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Vitamin D

August 2013

Comparison of the administration of progesterone versus progesterone and vitamin D in improvement of outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury: A randomized clinical trial with placebo group.

BACKGROUND: Due to the heterogeneity of traumatic brain injury (TBI), many of single treatments have not been successful in prevention and cure of these kinds of injuries. The neuroprotective effect of progesterone drug on severe brain injuries has been identified, and recently, the neuroprotective effect of vitamin D has also been studied as the combination of these two drugs has shown better effects on animal samples in some studies. This study was conducted to examine the effect of vitamin D and progesterone on brain injury treatment after brain trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed on patients with severe brain trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤ 8) from April to September, 2011. The patients were divided to 3 groups (placebo, progesterone, progesterone-vitamin D), each with 20 people. Upon the patients’ admission, their GCS and demographic information were recorded. After 3 months, they were reassessed, and their GCS and GOS (Glasgow outcome scale) were recorded. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). RESULTS: Before intervention, GCS mean of the placebo, progesterone, and progesterone-vitamin D groups were 6.3 ± 0.88, 6.31 ± 0.87, and 6 ± 0.88, respectively. They increased to 9.16 ± 1.11, 10.25 ± 1.34, and 11.27 ± 2.27, respectively 3 months after intervention. There was a significant difference among GCS means of the 3 groups (P-value = 0.001). GOS was classified to 2 main categories of favorable and unfavorable recovery, of which, favorable recovery in placebo, progesterone, and progesterone-vitamin D was 25%, 45%, and 60%, respectively which showed a statistical significant difference among the groups (P-value = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The results showed that recovery rate in patients with severe brain trauma in the group receiving progesterone and vitamin D together was significantly higher than that of progesterone group, which was in turn higher than that of placebo group.

Adv Biomed Res. 2012;1:58

Bone mineral density and vitamin D status among African American children with forearm fractures.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether African American children with forearm fractures have decreased bone mineral density and an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level ≤ 20 ng/mL) compared with fracture-free control patients. METHODS: This case-control study in African American children, aged 5 to 9 years, included case patients with forearm fracture and control patients without fracture. Evaluation included measurement of bone mineral density and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to test for associations between fracture status and 2 measures of bone health (bone mineral density and 25-hydroxyvitamin D level) while controlling for other potential confounders. RESULTS: The final sample included 76 case and 74 control patients. There were no significant differences between case and control patients in age, gender, parental education level, enrollment season, outdoor play time, height, or mean dietary calcium nutrient density. Cases were more likely than control patients to be overweight (49.3% vs 31.4%, P = .03). Compared with control patients, case patients had lower whole body z scores for bone mineral density (0.62 ± 0.96 vs 0.98 ± 1.09; adjusted odds ratio 0.38 [0.20-0.72]) and were more likely to be vitamin D deficient (47.1% vs 40.8%; adjusted odds ratio 3.46 [1.09-10.94]). CONCLUSIONS: These data support an association of lower bone mineral density and vitamin D deficiency with increased odds of forearm fracture among African American children. Because suboptimal childhood bone health also negatively impacts adult bone health, interventions to increase bone mineral density and correct vitamin D deficiency are indicated in this population to provide short-term and long-term benefits.

