The June 23, 2008 issue of the American Medical Association journal Archives of Internal Medicine published the discovery of Austrian and German researchers that men and women with higher serum levels of vitamin D have a reduced risk of dying from all causes as well as specifically from cardiovascular disease over a seven year period, compared with individuals whose blood levels are low.
Harald Dobnig, MD, of Medical University of Graz, Austria, and colleagues evaluated data from 3,258 participants scheduled for coronary angiography who enrolled in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study between 1997 and 2000. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamn D, which is converted from 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the body, were measured in blood samples collected prior to the angiographic procedure.
Over an average 7.7 years of follow-up, 737 deaths occurred, of which 62.8 percent were from cardiovascular causes. Approximately two-thirds of the patients were found to have low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of under 20 nanograms per milliliter. Cardiovascular risk markers, including C-reactive protein levels and interleukin 6 levels (which evaluate inflammation), oxidative burden, and cell adhesion markers, were greater among individuals with lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than in those whose levels were higher. Participants whose serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were among the lowest one-fourth of participants, at a median of 7.6 nanograms per milliliter, had an adjusted risk of dying from all causes or cardiovascular disease that was twice that of subjects whose levels were among the highest fourth at 28.4 ng/mL. When 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were evaluated, similar associations were found.
“This prospective cohort study demonstrates for the first time, to our knowledge, that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D levels are associated with increased risk in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared with patients with higher serum vitamin D levels,” the authors write. "Apart from the proved effects that vitamin D has on bone metabolism and neuromuscular function, appropriate serum levels (that may also be higher than in the present investigation) are associated with a decrease in mortality. Although not proved, it seems possible that at least part of this effect may be due to lowering of a risk profile promoting atherosclerosis and preventing cardiovascular end points."
"Based on the findings of this study, a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 20 nanograms per milliliter or higher may be advised for maintaining general health," they conclude.
People who have suffered a heart attack or stroke or who have symptoms indicative of coronary artery ischemia (such as chest pain) should see a physician. They may be required to undergo additional testing to determine the health of their coronary arteries. Additional tests include the following:
Angiography. During this test, a catheter is inserted through a large artery, usually in the groin, and guided into the heart, where it is used to deliver contrast material into the coronary arteries. This contrast material is visible under x-ray. The test allows physicians to identify the location and degree of vascular occlusion.
Electrocardiogram. This is an electronic readout of heart function that can reveal ischemic damage as a result of restricted blood flow.
Intima-media thickness. This test uses ultrasound imaging to estimate the thickness of the intima, or inner layer of the arteries. An increase in intima-media thickness over time indicates that atherosclerotic vascular disease is worsening. This technique can also be used to measure the effectiveness of cardiovascular intervention therapies.
Computed tomography scanning. This technique can assess the degree of calcification in the coronary arteries, which correlates strongly with atherosclerosis. Because of the risks associated with radiation exposure, Life Extension does not recommend computed tomography scanning unless absolutely necessary.
The National Institutes of Health, together with the National Cholesterol Education Program, also offers an easy-to-use online test to help people determine their risk of a major cardiovascular event. The test relies on commonly used parameters such as age and weight to determine a 10-year Coronary Risk Profile. The Coronary Risk Profile can be accessed at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/.
The Prostate Cancer Conference 2008 is the 10th major conference devoted to prostate cancer, planned and/or produced by members of The Prostate Cancer Research Institute. As in the past, this conference will provide insight for patients, caregivers and medical professionals. The conference faculty is composed of physicians and scientists who are experts in prostate cancer.
Since January 1983, Life Extension members have enjoyed the many benefits of Rejuvenex®, an amazing skin cream developed by Professor Carmen Fusco that renews and revitalizes the appearance of the skin.
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Tryptophan is a precursor for serotonin. Unlike other products that influence serotonin reuptake, L-tryptophan is a direct precursor that results in almost immediate increases in serotonin, which is one of the primary neurotransmitters involved with sleep and mood.
Life Extension has developed a patent-pending formula called Optimized TryptoPure Plus™ that provides lysine, niacinamide, hops, ginger and rosemary extracts to protect tryptophan against excessive degradation in our aging bodies, thus sparing it for conversion into serotonin in the brain.