person’s self-esteem.

J Esthet Dent. 1997;9(1):44-6

Rejuvenation of the aging neck: current principles, techniques, and newer modifications.

Aesthetic improvement of the neck and cervicomental angle remains one of the most challenging aspects of surgical facial rejuvenation. Individuals may become dissatisfied with the appearance of their neck because of changes in skin quality, submental fat, and muscle tone or anatomic position related to aging, weight gain, weight loss, sun damage, and other causes. To achieve the patient’s desired result, surgeons use various techniques, either in isolation or in combination. Careful preoperative evaluation of the patient’s anatomy dictates the most appropriate procedure, ranging from laser skin resurfacing to sub-superficial muscular aponeurotic system (sub-SMAS) rhytidectomy with an extended platysmaplasty. This article reviews the techniques that are available and the decision-making process in choosing the appropriate technique for the individual patient.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2009 Nov;17(4):589-601

Age-related functional and structural changes in human dermo-epidermal junction components.

Cultured normal human keratinocytes obtained from 14 facial skin biopsies of donors aged 9-79 y were used to study the influence of donor age on the integrin receptors, cell adhesive properties in vitro, and type VII collagen synthesis. Immuno-spectrofluorimetric quantitation of integrins showed a decrease in the beta1- and beta4-subunits in low (0.08 mM) and high (1.8 mM) calcium conditions with aging. Calcium ions decreased the fluorescence intensity by relocating integrins at cell boundaries. Measurements of adhering cells showed that adhesion to bovine serum albumin-, type IV collagen- or laminin 1-coated plastic surfaces initially increased until donor age reached 30 y and then decreased. Specific adhesion to type IV collagen and laminin 1 did not vary with age, but the increase in adhesion to type IV collagen produced by manganese ions increased with age, suggesting an age-dependent feature of beta1 integrin. Synthesis of type VII collagen, increased or not by TGFbeta1 (10 ng per ml), did not vary with the donor age. Global normalized principal component analysis showed that variables related to integrins were strongly correlated, as were those of adhesion. Pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy of freshly isolated keratinocytes showed that certain hemidesmosomes from aged cells had little or no reaction with anti-beta4-chain antibody. Post-embedding type IV collagen immunostaining and image analysis showed less type IV collagen in adult dermo-epidermal junctions. These findings indicate that there are structural and functional changes in the dermo-epidermal junction components with aging, probably giving a less effective epidermal anchoring system.

J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 1998 Aug;3(2):172-9

Morphology of aged skin.

Despite an overall thinning of the epidermis and focal areas of cytologic atypia, there was no morphologic evidence that the protective function of this tissue was compromised by age. The characteristic morphologic markers associated with the keratinization process were not altered either in appearance or in amounts. A well-formed stratum corneum was present, suggestive that barrier ability is not compromised in senile skin. Whereas alterations in the aged epidermis are slight, the dermal-epidermal changes are marked and have greater physiologic

consequences. The major change is a relatively flat dermal-epidermal junction because of retraction of the epidermal papillae as well as the microprojections of basal cells into the dermis. This flattening results in a more fragile tissue that is less resistant to shearing forces. Retraction of the epidermal downgrowths may also explain the loss in proliferative capacity associated with the aged epidermis. The major alterations in the aged dermis concern the architecture of the collagen and elastin networks. Both fibrous components appear more compact because of a decrease in the voids or spaces between the fibers; the spaces resulted from a loss of ground substance. Collagen bundles appear to unravel, and the individual elastic fibers show signs of elastolysis. The net effect of these fibrous rearrangements and alterations is a dermis that is less stretchable, less resilient, more lax, and prone to wrinkling.

Clin Geriatr Med. 1989 Feb;5(1):53-67

Antioxidant activities of some common ingredients of traditional chinese medicine, Angelica sinensis, Lycium barbarum and Poria cocos.

The antioxidant activities of three popular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine, namely Angelica sinensis (AS), Lycium barbarum (LB) and Poria cocos (PC) were evaluated in this study. The results showed that aqueous extracts of these crude drugs exhibited antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. All extracts displayed an inhibitory effect on FeCl2-ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate in vitro, with the order of activity LB > AS > PC. The tested extracts showed a superoxide anion scavenging activity ranging from 28.8% to 82.2% and anti-superoxide activity varying from 38.0% to 84.5%. Among the different extracts, LB extract exhibited the lowest IC50 values (0.77-2.55 microg/mL) in all model systems tested in this study. The present study concludes that LB extract possessed the strongest inhibition on malondialdehyde formation in rat liver homogenate, and superoxide anion scavenging and anti-superoxide formation activities. These results also suggest that LB extract is a good source of antioxidant agent in the daily dietary supplement.

Phytother Res. 2004 Dec;18(12):1008-12

Goji (Lycium barbarum and L. chinense): Phytochemistry, pharmacology and safety in the perspective of traditional uses and recent popularity.