Pediatrics. 2012 Sep;130(3):e553-60

Dietary intake and stress fractures among

BACKGROUND: Appropriate and sufficient dietary intake is one of the main requirements for maintaining fitness and health. Inadequate energy intake may have a negative impact on physical performance which may result in injuries among physically active populations. The purpose of this research was to evaluate a possible relationship between dietary intake and stress fracture occurrence among combat recruits during basic training (BT). METHODS: Data was collected from 74 combat recruits (18.2 ± 0.6 yrs) in the Israeli Defense Forces. Data analyses included changes in anthropometric measures, dietary intake, blood iron and calcium levels. Measurements were taken on entry to 4-month BT and at the end of BT. The occurrence of stress reaction injury was followed prospectively during the entire 6-month training period. RESULTS: Twelve recruits were diagnosed with stress fracture in the tibia or femur (SF group). Sixty two recruits completed BT without stress fractures (NSF). Calcium and vitamin D intakes reported on induction day were lower in the SF group compared to the NSF group-38.9% for calcium (589 ± 92 and 964 ± 373 mg·d-1, respectively, p < 0.001), and-25.1% for vitamin D (117.9 ± 34.3 and 157.4 ± 93.3 IU·d-1, respectively, p < 0.001). During BT calcium and vitamin D intake continued to be at the same low values for the SF group but decreased for the NSF group and no significant differences were found between these two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The development of stress fractures in young recruits during combat BT was associated with dietary deficiency before induction and during BT of mainly vitamin D and calcium. For the purpose of intervention, the fact that the main deficiency is before induction will need special consideration.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Mar 13;9(1):6

Epidemiology of metatarsal stress fractures versus tibial and femoral stress fractures during elite training.

BACKGROUND: The training of elite infantry recruits takes a year or more. Stress fractures are known to be endemic in their basic training and the clinical presentation of tibial, femoral, and metatarsal stress fractures are different. Stress fracture incidence during the subsequent progressively more demanding training is not known. The study hypothesis was that after an adaptation period, the incidence of stress fractures during the course of 1 year of elite infantry training would fall in spite of the increasingly demanding training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-six male elite infantry recruits were followed for the development of stress fractures during a progressively more difficult training program composed of basic training (1 to 14 weeks), advanced training (14 to 26 weeks), and unit training (26 to 52 weeks). Subjects were reviewed regularly and those with clinical suspicion of stress fracture were assessed using bone scan and X-rays. RESULTS: The incidence of stress fractures was 20% during basic training, 14% during advanced training and 23% during unit training. There was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of tibial and femoral stress fractures versus metatarsal stress fractures before and after the completion of phase II training at week 26 (p=0.0001). Seventy-eight percent of the stress fractures during phases I and II training were either tibial or femoral, while 91% of the stress fractures in phase III training were metatarsal. Prior participation in ball sports (p=0.02) and greater tibial length (p=0.05) were protective factors for stress fracture. CONCLUSION: The study hypothesis that after a period of soldier adaptation, the incidence of stress fractures would decrease in spite of the increasingly demanding elite infantry training was found to be true for tibial and femoral fractures after 6 months of training but not for metatarsal stress fractures. Further studies are required to understand the mechanism of this difference but physicians and others treating stress fractures should be aware of this pattern.

Foot Ankle Int. 2011 Jan;32(1):16-20

Plasma 25 hydroxyvitamin D level and blood gene expression profiles: a cross-sectional study of the Norwegian Women and Cancer Post-genome Cohort.

Background/Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of developing several diseases, but much is unknown about the molecular effects involved. Gene expression technology is increasingly being used to elucidate molecular mechanisms related to nutritional factors, and in this study of free-living, middle-aged Norwegian women, we aimed at identifying gene expression pathways in the blood associated with vitamin D status. Subjects/Methods: Blood samples and questionnaires were collected as a part of the Norwegian Women and Cancer Post-genome Cohort (500 invited subjects, 218 included). Plasma 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, and we compared groups with sufficient versus deficient vitamin D status (25(OH)D >50 nmol/l (n=66) versus <37.5 nmol/l (n=83)), to identify differences in gene expression profiles obtained using full-genome microarrays. Results: In a targeted pathway-level analysis, several immunological processes, immune cell functions and major signaling pathways were differentially regulated according to vitamin D status (P<0.01). To a certain degree, results from in vitro studies reported in the literature were reflected in this population setting. Conclusions: We conclude that vitamin D status measured as 25(OH)D was associated with molecular pathways that may ultimately affect the potential onset of diseases. The use of gene expression analysis in a population setting may give valuable input to the study of effects of nutritional factors.

