Multi-nutrient supplementation reduces body fat and lipids in obese women
An article published online on February 9, 2010 in the International Journal of Obesity reports a positive effect on fat loss and lipid lowering in obese women who consumed a daily multi-nutrient supplement.
In a double-blinded trial, C. H. Sun and associates at Harbin Medical University in China randomized 96 obese Chinese women aged 18 to 55 years to receive a daily placebo, a tablet containing 162 milligrams calcium, or a multivitamin and mineral supplement providing the following nutrients: vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, C, D, E and K1, biotin, folic acid, calcium, phosphorous, chloride, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, iodine, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, nickel, stannum, silicon and vanadium. Body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, fat free mass, resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, and lipid levels were measured at the beginning and end of the trial. Participants' diets, which were evaluated prior to and following the treatment period, did not differ significantly at either time point.
After 26 weeks, women who received the multi-nutrient supplement had significantly lower body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, respiratory quotient, and total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol compared with baseline levels. When compared to the placebo group's values at the end of the study, body weight, body mass index, fat mass, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and total and LDL cholesterol were significantly lower as well in the multi-nutrient supplemented group. Resting energy expenditure and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were higher in the group that received the vitamin and mineral supplement compared to both baseline levels and to the placebo group's 26-week values. Triglycerides, glucose, insulin and fat free mass remained unchanged in all groups.
Participants who received calcium alone had lower LDL and higher HDL levels than the placebo group at the trial's conclusion. This group was included in the study due to the previously determined benefit of the mineral on fat and lipids; however, the current trial showed that supplementation with multivitamins and minerals was more effective than calcium alone to improve these areas. "The findings of this study support the notion that besides calcium, obese individuals need other vitamins and minerals for balancing energy metabolism, controlling body weight and for improving lipid profiles," the authors note.
In their discussion of possible mechanisms, Dr Sun and colleagues remark that the vitamins and minerals used in the study could lead to a higher level of fat oxidation and greater use of fat for energy. "To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate the effects of multivitamin and mineral supplementation on lipid profile in obese subjects," they write. "These findings have implications for the development of intervention strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and other obesity-related disorders."
The Life Extension (LE) weight loss plan begins with comprehensive blood testing to help determine which hormones are low and whether thyroid function needs to be supported.
The recommended blood tests include:
Thyroid blood tests. Several blood tests assess thyroid function. If any of these tests indicate a thyroid deficiency, a physician should consider prescribing the appropriate dose of the drugs Cytomel® (T3) or Armour™ desiccated thyroid to bring the thyroid level into the normal range.
TSH. If your blood test shows an increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), this indicates your pituitary gland is over-secreting a hormone to stimulate thyroid function because of an apparent thyroid deficiency. The normal range for TSH can vary from 0.2 to 5.5 mU/mL. However, if TSH levels are above 2.0 mU/mL, you may be deficient in thyroid hormone and could benefit from Cytomel® or Armour™ drug therapy.
T4. A total thyroxine (T4) test measures the actual hormone being secreted by your thyroid gland. If T4 is deficient, most physicians will prescribe Synthroid®, a synthetic T4 hormone. However, LE recommends Cytomel® (T3) or Armour™ desiccated thyroid instead of Synthroid® (T4) because T3 is the more metabolically active form of thyroid that aids in fat burning.
T3. Measuring the level of triiodothyronine (T3) is a way to determine how much metabolically active thyroid hormone is available to tissues. Normal T3 range is 2.3 to 4.2 pg/mL (LabCorp 2005), but to lose weight, LE believes you should consider a range of 3.2 to 4.2 pg/mL. If your level is below this, Cytomel® drug therapy is suggested. Most individuals begin at 12.5 mcg of Cytomel® twice a day. The dose can be increased if blood T3 levels do not return to a normal range or if symptoms of thyroid deficiency persist.
Thyroglobulin. A less frequently used blood test to assess thyroid function measures thyroglobulin (normal range, 0 to 55 ng/mL; LabCorp 2005). If thyroglobulin is decreased, hypothyroidism is indicated.
Thyroxine-binding globulin. Another less commonly used blood test to assess thyroid function measures thyroxine-binding globulin (normal range, 13 to 39 mcg/dL). If thyroxine-binding globulin is increased, an individual is usually deficient in thyroid function (hypothyroid) (LabCorp 2005).
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*Please note that Life Extension Vacations is not affiliated with or a part of the Life Extension Foundation®, which supports anti-aging research, or the Life Extension Foundation Buyers Club.
Water-Soluble Pumpkin Seed Extract with Soy Isoflavones
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