Since the beginning of this century, Goji berries and juice are being sold as health food products in western countries and praised in advertisements and in the media for well-being and as an anti-aging remedy. The popularity of Goji products has rapidly grown over the last years thanks to efficient marketing strategies. Goji is a relatively new name given to Lycium barbarum and L. chinense, two close species with a long tradition of use as medicinal and food plants in East Asia, in particular in China. While only L. barbarum is officinal, the fruit (fructus Lycii) and the root bark (cortex Lycii radicis) of both species are used in the folk medicine. We review here the constituents, pharmacology, safety, and uses of L. barbarum and L. chinense with consideration to the different parts of the plant. Investigations of the fruit have focused on proteoglycans, known as “Lycium barbarum polysaccharides,” which showed antioxidative properties and some interesting pharmacological activities in the context of age related diseases such as atherosclerosis and diabetes. As to the root bark, several compounds have demonstrated a hepatoprotective action as well as inhibitory effects on the rennin/angiotensin system which may support the traditional use for the treatment of hypertension. While there are no signs of toxicity of this plant, two cases of possible interaction with warfarin point to a potential risk of drug interaction. In view of the available pharmacological data and the long tradition of use in the traditional Chinese medicine, L. barbarum and L. chinense certainly deserve further investigation. However, clinical evidences and rigorous procedures for quality control are indispensable before any recommendation of use can be made for Goji products.

Planta Med. 2010 Jan;76(1):7-19

Lycium barbarum glycoconjugates: effect on human skin and cultured dermal fibroblasts.

Lycium barbarum L. (Solan-aceae) glycoconjugates (LbGp) display an interesting array of anti-apoptotic and antioxidant properties, which may be beneficial for human skin. We therefore set out to determine the effects of LbGp in full-thickness human skin, and in dermal fibroblasts. It was found that LbGp decreased the level of MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-1 significantly, but not that of MMP-3 or -13, in the whole human skin system, without compromising the viability of the skin. Consistently, LbGp inhibited skin expansion under mechanical stress, which in this model depends on the activity of MMP-1. We found that one of L. barbarum glycoconjugates, the LbGp5, promoted the survival of human fibroblasts cultured in suboptimal conditions. Furthermore, in the presence of LbGp5, these cultures also contained higher levels of the MMP-1 substrate--collagen type I. Together these results suggest that L. barbarum glycoconjugates in general, and LbGp5 in particular, may have important skin-protective properties.

Phytomedicine. 2005 Jan;12(1-2):131-7

Therapeutic potential of Phyllanthus emblica (amla): the ayurvedic wonder.

Medicinal plants are nature’s gift to human beings to promote a disease free healthy life. Many medicinal plants are present in a group of herbal preparations of the Indian traditional health care system (Ayurveda) named Rasayana proposed for their interesting antioxidant activities. Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (syn. Emblica officinalis), commonly known as Indian gooseberry or amla, family Euphorbiaceae, is an important herbal drug used in unani (Graceo - arab) and ayurvedic systems of medicine. The plant is used both as a medicine and as a tonic to build up lost vitality and vigor. Phyllanthus emblica is highly nutritious and could be an important dietary source of vitamin C, amino acids, and minerals. The plant also contains phenolic compounds, tannins, phyllembelic acid, phyllembelin, rutin, curcum-inoids, and emblicol. All parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes, especially the fruit, which has been used in Ayurveda as a potent rasayana and in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, jaundice, and inflammation. Various plant parts show antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, and chemopreventive properties. Here we discuss its historical, etymological, morphological and pharmacological aspects.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;21(1):93-105

Effect of Emblica officinalis (fruit) against UVB-induced photo-aging in human skin fibroblasts.

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Emblica officinalis fruit (EO), commonly known as Amla is a reputed traditional medicine and functional food used in Indian subcontinent. It has long been used in Indian folk medicine to treat liver diseases, stomach ulcers, inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, geriatric complaints, skin disorders and beauty care. AIM OF THE STUDY: Recently, it has been shown to promote pro-collagen content and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase levels in skin fibroblast. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of EO to inhibit UVB-induced photo-aging in human skin fibroblasts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mitochondrial activity of human skin fibroblasts was measured by MTT-assay. Quantifications of pro-collagen 1 and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) release were performed by immunoassay techniques. Hyaluronidase inhibition assay was studied in vitro using bovine testicular hyaluronidase and human umbilical cord hyaluronic acid. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flowcytometry using propidium iodide. RESULTS: EO stimulated, the otherwise UVB inhibited cellular proliferation and protected pro-collagen 1 against UVB-induced depletion via inhibition of UVB-induced MMP-1 in skin fibroblasts (10-40 µg/mL, p>0.001). EO exhibited inhibitory activity of hyaluronidase 10-40 µg/mL, p>0.001). Treatment with EO also prevented UVB disturbed cell cycle to normal phase. CONCLUSION:  The results of the present study suggests that EO effectively inhibits UVB-induced photo-aging in human skin fibroblast via its strong ROS scavenging ability and its therapeutic and cosmetic applications remain to be explored.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Oct 28;132(1):109-14

Type I pro-collagen promoting and anti-collagenase activities of Phyllanthus emblica extract in mouse fibroblasts.

As part of an ongoing search for the novel pharmacological activities of Phyllanthus emblica, the present study has shown its type I collagen promoting and anti-collagenase effects on primary mouse fibroblast cells. At a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml, emblica extract significantly increased the type I pro-collagen level up to 1.65-fold, and 6.78-fold greater than that of an untreated control, determined by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis, respectively. Emblica extract caused an approximately 7.75-fold greater type I pro-collagen induction compared to the known herbal collagen enhancer asiaticoside at the same treatment concentration (0.1 mg/ml). Moreover, emblica extract inhibited collagenase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Maximal inhibition was observed (78.67 +/- 3.51%) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. In summary, emblica extract has a promising pharmacological effect that benefits collagen synthesis and protects against its degradation and could be used as a natural anti-aging ingredient.

J Cosmet Sci. 2009 Jul-Aug;60(4):395-403