An article published online on January 29, 2008 in the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) journal reported the finding of research funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) that having a greater intake of the B vitamin choline is associated with a reduction in the risk of breast cancer. The article is scheduled for publication in the journal’s June 1 print issue.
Jia Chen and associates compared dietary intake data from 1508 women with breast cancer to 1556 women without the disease. The researchers focused on the intake of betaine (TMG), methionine, and choline, which is an essential nutrient that occurs in eggs, wheat germ and other foods. The nutrients are among those involved in methylation, which plays a role in the development of cancer.
Women whose intake of choline was in the highest one-fifth of participants, at 455 milligrams per day or more, had a 24 percent lower risk of breast cancer than women whose intake was in the lowest fifth at 196 milligrams or less. Coffee, eggs, and skim milk were the most common sources of choline consumed by women in the study. The researchers also noted that two variations in choline-metabolizing genes were related to breast cancer risk.
Only 10 percent of Americans are estimated to meet the Institute of Medicine’s adequate choline intake level of 425 milligrams per day for women and 550 milligrams per day for men and breastfeeding women. “Choline is needed for the normal functioning of cells, no matter your age or gender,” observed study coauthor Steven H. Zeisel, MD, PhD, of the University of North Carolina. “Increasing evidence shows that it may be particularly important for women, particularly those of child-bearing age.”
“While choline is an essential nutrient to the human diet, most people haven’t even heard of it,” FASEB Journal Editor in Chief Gerald Weissmann, MD, added. “Given that in the U.S. there is a real need to understand how much choline we require in our diet, we hope that research, education and awareness about choline will increase as a result of this study published in The FASEB Journal.”
The following supplementation regimen is suggested. As always, consult your physician before beginning any nutritional supplementation regimen.
Dual-Action Cruciferous Vegetable Extract With Cat's Claw, 1-2 capsules per day.
Lightly caffeinated green tea extract, three 725 mg capsules, two times a day with meals. Use decaffeinated green tea extract if you are sensitive to caffeine or want to use the less-stimulating version with the evening dosage.
CLA or CLA with Guarana, 3000 to 4000 mg daily of CLA and about 300 mg of guarana, early in the day.
Melatonin, 3 to 50 mg at bedtime.
PhytoFood Powder (broccoli, cabbage, and other cruciferous vegetables that provide sulphoraphane and other cancer-fighting plant extracts), 1-2 tbsp daily.
Se-methylselenocysteine, 200 to 400 mcg daily.
CoQ10, three 100 mg softgels in divided doses. Note the caution stated in this protocol.
Super EPA/DHA w/Sesame Lignans, 8 softgels daily, in divided doses. Take with nonfiber meals.
Vitamin D3, 4000 to 6000 IU taken daily with monthly blood testing to monitor for toxicity. Reduce dosage at 6 months.
Water-soluble vitamin A, 100,000 to 300,000 IU daily with monthly blood testing to monitor for toxicity. Reduce dosage at 6 months (refer to vitamin A precautions in Appendix A).
Vitamin E succinate (tocopheryl succinate), 1200 IU daily.
Gamma E Tocopherol w/Sesame Lignans 1 capsule daily.
Vitamin C, 4000 to 12,000 mg throughout the day.
Gamma linolenic acid, 4 capsules of Mega GLA w/Sesame Lignans.
Whey protein concentrate-isolate, 30 to 60 grams daily in divided doses.
Bone Restore provides calcium, magnesium, and bone-protecting nutrients. Take 5 capsules at bedtime.
Vitamin K, 10 mg daily.
Silicon, 6 mg daily. (Jarrow's Biosil is recommended.)
Life Extension Mix without Copper (multinutrient formula), 3 tablets 3 times daily.
Life Extension has long warned members about the dangers of high homocysteine and has advised taking vitamin B6, folic acid, and vitamin B12 to help maintain healthy arteries.
While many doctors and blood laboratories consider homocysteine levels of 5-15 micromoles per liter (mmol/L) blood to be “normal,” epidemiologic data indicate that levels above 6.3 mmol/L sharply and progressively increase heart problems.21 One study found that each 3 mmol/L increase in homocysteine caused a 35 percent increase in heart problems.22 Because there is no “safe” level of homocysteine, Life Extension recommends keeping levels as low as possible, preferably below 7-8 mmol/L.
Resveratrol is a phytoalexin, a natural plant which is produced by vitis vinifera as a response to attack by molds. Because of the wide-spread use of pesticides in modern wine-making, including the practice of copper sulphation, the level of resveratrol in modern wines has plummeted. Red wine contains resveratrol, but the quantity varies depending on where the grapes are grown, the time of harvest, and other factors. In fact, usually only 1-3 mg resveratrol per liter of red wine is currently found, even in the most robust red wines.
Research funded by the Life Extension Foundation showed that a combination of low-dose (20 mg) resveratrol plus grape seed extract mimicked many of the favorable gene expression changes seen in calorie-restricted animals. Other studies, however, indicate that higher doses may be needed to obtain all of resveratrol's positive benefits including improved insulin sensitivity, enhanced mitochondrial function, reduced expression of inflammatory factors, and protection against the toxic effects of a high-fat diet.