Resveratrol suppresses inflammation in human trial
A report published online on June 9, 2010 in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism reveals the finding of a trial conducted at Kaleida Health's Diabetes-Endocrinology Center of Western New York of an anti-inflammatory benefit for resveratrol.
"Resveratrol has been shown to exert an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effect in vitro and in animal models," Husam Ghanim, PhD and colleagues write. "Resveratrol has also been shown to prolong life expectancy and to reduce the rate of aging in the yeast and lower animals like yeast, Caenorhabtidis elegans and Drosophila. Resveratrol actions are thought to be mediated by increased expression of sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1), a gene associated with longevity."
Twenty healthy participants were randomized to receive Polygonum cuspidatum extract containing 40 milligrams resveratrol per day or a placebo for 6 weeks. Blood samples collected at the beginning at the trial and at 1, 3 and 6 weeks were analyzed for indices of oxidative and inflammatory stress in addition to other factors. "Since there are no data demonstrating the effect of resveratrol on oxidative and inflammatory stress in humans, we decided to determine if the compound reduces the level of oxidative and inflammatory stress," explained senior author Paresh Dandona, MD, PhD, who is a distinguished professor of medicine at the State University of New York at Buffalo. "Several of the key mediators of insulin resistance also are pro-inflammatory, so we investigated the effect of resveratrol on their expression as well."
The research team found a reduction in reactive oxygen species, which are unstable molecules that provoke oxidative stress and inflammation, in participants who received resveratrol. The resveratrol group also experienced a decrease in the inflammation protein tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) as well as inflammation markers interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP). In addition, intranuclear binding of nuclear factor kappa-beta, the major pro-inflammatory cytokine, was suppressed. "These actions, demonstrated for the first time, in vivo, are consistent with potential anti-atherogenic and anti-aging effects," the authors write.
"The product we used has only 20 percent resveratrol, so it is possible that something else in the preparation is responsible for the positive effects," Dr Dandona noted. "These agents could be even more potent than resveratrol. Purer preparations now are available and we intend to test those."
Aging results in an increase of inflammatory cytokines (destructive cell-signaling chemicals) that contribute to the progression of many degenerative diseases (Van der Meide et al. 1996; Licinio et al. 1999). Rheumatoid arthritis is a classic autoimmune disorder in which excess levels of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 1b [IL-1(b)], and/or interleukin-8 (IL-8) are known to cause or contribute to the inflammatory syndrome (Deon et al. 2001).
Chronic inflammation is also involved in diseases as diverse as atherosclerosis, cancer, heart valve dysfunction, obesity, diabetes, congestive heart failure, digestive system diseases, and Alzheimer's disease (Brouqui et al. 1994; Devaux et al. 1997; De Keyser et al. 1998). In aged people with multiple degenerative diseases, the inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein, is often sharply elevated, indicating the presence of an underlying inflammatory disorder (Invitti 2002; Lee et al. 2002; Santoro et al. 2002; Sitzer et al. 2002). When a cytokine blood profile is conducted on people in a weakened condition, an excess level of one or more of the inflammatory cytokines, e.g., TNF-a, IL-6, IL-1(b), or IL-8, is usually found (Santoro et al. 2002).
For those who have multiple degenerative diseases, the cytokine profile blood test and the C-reactive protein blood test are highly recommended. This may be done through your own physician or the Life Extension Foundation.
The following nutrients are suggested:
The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) fraction of fish oil may be the most effective nonprescription nutrients to suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines. Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) is a precursor of PGE1, a potent anti-inflammatory agent.
DHEA is a hormone that decreases with age. DHEA has been shown to suppress IL-6, an inflammatory cytokine that often increases as people age. Typical doses of DHEA are 25-50 mg daily, although some people take 100 mg daily.
Nettle leaf has been shown to suppress the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-a. Take 1000 mg daily.
Vitamin E and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) are protective antioxidants with anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin E that contains gamma-tocopherol and tocotrienols provides the most broad-spectrum protection. NAC is an amino acid with antiviral and liver protectant properties. Six hundred milligrams daily is recommended.
Vitamin K helps reduce levels of IL-6, a pro-inflammatory messenger. Vitamin K also helps in the treatment of osteoporosis by regulating calcium and promoting bone calcification. If you are taking Coumadin or other anticoagulant medicine, consult your physician before taking vitamin K.
Consuming at least 1000 mg per day of carnosine and/or 300 mg of the European drug aminoguanidine can inhibit pathological glycation reactions in the body.
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