Short periods of exercise protect telomeres from stress
Findings published online on May 26, 2010 in the journal PLoS ONE (Public Library of Sciences ONE) demonstrate a protective effect for brief periods of exercise against stress-induced damage to telomeres: pieces of DNA that cap and protect the ends of chromosomes which play an important role in cellular aging.
In 2004, research conducted by Nobel Prize winner Elizabeth H. Blackburn and colleagues at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, revealed the negative impact of stress on telomeres, which become shorter in individuals exposed to chronic psychological pressures. In the current study, Dr Blackburn and her associates evaluated the effect of exercise in 63 postmenopausal women with varying levels of stress during the prior month as assessed via the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale.
On the basis of exercise levels reported by the women over a three day period, the researchers divided the women into an active group, who engaged in vigorous exercise for an average of at least 33 minutes per day, and a sedentary group. (The Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends an average of 75 minutes of vigorous activity per week.)
Among the inactive women, a one unit increase in the Perceived Stress Scale was related to a 15-fold greater risk of having short white blood cell telomeres, while stress did not appear to have an effect on telomere length in the active group. "Telomere length is increasingly considered a biological marker of the accumulated wear and tear of living, integrating genetic influences, lifestyle behaviors, and stress,'' explained UCSF Department of Psychiatry associate professor Elissa Epel, PhD, who was one of the lead investigators. "Even a moderate amount of vigorous exercise appears to provide a critical amount of protection for the telomeres."
"At this point, we have replicated previous findings showing a link between life stress and the dynamics of how cells age,'' noted psychologist and lead author Eli Puterman, PhD. "Yet we have extended those findings to show that, in fact, there are things we can do about it. If we maintain the levels of physical activity recommended, at least those put forth by the CDC, we can prevent the unyielding damage that psychological stress may have on our body.''
"Our findings also reveal that those who reported more stress were less likely to exercise over the course of the study,'' he remarked. "While this finding may be discouraging, it offers a great opportunity to direct research to specifically examine these vulnerable stressed individuals to find ways to engage them in greater physical activity.''
Exercise has been shown to increase life span by an average of one to four years for people who engage in moderate to difficult exercise routines (Jonker JT et al 2006; Franco OH et al 2005). Better yet, those additional years will be healthful years because exercise benefits the heart, lungs, and muscles. Even moderate levels of exercise have been documented to stave off many dreaded diseases of aging. Walking briskly for 3 hours per week reduces one’s chances of developing many chronic health problems (Chakravarthy MV et al 2002). Exercise may also alleviate depression and enhance self-image and quality of life (Elavsky S et al 2005; Schechtman KB et al 2001).
A number of supplements have been shown to promote strength by supporting muscle function. These include the following:
Carnitine. Carnitine, an amino acid, helps transport fat into mitochondria, where it is metabolized. Exercise capacity is increased among people with arterial disease following carnitine supplementation (Barker GA et al 2001). In addition, studies show that carnitine supplementation increases muscle function and exercise capacity in people with kidney disease (Brass EP et al 1998).
Carnosine. Carnosine is found in high amounts in skeletal muscle; muscle levels of carnosine are elevated during peak activity (Suzuki Y et al 2002). Among other reported advantages, carnosine scavenges free radicals, which is important because exercise produces abundant free radical activity (Boldyrev AA et al 1997; Wang AM et al 2000; Yuneva MO et al 1999; Nagasawa T et al 2001). Additionally, carnosine protects against cross-linking and advanced glycation end product formation, both of which damage protein (Hipkiss AR et al 1995; Munch G et al 1997). Carnosine also acts as a pH buffer, protecting muscles from oxidation during strenuous exercise (Burcham PC et al 2000)
Vitamin D is synthesized in the body from sunlight. But, due to the winter season, weather conditions, and sunscreen blockers, the body’s ability to produce optimal vitamin D levels may be inhibited. In fact, it has been proposed that annual fluctuations in vitamin D levels explain the seasonality of influenza. All of these factors point to the value of taking a daily vitamin D supplement to ensure optimal vitamin D intake.
Vitamin D has long provided significant support for healthy bone density. However, scientists have also validated the critical role that vitamin D plays in regulating healthy cell division and differentiation, and its profound effects on human immunity. These findings link a deficiency of vitamin D to a host of common age-related problems. The current RDA is only 400 IU. As a result of startling evidence of a widespread vitamin D deficiency, prominent nutritional scientists are calling on Americans to increase their vitamin D intake to 1000 IU per day and higher.
A naturally occurring amino sugar synthesized in the body from L-glutamine and glucose, glucosamine stimulates the manufacture of glycosaminoglycans, important components of the cartilage needed for healthy joints. Aging people seem to lose their ability to produce a sufficient amount of glucosamine, and no food sources are available. Commercial sources of glucosamine from the exoskeleton of certain shellfish are available as glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. The sulfated form may most effectively incorporate sulfur into the cartilage.
Chondroitin sulfates provide the structural components of joint cartilage and facilitate the entry of glucosamine into joints. Chondroitin sulfates also inhibit free radical enzymes. Like glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate attracts water into the cartilage matrix and helps stimulate the production of cartilage.
Recent research suggests that chondroitin in combination with glucosamine sulfate has a positive effect on subchondral bone structural changes and may help augment repair processes following accessory joint tissue injury.