A review published in the November issue of Nutrition Research and an article published in the October, 2008 Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences report positive findings for grapes and grape polyphenols in reducing risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Polyphenols, including resveratrol, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonoids, are antioxidant compounds that occur in grapes and other plant foods, which are believed to be responsible for many of the health-promoting effects associated with these foods.
In their review, Wayne R. Leifert, PhD, and Mahinda Y. Abeywardena, PhD, of Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation in Adelaide, Australia evaluated the growing evidence for a protective effect of grape polyphenols against cardiovascular disease and other diseases mediated by inflammation. They conclude that, while grape polyphenols’ primary mechanism appears to be that of reducing low-density lipoprotein oxidation via their antioxidant property, the compounds also decrease blood clotting, improve abnormal heart rhythms and help reduce narrowing of the blood vessels, possibly through effects on cellular signaling and gene activity. Although most of the research involving grape polyphenols has been of the laboratory variety, clinical trials have demonstrated improved cholesterol levels and blood flow in human volunteers. Observation of populations who regularly consume red wine has noted a lower rate of heart disease despite consumption of fatty foods.
"Consumption of grape and grape extracts and/or grape products such as red wine may be beneficial in preventing the development of chronic degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease," the authors conclude. "Therefore, supplementation with grape seed, grape skin or red wine products may be a useful adjunct to consider for a dietary approach in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, although additional research is required to support such a strategy."
In the Journal of Gerontology, researchers at Michigan State University and the University of Michigan report that laboratory rats bred to develop salt-sensitive hypertension experienced a reduction in blood pressure and improved heart function after consuming powdered table grapes.
Mitchell Seymour, MS and colleagues administered low or high salt diets which were supplemented with or without grape powder. Some of the animals also received an antihypertensive drug. After 18 weeks of treatment with grape powder, the rats had reduced blood pressure and inflammation, improved heart function, and less heart muscle damage compared to animals that did not receive grapes. Treatment with the antihypertensive drug also reduced blood pressure, but did not protect the animals’ hearts from damage. "These findings support our theory that something within the grapes themselves has a direct impact on cardiovascular risk, beyond the simple blood pressure-lowering impact that we already know can come from a diet rich in fruits and vegetables," Seymour commented.
"The inevitable downhill sequence to hypertension and heart failure was changed by the addition of grape powder to a high-salt diet," noted coauthor Steven Bolling, MD, in whose laboratory the research took place. "Although there are many natural compounds in the grape powder itself that may have an effect, the things that we think are having an effect against the hypertension may be the flavanoids – either by direct antioxidant effects, by indirect effects on cell function, or both. These flavanoids are rich in all parts of the grape - skin, flesh and seed, all of which were in our powder."
"There is, as we now know, a great variability, perhaps genetic even, in sensitivity to salt and causing hypertension," Dr Bolling added. "Some people are very sensitive to salt intake, some are only moderately so, and there are perhaps some people who are salt resistant. But in general we say stay away from excess salt."
Elevated cholesterol is associated with a greater-than-normal risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. While antioxidants can inhibit cholesterol from oxidizing onto the linings of the arteries, knowing and controlling your cholesterol levels is still an important step in preventing cardiovascular disease.
The following nutritional supplements offer synergistic benefits to assist dietary modification to help maintain healthy total serum cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels for those already within normal range:
Policosanol, take one tablet twice per day with meals: one in the afternoon and one in the evening. Or Sytrinol, one capsule twice daily.
Fiber, 4 to 6 grams before any high-fat meal.
Chitosan, three to six 500-mg chitosan capsules and one 1000 mg ascorbic acid capsule right before a high-fat meal.
Niacin, 1500 to 3000 mg a day (if tolerable).
Artichoke extract, 300 mg, 3 times a day.
Garlic, 600 to 4800 mg a day.
Curcumin, 900 to 1800 mg a day.
Gugulipid, 140 mg 1 to 2 times a day.
Green tea, 750 mg a day of green tea, 93% polyphenol extract.
Perilla oil, 6000 mg a day. We suggest taking six 1000-mg gel caps daily. If triglycerides are high, consider taking 4-8 softgels of fish oil (EPA/DHA).
Vitamin E, 400 to 800 IU daily
Soy protein extract, 2 heaping teaspoons (5 to 6 grams) of soy powder daily.
Selenium, 200 to 600 mcg daily.
Herbal Cardiovascular Formula, two-six capsules daily with food in divided doses.
Bio-Identical Hormones, derived from vegetable sources, are the exact hormones that our bodies produce. When a person has the proper balance of natural hormones, they look great and feel wonderful. Low hormone levels are thought to be a root cause of some illnesses.
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Vitamin K2 (menaquinones) is found in meat, eggs, and dairy products and also made by bacteria in the human gut, which provides a certain amount of the human vitamin K requirement. Human studies show that vitamin K2 is absorbed up to ten times more than K1. Vitamin K2 remains biologically active in the body far longer than K1. For instance, K1 is rapidly cleared by the liver within eight hours, whereas measurable levels of K2 have been detected 72 hours after ingestion.
The Rotterdam Heart Study, a large-scale, well-controlled clinical trial that tracked 4,800 participants for seven years, revealed that participants who ingested the greatest quantities of vitamin K2 in their diet experienced a better cardiovascular condition than people who ingested the least. High intakes of vitamin K2 also corresponded to less calcium deposition in the aorta, whereas participants who ingested less K2 were more likely to show moderate or severe calcification. Animal studies suggest vitamin K intake not only blocks the progress of further calcium accumulation but also induces 37% regression of preformed arterial calcification.
Life Extension's Low Dose Vitamin K2 contains the menaquinone-7 form of vitamin K2, which is not metabolized quickly by the liver, thereby making it available to provide a more consistent supply of vitamin K to the body.
Scientists have identified specific extracts from cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, etc.) that modulate hormones in a way to help maintain healthy cell division. For instance, animal studies have shown that the cruciferous vegetable extract indole-3-carbinol (I3C) modulates estrogen hormones by favorably changing the ratio of protective 2-hydroxyestrone versus the damaging 16-hydroxyestrone. Indole-3-carbinol also induces phase I and II detoxifying enzymes that can help neutralize estrogen metabolites and xenobiotic estrogen-like environmental chemicals. Human studies support the beneficial role of I3C in positively altering estrogen metabolism. Di-indolyl-methane (DIM), a phytonutrient found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown in animal studies to help maintain normal levels of a potentially damaging estrogen called 4-hydroxyestrone.
I3C and DIM have been shown to affect the proliferation of cells containing DNA damage and induce DNA repair proteins. The glucosinolates are major constituents of cruciferous vegetables that have been shown to promote normal apoptosis and induce the expression of the beneficial p53 gene via an estrogen-independent action.