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar 6

Vitamin D deficiency and myocardial diseases.

Vitamin D deficiency is common among patients with myocardial diseases because sun-induced vitamin D production in the skin and dietary intake of vitamin D is often insufficient. Knockout mice for the vitamin D receptor develop myocardial hypertrophy and dysfunction. It has also been shown that children with rickets who suffered from severe heart failure could be successfully treated with supplementation of vitamin D plus calcium. In adults, almost all patients with heart failure exhibit reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, which are used to classify the vitamin D status. In prospective studies, vitamin D deficiency was an independent risk factor for mortality, deaths due to heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Several vitamin D effects on the electrophysiology, contractility, and structure of the heart suggest that vitamin D deficiency might be a causal factor for myocardial diseases. Data from interventional trials, however, are rare and urgently needed to elucidate whether vitamin D supplementation is useful for the treatment of myocardial diseases. In our opinion, the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of vitamin D on myocardial and overall health strongly argue for vitamin D supplementation in all vitamin D-deficient patients with or at high risk for myocardial diseases.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Aug;54(8):1103-13

Worsening severity of vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased length of stay, surgical intensive care unit cost, and mortality rate in surgical intensive care unit patients.

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the United States. It is seldom measured or recognized, and rarely is treated, particularly in critically ill patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and impact of vitamin D deficiency in surgical intensive care unit patients. We hypothesized that severe vitamin D deficiency increases the length of stay, mortality rate, and cost in critically ill patients admitted to surgical intensive care units. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of vitamin D status on 258 consecutive patients admitted to the Surgical Intensive Care Unit at Grady Memorial Hospital between August 2009 and January 2010. Vitamin D levels (25 [OH]2 vitamin-D3) were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as follows: severe deficiency was categorized as less than 13 ng/mL; moderate deficiency was categorized as 14 to 26 ng/mL; mild deficiency was categorized as 27 to 39 ng/mL; and normal levels were categorized as greater than 40 ng/mL. RESULTS: Of the 258 patients evaluated, 70.2% (181) were men, and 29.8% (77) were women; 57.6% (148) were African American and 32.4% (109) were Caucasian. A total of 138 (53.5%) patients had severe vitamin D deficiency, 96 (37.2%) had moderate deficiency, 18 (7.0%) had mild deficiency, and 3 (1.2%) of the patients had normal vitamin D levels. The mean length of stay in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit for the severe vitamin D-deficient group was 13.33 ± 19.5 days versus 7.29 ± 15.3 days and 5.17 ± 6.5 days for the moderate and mild vitamin D-deficient groups, respectively, which was clinically significant (P = .002). The mean treatment cost during the patient stay in the surgical intensive care unit was $51,413.33 ± $75,123.00 for the severe vitamin D-deficient group, $28,123.65 ± $59,752.00 for the moderate group, and $20,414.11 ± $25,714.30 for the mild vitamin D-deficient group, which also was clinically significant (P = .027). More importantly, the mortality rate for the severe vitamin D-deficient group was 17 (12.3%) versus 11 (11.5%) in the moderate group (P = .125). Because no deaths occurred in the mildly or normal vitamin D-deficient groups, we compared the mortality rate between severe/moderate and mild/normal vitamin D groups (P = .047). CONCLUSIONS: In univariate analysis, severe and moderate vitamin D deficiency was related inversely to the length of stay in the surgical intensive care unit (r = .194; P = .001), related inversely to surgical intensive care unit treatment cost (r = .194; P = .001) and mortality (r = .125; P = .023), compared with the mild vitamin D-deficient group, after adjusting for age, sex, race, and comorbidities (myocardial infarctions, acute renal failure, and pneumonia); the length of stay, surgical intensive care unit cost, and mortality remained significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency.

Am J Surg. 2012 Jul;204(1):37-43