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Reports summarize prostate cancer study findings from , Sweden and the United Kingdom


Prostate cancer research advances have been reported from , Sweden and the United Kingdom.

Study 1: New investigation results, "Expression of p14ARF, p15INK4b, p16INK4a, and DCR2 increases during prostate cancer progression," are detailed in a study published in Modern Pathology. According to recent research published in the journal Modern Pathology, "Prostate carcinoma is a hormonally driven age-related neoplasm. Cellular senescence is an age-related process where cells remain metabolically active but in a growth-arrested state at the G1 phase. p14(ARF), p15(INK4b), and p16(INK4a), which are known to regulate G1 cell cycle arrest, and the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member decoy receptor 2 (DCR2), have been recently identified as senescence markers."

"The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the expression of p14(ARF), p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a), and DCR2 in tissue microarrays containing cases of normal prostate, nodular hyperplasia, prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and malignant prostate cancer tissue. We performed immunohistochemical staining for p14(ARF), p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a), and DCR2 in tissue microarray blocks containing 41 cores of normal prostate, 65 cores of nodular hyperplasia, 21 cores of PIN, 69 cores of low-grade prostate carcinoma, and 42 cores of high-grade prostate carcinoma, derived from 80 cases of prostatectomy with adenocarcinomas. We detected positive staining of p16(INK4a) in 19% of the PIN, 25% of the low-grade carcinoma, and 43% of the high-grade carcinoma specimens but none in the normal prostate and nodular hyperplasia specimens. Expression of p14(ARF) revealed very high levels of expression in normal tissues (83%), nodular hyperplasia (88%), PIN (89%), and cancer cells (100%). P15(INK4b) and DCR2 were found positive in 81 and 33% normal, 46 and 10% nodular hyperplasia, 74 and 36% PIN tissues, 87 and 89% low-grade carcinomas, and 100 and 93% high-grade carcinomas. There is an increased protein expression of senescence-associated molecular markers, indicating that cellular senescence might play a role in prostate carcinoma," wrote Z. Zhang and colleagues, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center.

The researchers concluded: "Because p16(INK4a)-positive cells were detected only in premalignant lesions and carcinomas but not in normal or benign tissues, p16(INK4a) may aid in the diagnosis of PIN and prostate cancer in difficult cases."

Zhang and colleagues published their study in Modern Pathology (Expression of p14ARF, p15INK4b, p16INK4a, and DCR2 increases during prostate cancer progression. Modern Pathology, 2006;19(10):1339-43).

For additional information, contact Z. Zhang, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Dept. of Pathology, Houston, TX 77030-4095 U.S.

Study 2: Cytological features of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) were described.

"Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an acknowledged method for diagnosing prostate cancer. False-positive results are uncommon, but concerns have been raised that PIN could be misinterpreted as carcinoma. Therefore, we attempted to describe cytological features of PIN," researchers in Sweden reported.

"Cells were scraped from macroscopically normal areas of 177 radical prostatectomy specimens, smeared and Gienisa-stained. Histological slides from these areas were reviewed, and 17 samples with high-grade PIN and with no invasive cancer were selected. Smears from 17 invasive cancers were used for comparison. Cancer showed high cellularity and dissociation, while PIN smears only contained a few clusters of atypical cells. Pronounced nuclear atypia, prominent or multiple nucleoli and mucin were more common in cancer, while cytoplasmic granules, crystalloids and cluster size did not distinguish between PIN and cancer," explained A. Valdman and colleagues, Karolinska Institute.

The researchers concluded, "PIN should not be diagnosed by FNAC alone. However, a highly cellular smear with pronounced atypia seems to preclude PIN."

Valdman and colleagues published their study in Diagnostic Cytopathology (Cytological features of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Diagn Cytopathol, 2006;34(5):317-322).

For additional information, contact L. Egevad, Karolinska Institute, Dept. Pathology & Oncology, Radiumhemmet P102, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.

Study 3: Prostate cancer diagnosis was associated with ribosomal protein L19 (RPL19) expression.

"Microquantity differential display analysis of gene expression profiles between benign (PNT2) and malignant (PC3M) human prostate cell lines identified the gene encoding RPL19 to be overexpressed in the malignant cells. Northern blot hybridization analysis done on a wide range of human cell lines and tissues confirmed the level of RPL19 mRNA to be 5-fold higher in malignant cell lines and 8-fold higher in malignant tissues, when compared with their benign counterparts," scientists reported in the journal Clinical Cancer Research.

"Analysis of RPL19 mRNA expression by in situ hybridization revealed a significant increase of RPL19 expression in a substantial number of prostate cancers," explained A. Bee and colleagues, University of Liverpool. "All of the 8 normal prostatic tissues were unstained (100%). Of 32 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues, 15 (46.9%) were unstained, 9 (28.1%) stained weakly, and 8 (25%) stained moderately. Among 87 carcinomas, only 7 (8.1%) were unstained, whereas 22 (25.2%) stained weakly, 21 (24.1%) stained moderately, and 37 (42.61%) stained strongly.

"The intensity of staining of the malignant specimens was significantly higher than that of normal and BPH specimens (chi2 n7, p2 n, p<.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis confirmed increased RPL19 expression to be highly predictive of shorter patient survival (p<.05), revealing RPL19 to be a sensitive predictor of prostate cancer progression."

The researchers concluded, "Expression of this protein could be a valuable marker in prostate cancer diagnosis and patient management."

Bee and colleagues published their study in Clinical Cancer Research (Ribosomal protein L19 is a prognostic marker for human prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res, 2006;12(7 Part 1):2061-2065).

Additional information can be obtained by contacting C.S. Foster, University of Liverpool, School Clinic Laboratory Science, Dept. Cellular Pathology & Molecular Genetics, Duncan Bldg, Daulby St., Liverpool L69 3GA, Merseyside, England.

Keywords: Liverpool, County: Merseyside, England, Cancer Diagnosis, Carcinoma Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Men's Health, Oncology, Prognosis, Prognostics, Prostate Cancer, Prostate Carcinoma. This article was prepared by Oncology Business Week editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2007, Oncology Business Week via

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